Presentation on theme: "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم مقدمة الى نظم المعلومات الادارية Management Information Systems اعداد الطالبة : براءة احمد معطان الجامعة : جامعة النجاح الوطنية."— Presentation transcript:
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم مقدمة الى نظم المعلومات الادارية Management Information Systems اعداد الطالبة : براءة احمد معطان الجامعة : جامعة النجاح الوطنية الكلية : كلية تكنولوجيا المعلومات ( سنة اولى ) دكتور المادة : الدكتور ماهر عرفات
Why this is course is important to you? Knowledge Professional life Skills,IT, Language Your personal development[Lecture-Lecturing]
SLOGAN Socially Participation Interactive In meaning and making
”Quality Education“ Teaching – Learning – Edu Improved S Method S skills S Tools Media R Method R Skills R Tools SMESTDEducation
”Wisdom“ If not us, WHO? If not now, WHEN? “ The harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph”
كن كهذه السمكة..... متميزا.... غير نفسك اولا لتتمكن من تغيير الاخرين..... اعلم ان التغيير لم يكن في يوم من الايام من الاشياء الصعبة ابدا..... فنحن الذين نصنع التغيير
1.1 The Role Of Information Systems Business Today 1.2 Perspectives On Information Systems 1.3 Contemporary Approaches To Information Systems
1.1 The Role Of Information Systems In Business Today How information systems are transforming business? 1.Increase in wireless technology use. 2.Shifts in media and advertising. 3.New federal security and accounting laws. 4.Sought to respond to rapidly changing customer demand. 5.Social network tools to connect their employees, customers,and managers worldwide 6.E-commerce and internet advertising. 7. achieve competitive advantages
Globalization Opportunities Internet has drastically reduced costs of operating on global scale. Presents both challenges and opportunities. What make management information systems the most exciting topic in business? 1.Is the continual change in technology. 2.Management use of the technology. 3.The impact on business success.
There three interrelated changes of technology area: 1.The emerging mobile digital. 2.The growth of online software as service. 3.The growth in “cloud computing ”where more business software runs over the internet.
What ‘s new in management information systems? Youtobe,Iphone,Blackberrys,facbook,is successful products adopted by company as business tools to improve management and achieve competitive advantage.
In the emerging,fully digital firms: Significant business relationships are digitally enabled and mediated. Core business process are accomplished through digital network. Key corporate assets are managed digitally. Digital firms offer greater flexibility in organization and management. Time shifting,space shifting. Growing interdependence between ability to use information technology and ability to implement corporate strategies and achieve corporate goals.
Information technology strategic role: 1.Operational excellence. 2.New products,services, and business models 3.Customer and supplier intimacy. 4.Improved decision making. 5.Competitive advantage. 6.survival
1.Operational excellence : Improvement of efficiency to attain higher profitability. Information systems,technology an important tool in achieving greater efficiency and productivity.
2. New products,services,and business models: Business models :describes how company produce,delivers,and sells products or services to creates wealth. Information systems and technology a major enabling tool for new products, services,business models.
3. customer and suppliers intimacy: Serving customer well leads to customer returning, which raises revenues and profits. Intimacy with suppliers allows them to provide vital inputs which lowers costs. 4. survival : information technology as necessity of business.
5. Improved decision making: Without a current information: Managers must use forecasts,best guesses. Leads to: Overproduction,underproduction of goals and services. Misallocation of resources. Poor response times. Poor outcomes raise costs, lose customer.
6. Competitive advantage: 1.Delivering better performance. 2.Charging less for superior products. 3.Responding to customers and suppliers in real time.
1.2 Perspectives On Information Systems Information Systems : Set of interrelated components. Collect, process, store, and distribute information. Support decision making, coordination, and control.
Information us.data: Data are streams of raw facts. Information is data shaped into meaningful form.
Computer Based Information Systems CBIS Components People Data SoftwareHardware Network Technology Foundation
Information systems : Three activities produce information organization need: 1.Inputs : captures raw data from organization or external environment. 2.Processing : converts raw data into meaningful form. 3.Output : transform processed information to people or activities that use it. feedback : output returned to appropriate members of organization to help evaluate or correct input stage
Organizational dimension of information systems: Separation of business functions: 1.Sales and marketing. 2.Human resources. 3.Finance and accounting. 4.Manufacturing and production. Unique business process. Unique business culture. Organization politics.
