Presentation on theme: "Networking Components Assignment 3 Created by Janice Thompson"— Presentation transcript:
1Networking Components Assignment 3 Created by Janice Thompson Instructor: James West Course: 4550
2Networking Components HubsBridgesSwitchesRoutersBeginning course details and/or books/materials needed for a class/project.GatewaysFirewallsWireless Access Points
3Hubs How a Hub Works Diagram When & Where to Use a Hub Cost of a Hub Introductory notes.Cost of a Hub
4When & Where to Use a Bridge BridgesHow a Bridge WorksDiagramWhen & Where to Use a BridgeIntroductory notes.Cost of a Bridge
5When & Where to Use a Switch SwitchesHow a Switch WorksDiagramAvaya ERS 2550T-PWR 50-port network switchWhen & Where to Use a SwitchIntroductory notes.Cost of a Switch
6When & Where to Use a Router RoutersHow a Router WorksDiagramCisco 2800 Series Integrated Service RouterWhen & Where to Use a RouterIntroductory notes.Cost of a RouterDlink DIR Wireless N Router
7When & Where to Use a Gateway How a Gateway WorksDiagramWhen & Where to Use a GatewayIntroductory notes.Cost of a GatewayCisco 32U CME Base, CUE and Phone FL w/4BRI, 1VIC
8When & Where to Use a Firewall How a Firewall WorksDiagramWhen & Where to Use a FirewallIntroductory notes.Cisco ASA 5505 Series Adaptive Security ApplianceCost of a Firewall
9Wireless Access Point How a WPA Works Diagram Cisco Aironet 1040 SeriesWhen & Where to Use a WPAIntroductory notes.Cisco WAP 2000 Wireless GCost of a WPA
10How a Hub WorksSends data from one computer to all other computers on the networkLow cost & low function machineWorks at Layer 1 of OSICan use Twisted Pair, Coaxial, or Fiber ConnectionsWorks as repeater to regeneration attenuated signalsSometimes referred to as a concentratorEthernet hubs utilized bus network topology which utilizes Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CDMA) in a physical star topologyUtilizes Token Passing in a Token Ring Hub
11Diagram of How A Hub Works Physical Star Topology of a Bus or Token Ring Network
12When & Where A Hub Is Used A Hub is generally used in a small closed collision domain . A true hub works as a repeater but has evolved into a combination of repeater/bridge/switch. They represent a connection point for an Ethernet or ring network topology. They are utilized within the construction under the rule of network design. The rule is a design guideline for Ethernet computer networks covering the number of repeaters and segments on shared-access Ethernet backbones in a hybrid star-tree topology. It means that in a collision domain there should be at most 5 segments tied together with 4 repeaters, with 3 segments containing active terminals.
13Cost Of A HubThe cost of a true hub is dependent on the number of ports and bandwidth. Prices vary from a few dollars upward to a hundred dollars.From
14How a Bridge Works A Bridge separates two collision domains. It works at Layer 2 of the OSI model.It creates a table of known MAC addresses and blocks traffic to addresses that it knows is not located across the Bridge.The table is built dynamically as traffic attempts to pass from one collision domain to another.Generally combined today with switching and router functionality sometimes referred to as a B-router.
16When & Where a Bridge is Used Network bridging describes the action taken by network equipment to allow two or more communication networks, or two or more network segments to create an aggregate network. Bridging is distinct from routing which allows the networks to communicate independently as separate networks. A network bridge is a network device that connects multiple network segments.There are four types of network-bridging technologies:simple bridgingmultiport bridginglearning, or transparent bridgingsource routeSource:
17Cost of A BridgeFinding a true one function bridge is no longer available in the marketplace. The function has been added into a switch. Pricing varies on number of ports and bandwidth. Prices range from a few dollars to several hundred.From
18How a Switch WorksA network switch (sometimes known as a switching hub) is a computer networking device that is used to connect devices together on a computer network. A switch is considered more advanced than a hub because a switch will only send a message to the device that needs or requests it, rather than broadcasting the same message out of each of its ports.A switch is a multi-port network bridge that processes and forwards data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches have additional features, including the ability to route packets. These switches are commonly known as layer-3 or multilayer switches. Switches exist for various types of networks including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, InfiniBand, Ethernet and others.
