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PRG for Low Degree Polynomials from AG-Codes Gil Cohen Joint work with Amnon Ta-Shma

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Talk Outline * PRGs. * PRGs for low degree polynomials. * Constructing a PRG for degree d=1 via linear codes. * Where does the idea break for d>1 ? * Algebraic Geometry codes to the rescue ! * Very high level idea of what AG codes are. * Proof idea.

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Talk Outline * PRGs. * PRGs for low degree polynomials. * Constructing a PRG for degree d=1 via linear codes. * Where does the idea break for d>1 ? * Algebraic Geometry codes to the rescue ! * Very high level idea of what AG codes are. * Proof idea.

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Pseudorandom Generators For (an interesting) class of functions C, find a distribution D such that 2) D can be sampled efficiently. 3) D can be sampled using few random bits. (1) + (2): D = U.

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Pseudorandom Generators Interesting classes to fool: P/poly ROBP Linear functions P = BPP L = BPL Low degree polynomials ? Many applications ! Mainly due to Fourier analysis

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Talk Outline * PRGs. * PRGs for low degree polynomials. * Constructing a PRG for degree d=1 via linear codes. * Where does the idea break for d>1 ? * Algebraic Geometry codes to the rescue ! * Very high level idea of what AG codes are. * Proof idea.

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Fooling Low Degree Polynomials

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PRG from AG Codes

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Talk Outline * PRGs. * PRGs for low degree polynomials. * Constructing a PRG for degree d=1 via linear codes. * Where does the idea break for d>1 ? * Algebraic Geometry codes to the rescue ! * Very high level idea of what AG codes are. * Proof idea.

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Bogdanovs Reduction

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Linear Codes C

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HSG for d=1 from Linear Codes

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Where does the Idea Break for d>1

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What is the meaning of multiplying codewords ? Where does the Idea Break for d>1

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Evaluation Codes Treat message as a function and evaluate it on wisely chosen places. Example: [ReedSolomon60].

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Evaluation Codes Reed-Solomon – univariate polynomials. Reed-Muller – multivariate bounded degree polynomials. AG codes [Goppa81] – polynomials will only get you so far… Treat message as a function and evaluate it on wisely chosen places.

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Talk Outline * PRGs. * PRGs for low degree polynomials. * Constructing a PRG for degree d=1 via linear codes. * Where does the idea break for d>1 ? * Algebraic Geometry codes to the rescue ! * Very high level idea of what AG codes are. * Proof idea.

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AG Codes [Goppa81] Theorem [Goppa81]. There is a general way of constructing a linear valuation code from any algebraic function field. The distance and rate are determined by the genus of the function field.

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AG Codes [Goppa81] AG Codes Reed Solomon Degree Valuation Distinct degrees implies linear independence. Distinct valuations implies linear independence.

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The Garcia-Stichtenoth Tower Theorem [GarciaStichtenoth96]. Exponential improvement over the probabilistic construction [GilbertVarshamov57]. Best one can do with AG codes [DrinfeldVladut83].

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Talk Outline * PRGs. * PRGs for low degree polynomials. * Constructing a PRG for degree d=1 via linear codes. * Where does the idea break for d>1. * Algebraic Geometry codes to the rescue. * Very high level idea of what AG codes are. * Proof idea.

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HSG from AG Codes We want these combinations to be pairwise distinct so to avoid cancelations.

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HSG from AG Codes Better understanding of the computational aspect of algebraic function field may lead to running-time logarithmic in the number of monomials.

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Open Problems * Obtain a PRG with optimal seed length. Perhaps by bypassing Bogdanovs reduction. * Strongly explicit constructions of Riemann-Roch spaces. * Other applications of our method. * Applications of PRG for low degree polynomials. * Break the log(n) barrier for constant size fields.

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Thank you for your attention !

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CS151 Complexity Theory Lecture 10 April 29, 2015.

CS151 Complexity Theory Lecture 10 April 29, 2015.

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