Management dimension of information systems: Managers set organizational strategy for responding to business challenges. In addition, managers must act creatively: Creation of new products and services. Occasionally re-creating the organization (organization restructuring).
Technology dimension of information systems: Computer hardware and software. Data management technology. Networking and telecommunication technology :network, the internet,intranet and extranet,worldwide web. IT infrastructure : provides platform that systems is built on.
Levels In A Firm Senior management Middle management Scientists and knowledge workers Operational management Production and services workers data workers
Business perspective on information systems: Information systems as an tools for creating value. Investment in information technology will result in superior returns : 1.Productivity increases. 2.Revenue increases. 3.Superior long –terms strategic positioning.
Business information value chain: Raw data acquired and transformed through stages that add value to that information. Value of information systems determined in part by extent to which it leads to better: 1.Decisions 2.Greater efficiency. 3.Higher profits.
Business perspective: Calls attention to organizational and managerial nature of information systems. Investing in information technology does not guarantee good returns. Considerable variation in the returns a firms receive from systems investments.
Complementary assets : Assets required to drive value from a primary investment. Firms supporting technology investments with investment in complementary assets receive superior returns.
1.3 Contemporary approaches to information systems: 1.Technical approach: computer science, management science, operational research. 2.Behavioral approach : behavioral issues(strategic business integration,implementation),psychology,economics,sociology. 3.Management information systems : combines computer science,management science, operations research and practical orientation with behavioral issues
Approach of this book: Sociotechnical view Optimal organizational performance. Achieved by jointly optimizing both social and technical systems used in production. Helps avoid purely technology approach.
2.1 Business processes and information systems. 2.2 Types of information systems. 2.3 Systems that span the enterprise. 2.4 The information systems function in business.
2.1 Business process : Workflows of material, information, knowledge. Sets of activities, steps. May be tied to functional area or be cross – functional.
Business : Can be seen as collection of business process. Business process may be assets or liabilities. Examples of functional business process: 1.Manufacturing and production(assembling the product ) 2.Sales and marketing(identifying customers) 3.Finance and accounting(creating financial statements) 4.Human recourses (hiring employee)
Information technology enhances business process in two main ways: Increasing efficiency of existing process Enabling entirely new process that are capable of transforming the business Change flow of information. Replace sequential steps with parallel steps. Eliminate delays is decision making.
2.2 Types of information systems: 1.Transaction processing systems )TPS). 2.Management information systems (MIS). 3.Decision support systems (DSS). 4.Executive support systems(ESS).
1. Transaction processing systems(TPS): Perform and record daily routine transaction necessary to conduct business. Allow managers to monitor status of operations and relations with external environment Serve operational levels. Serve predefine, structured goals and decision making.
2. Management information systems (MIS) : Serve middle management. Provide reports on firms current performance,based on data from TPS. Provide answer to routine question with predefined producer for answering them. Typically have little analytic capability
3. Decision support systems(DSS): Serve middle management. Support non routine decision making. Often external information as well from TPS and MIS.
4. Executive support systems(ESS): Support senior management. Address non routine decision requiring evaluation. Integration data about external events as well as summarized information from internal MIS and DSS.
Systems from constituency perspective : Transaction processing systems : supporting operational level employee. Management information systems and decision –support systems :supporting managers. Executing support systems :supporting executives.
Relationship of systems to one anther: TPS :major source of data for other systems. ESS : recipient of data from lower –level systems Data may be exchanged between systems. In reality,most business systems only loosely integrated.
2.3 systems that span the enterprise Enterprise applications: Span function areas. Execute business process across firm. Include all levels of management. Four major application : 1.Enterprise systems. 2.Supply chain management systems. 3.Customer relationships management systems. 4.Knowledge management systems
Four major application : 1.Enterprise systems: Collects data from different firm function and stores data in single central data repository. Resolves problems of fragmented, redundant data sets and systems. Enable: 1.Coordination of daily activities. 2.Efficient response to customer orders. 3.Provide valuable information for improving management decision making.
2. Supply chain management systems: Managers firms relationships with suppliers Share information about: orders, production,inventory levels, delivery of products and services. Coals : right amount of time and lowest cost.
3.Customer relationships management systems: Provide information to coordinate all of the business process that deal with customers in sales, marketing,and services to optimize revenue, customer satisfaction, and customers retention. Integrate firms customers –related process and consolidate customers information from multiple communication channels.
4. Knowledge management systems: Support process for acquiring, creating, storing, distributing, applying, integrating knowledge. Collects internal knowledge and link to external knowledge. Include enterprise – wide systems for: 1.Managing documents, graphics and other digital knowledge objects 2.Directories of employees with expertise
Intranets: Internal network built with same tools and standards as internet. Used for internal distribution of information to employees. Typically utilize private portal providing single point of access to several systems. May connect to company’s transaction systems.
Extranets: Intranets extended to authorized users outside the company. Expedite flow of information between firms and its suppliers and customers. Can be used to allow different firms to collaborate on products design, marketing,and production,
E-business (Electronic Business ): Use of digital technology and internet to execute major business process in the enterprise. Include e-commerce (electronic commerce): ( Buying and selling of goods services over internet ).
E-government: The application of internet and networking technologies to digitally enable government and public sectors agencies relationships with citizens, business, and other arms of government.
Collaborations and communication systems : Interaction jobs a major parts of global economy Methods includes: 1.Internet – based collaboration environment 2.E-mail and instant messaging(IM). 3.Cell phone and smart phone. 4.Social networking. 5.Wiki. 6.Virtual worlds
2.4 The Information Systems Function In Business Information systems department : Formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services. Includes programmers, systems analysts, projects leaders, information systems managers. Often headed by chief information officer(CIO),also includes chief security officer (CSO),and chief knowledge officer (CKO)
End-users : Representatives of other developments,for whom application are develop Small firms may not have formal information systems group. Larger companies typically have separate department which may be organization along one of several different lines: 1.Decentralized 2.Separate department under central control. 3.Each division has separate group but all under central control.
3.1 Organization And Information Systems. 3.2 How Information Systems Impact Organizations And Business Firms?. 3.3 Using Information Systems To Achieve Competitive Advantage. 3.4 Using Systems For Competitive Advantage Management Issues.
3.1 organization and information systems: Information technology and organization influence one anther. Complex relationships influenced by organization structure,business process,politics,culture, environment, and management decision.
The two-way relationships between organization and information technology من هذه الرسمة نستنتج ان المنظمة هي التي تؤثر على نظم المعلومات Functional requirement end- users need organization R estructuring of the organization information
What is an organization? Technical definition : stable, formal social structure that takes resources from environment and process them to produce outputs. Behavioral definition : a collection of rights,privileges,obligations,and responsibilities that is delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution.
Features of organizations: All modern organization share some characteristics. Routine and business process. Organizational politics. Organizational culture. Organizational environment. Disruptive technology. Organizational structure. Other organization features.
all modern organization share some characteristics Such as : Use of hierarchical structure. Accountability, authority is systems of impartial decision making. Holding on to principle of efficiency. Other features includes : routine and business process and organization politics, culture,environment and structures
Routine and business process: Routine (standard operating produce):precise rules,procedures,and practices situation (productivity, efficiency,cost). Business process : collection of routines. Business firm : collection of business process.
Organization politics: Divergent viewpoints leads to politics struggle competition and conflict Politics resistance greatly hamper organizational change.
organizational culture : Encompasses set of assumption that define goals and products. What products the organization should produce ?. How and where it should be produced? For whom the products should be produced? May be powerful unifying force as well as restraint on change.
Organization environment : Organizations and environment have a reciprocal relationships. Organizations are open to, and dependent on the social and physical environment. Organizations can influence their environment Environment generally change faster than organizations. Information systems can be instrument of environment scanning act as a lens.
Organization Structure : Five basic kinds of structure : 1.Entrepreneurial : small start up business. 2.Machine bureaucracy: midsize manufacturing firms. 3.Divisional zed bureaucracy : fortune 500 firms. 4.Professional bureaucracy : law firms,school systems, hospitals. 5.Adhocracy :consulting firms.
Other Organization Features : Goals. Constituencies. Leadership styles. Tasks.
3.2 How Information Systems Impact Organization And Business Firms? Economic impact : IT affects the costs and quality of information and change economics of information. Information technology helps firms contracts in size because it can reduce transaction costs of participating in markets.
Transaction Cost Theory: Firms seek to economic on cost of participating in market.
Agency Theory: Firms is nexus of contracts among self- interested parties requiring supervision. Flat organization structures: 1.Less management. 2.More span of control.
Organizational and behavioral impacts: IT flatten organizations: Decision making pushed to lower levels Fewer managers needs (IT enable faster decision making and increasing span of control). Postindustrial organizations: Organizations flatten because in postindustrial societies authority increasingly relies on knowledge and competence rather than formal positions.