20When & Where a Switch is Used An Ethernet switch operates at the data link layer of the OSI model to create a separate collision domain for each switch port. With four computers (e.g., A, B, C and D) on four switch ports, any pair (e.g. A and B) can transfer data back and forth while the other pair (e.g. C and D) also do so simultaneously, and the two conversations will not interfere with one another. In full duplex mode, these pairs can also overlap (e.g. A transmits to B, simultaneously B to C, and so on). In the case of using a repeater hub, they would all share the bandwidth and run in half duplex, resulting in collisions which would require retransmissions.
21Cost of A SwitchSwitches have replace the repeating hub and bridge in network design and the function of both are contained within the switch. Price varies from several thousands of dollars to just a few depending on number of ports, bandwidth and advanced function.From
22How a Router WorksA router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node.
24When & Where a Router is Used The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, , IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL modem, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.
25Cost of A RouterRouters of various types and function are the backbone of most networks and the core of the Internet. Wireless Routers have become a staple of home and small office networks. Cost vary from several thousand to just a few dollars.From
26How a Gateway WorksHardware node or software configuration designed for protocol conversion between disparate networks.Can be a proxy service or provide firewall security.Works at all layers of the OSI model.
28When & Where a Gateway is Used Gateways, also called protocol converters, can operate at any network layer. The activities of a gateway are more complex than that of the router or switch as it communicates using more than one protocol.Source:
29Cost of A GatewayDue to the function of network gateway hardware, the price of these devices range from several hundred of dollars upwards of thousands.
30How a Firewall WorksIn computing, a firewall is a software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not, based on applied rule set.Firewalls can be defined in many ways according to your level of understanding.A firewall establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another network (e.g., the Internet) that is not assumed to be secure and trusted.Many personal computer operating systems include software-based firewalls to protect against threats from the public Internet.Many routers that pass data between networks contain firewall components and, conversely, many firewalls can perform basic routing functions.
32When & Where a Firewall is Used Types of FirewallsPacket filtering firewallsPacket filters act by inspecting the "packets" which are transferred between computers on the Internet. If a packet matches the packet filter's set of rules, the packet filter will drop the packet or reject it.Stateful filtering firewallsPerform the work of packet filters but operate up to layer 4 of the OSI model.Stateless filtering firewallsRequire less memory, and can be faster for simple filters that require less time to filter than to look up a session. They may also be necessary for filtering stateless network protocols that have no concept of a session. However, they cannot make more complex decisions based on what stage communications between hosts have reached.Application level firewallThe key benefit of application layer filtering is that it can "understand" certain applications and protocols such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Domain Name System (DNS), or Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).This is useful as it is able to detect if an unwanted protocol is attempting to bypass the firewall on an allowed port, or detect if a protocol is being abused in any harmful way.Source:
33Cost of A FirewallFirewall function can be achieved with software or hardware. Price vary depending on device, application and need.
34How a Wireless Access Point Works A wireless access point (AP) is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards. The AP usually connects to a router (via a wired network) as a standalone device, but it can also be an integral component of the router itself.
36When & Where a Wireless Access Point is Used Prior to wireless networks, setting up a computer network in a business, home or school often required running many cables through walls and ceilings in order to deliver network access to all of the network-enabled devices in the building. With the creation of the wireless Access Point (AP), network users are now able to add devices that access the network with few or no cables. An AP normally connects directly to a wired Ethernet connection and the AP then provides wireless connections using radio frequency links for other devices to utilize that wired connection. Most APs support the connection of multiple wireless devices to one wired connection. Modern APs are built to support a standard for sending and receiving data using, these radio frequencies. Those standards, and the frequencies they use are defined by the IEEE. Most APs use IEEE standards.Source: