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**An Electronic Device, and also a Action Hero…**

Transformers An Electronic Device, and also a Action Hero…

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**Transformers Transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another.**

No physical connection between the circuits. May involve changes in voltage and current. Frequency does not change.

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**Construction Primary coil or winding. Secondary coil or winding.**

Neither are connected to each other.

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**3 Types of Transformers Step-Up Transformer Step-Down Transformer**

It delivers higher voltage than the source, aka, it steps the voltage up. The voltage on the secondary side is higher than the primary side. Step-Down Transformer It delivers lower voltage than the source, aka, it steps the voltage down. The voltage on the secondary side is lower than the primary side. One-to-One Isolation Transformer The voltage on the primary is the same as the secondary. There is no increase or decrease in voltage.

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**RVOTD: Danger, Will Robinson!**

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**How Transformers Function**

The primary winding receives the source AC and creates a changing magnetic flux. The secondary winding receives it’s energy from the magnetic flux created by the primary winding and sends it to the load. The core material provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux.

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**Explaining how the magnetic field “cuts” the windings in a transformer**

Explaining how the magnetic field “cuts” the windings in a transformer. (again)

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**The Core of a Transformer**

The material of the core can be made from a variety of materials. It can also be made out of air. Typically and air core is useful for high frequency applications while iron cores are used for low frequency applications.

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**If the core is made out of iron, it is usually in the form of a shell core.**

Laminations are insulated from each other. This makes shells electrically insulated from each other (good for less eddy currents) but not magnetically isolated from each other.

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**Take 5 minutes and read section 19.2 to yourselves.**

No load conditions and load conditions on a transformer. What happens to the fuse on the primary side of a transformer if there is a short in the secondary? The fuse blows even though they aren’t connected!!!!!!!!!

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Transformer Ratios You can calculate if a transformer is a step-up, step-down, or one-to-one by simply looking at how many turns there are of wire on the primary and secondary sides. It can also be given by the equation below Ns Vs Vp Np Where: Np = number of turns in the primary Ns = number of turns in the secondary Vp = voltage applied to the primary Vs = voltage induced in the secondary Now that you understand how a transformer functions, we can quantify the variables. The total voltage induced into the secondary winding (Vs) is mainly determined by the ratio of the number of turns in the primary (Np) to the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) and by the voltage applied to the primary (Vp).

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Useful Ratio Form Ns Vs Vp Np Sometimes you may be given a “turns” ratio. This may be one number that represents: Note that you will need three of the four numbers to compute the remaining variable except in the case that you are given a ratio for the turns instead of the turns for each winding. In such a case, you will only need 2 of the 3 numbers to compute the remaining variable. Np Ns such as 10.0, or a ratio like 10:1

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Example #1: Vs? 120V 50 200 Ns Vs Np Vp 50 Vs 120 200 Vs 30V

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**The Turns Ratio Common ways to express the ratio**

Np Ns Common ways to express the ratio 10:1 or 1:10 Which of these steps-up voltage? Ratio is always quoted “Primary to Secondary” Ratio does not indicate the number of turns

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**Example #2: Step-down Transformer Aka “Buck” Transformer Find: Vp Vs**

7:1 If there is less voltage across the secondary than across the primary, the secondary must have fewer turns than the primary. This type of transformer is called a step-down transformer because the voltage is less coming out of the unit. Vp Vs Vp Np Ns Vp 5V 7 1 Vp 35V

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**Example #3: “Boost” Transformer Find: Vs Vs Vp Np Ns Vp Vs Ns Np Vs**

Transformer labeled: 1:5 Vs? Vs Vs Vp Np Ns Vp Vs Ns Np Vs 600V

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**What do we lose in the process?**

Voltage does not just magically increase out of thin air. Something must be lost in the process, or else we would be making energy from nothing. What do we lose in the process? Current!

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If we have a perfectly efficient transformer, the power transferred from one side to the other must be kept the same. Since P = VI, the Voltage multiplied by the current on the primary must be equal to the voltage multiplied by the current on the secondary. Pp = VpIp = VSIS = PS

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**Pp = VpIp = VSIS = PS IpNp = ISNS**

Therefore, if the voltage increases then the current must decrease to keep the power the same. So current can also be calculated using the number of turns on the primary and secondary side. IpNp = ISNS

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Example IpNp = ISNS A transformer has 100 turns in the primary and 600 in the secondary. There is 3A of current in the primary. What is the value of current in the secondary?

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Example IpNp = ISNS A transformer with a turns ratio of 1:8 has 2A of current in the primary. What is the value of secondary current?

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**Example – try these on your own**

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**Transformer Schematic Symbol**

Sometimes there are taps off the secondary. Sometimes there are multiple secondary windings.

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**Phase Dots In Phase Out of phase**

Phase Dots refer to whether the voltage on the primary side is in phase with voltage on the secondary side. There are either in phase or 180˚ out of phase. In Phase Out of phase

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**Maximum Power Rating for a Transformer**

Transformers have a maximum power rating. This means the wires can only handle so much combined voltage and current before they break down. Transformers usually have their power rating printed right on them, such as 24VAC (Take a look in lab.) The power rating is given in Volt-Amp rather than watts because transformers are providing power, not using it like resistors.

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**Measuring for transformer type.**

You can measure the actual physical resistance on the primary winding and the secondary winding. This will tell you if you have a step-up, step- down, or one to one transformer. Do you think the windings in the secondary side of a transformer has more or less resistance than the primary? Why – because more windings for higher voltage and those windings are usually thinner because they don’t have to handle as much current, which causes the resistance to go up even more.

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**Multiple Winding Transformers used in power supplies**

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**Variac or Auto-Transformers**

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**Review – for team points. Please raise your hand!**

What type of transformer has a larger voltage on the secondary than the primary? In a step down transformer, what has more resistance, the primary or the secondary? Suppose you overpowered your transformer, what do you think will happen? If the voltage is increased in the secondary side, what is decreased? What are the phase dots used for? What causes an induced voltage on the secondary? What 3 things determine the amount of voltage induced on the secondary?

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