# Take the Einstein Challenge

## Presentation on theme: "Take the Einstein Challenge"— Presentation transcript:

Take the Einstein Challenge
So you think you are as clever as me?

Einstein started thinking...
What would it be like to catch up with a beam of light?

Question 1 HOW FAST DOES LIGHT TRAVEL IN EMPTY SPACE (in a “vacuum”)?
A km per second B. It varies C km per second

Answer 1: A Speed of light is 300000 km per second 7 times around
That’s… 7 times around the world in one second !

Question 2 Imagine you’ve decided to find out what it is like to catch up with a beam of light. You build a super rocket with limitless fuel. You are in deepest outer space so there is nothing to bump into, and you have all the time you could possibly need. You start the engines…you go faster and faster. WOULD YOU BE ABLE TO CATCH UP WITH AND OVERTAKE A BEAM OF LIGHT?

Options A. Engines create a pushing force causing you to speed up. It’s only a matter of time before the rocket will reach km per second. B. No, it is just impossible for anything to travel faster than the speed of light C. It could if it wasn’t for friction. As your rocket goes faster and faster friction gets greater and greater creating a breaking effect that cancels out the engine thrust.

Answer 2: B Einstein realised that nothing could travel faster than the speed of light. As you will discover amazing things happen to a rocket (or any material object) that tries to get close to the speed of light. What happens? Well first a little detour…

E=mc² Question 3 Einstein is famous for the equation:
What does each letter stand for?

Options A: E= energy m=mass c= speed of light
B: E= energy m=mass c= current C: E= electric charge m=mass c= speed of sound

Answer 3: A This equation doesn’t look special but if you understand it, it tell us something… AMAZING!

Our common sense tell us that everything we encounter can be divided into TWO groups…
Energy Matter OR Like heat and light, movement….. The stuff that makes things happen Like you, the table, the earth….. The stuff that things are made of

What E=mc2 is telling us is that …
ENERGY CAN SOMETIMES TURN INTO… energy

What is telling us is that …
ENERGY CAN SOMETIMES TURN INTO MATTER … energy Matter is the stuff that you and I are made of

…and the other way around. MATTER CAN SOMETIMES CHANGE INTO …

…and the other way around. MATTER CAN SOMETIMES CHANGE INTO PURE ENERGY
Sounds like magic ????

Question 4 Back to our rocket….what happens to the rocket to make it impossible to catch up with light? Guess which answer Einstein would give….

Options As the rocket goes faster and faster…
A: The rocket loses mass (could say it gets “lighter”) and therefore loses energy and can’t speed up B: The rocket’s mass is unchanged C: The rocket gains mass (could say it gets “heavier”) so it becomes increasingly harder to speed it up.

Answer 4: C Einstein worked out that as material starts to move it gains more mass (in simple terms…it gets “heavier”) The faster you move the greater the gain in mass Every part of your rocket (including you if you are on it) gains more and more mass as you go faster and faster

….Why is it so hard to get a large truck moving by pushing it?
Why does an increase in mass stop you catching up with light??? ….Why is it so hard to get a large truck moving by pushing it? …..because it’s got lots of mass The more mass an object has the more energy it takes to speed it up.

Einstein worked out… In attempting to reach the speed of light your mass will become… INFINITE All the energy of in the universe would not be enough to speed up an object to catch up with light, never mind overtake it.

Question 5 Imagine you are standing on earth watching someone move past you in their space rocket. They are travelling at a steady speed…about km per second (nearly half the speed of light). Einstein reasoned that you would notice something else strange happening to the rocket……What is it?

Options A: The space rocket and everything in it would appear to shrink in the direction it was travelling in. B: The space rocket and everything in it would appear to expand in the direction it was travelling in. C: The space rocket would appear to expand in all directions

Answer 5: A Shorten From where you are standing…
The rocket would appear to Shorten

Answer 5: A Shorten From where you are standing…
The rocket would appear to Shorten

Strangely… The person in the spaceship cannot see the shrinking. Everything looks normal to them. Everything they measure with a ruler appears to be the same length as before….

Question 6 Why would their ruler not show up the change?
A: Rulers are no use in space B: The ruler is not accurate enough to measure any change C: The ruler shrinks too and so measurements look the same

Answer 6: C The ruler shrinks too

The super brainy part is…
E =mc2 Einstein realised that it’s not just the rocket, ruler etc. that shrinks….. You are seeing SPACE ITSELF SHRINKING!!! That’s hard to get your head around ….unless of course you are Einstein!

Question 7 If Einstein is right then every time we move (according to measurements taken by someone watching us) we gain mass and shrink. How come none of us have never noticed? A: People are too busy to notice. B: At everyday speeds the gain in mass and shrinking is so small we cannot measure it C: Because Einstein was obviously wrong

Answer 7: B NOW FOR ANOTHER MIND BOGGLING QUESTION….
You have to achieve colossal speeds (close to the speed of light) for these effects to become measurable. NOW FOR ANOTHER MIND BOGGLING QUESTION….

You ask such tricky questions !!!!
IS TIME TRAVEL POSSIBLE?

Options: A: Yes you can travel backwards and forwards in time.
B: You can only travel forward in time, not back. C: No Guess what I think…

Answer 8: B Surely time is……well……time! You can’t change it. It must be the same everywhere???? Einstein reasoned that TIME DOES CHANGE depending on How you are moving and Where you are in the universe

Question 9 Let’s go back to watching our spaceship from earth… So far we have seen it gain in mass and shrink… Einstein says there is something else you will see…….something to do with TIME…. What is it…?

Options A: Everything inside the rocket appears to happen in slow motion…..time slows down! B: Everything appears to be speeded up…..time speeds up! C: Everything happening in the rocket appears to be going backwards…..time is in reverse.

Answer 9: A The passenger on the rocket is completely unaware of time slowing down… …..Their brain processes have slowed down too!

Travelling at steady high speeds is one thing but if you really want to mess with time you need to know more…. First a definition: (to a physicist) “ACCELERATION” means…. Speeding up/ slowing down/ changing direction. If you really want to travel in time Einstein would suggest that you go on a journey that involves colossal rates of acceleration!

Imagine if… You had a twin.
…you go on a white knuckle ride on your space rocket (lots of accelerating) for a number of years, whilst your twin stays behind… EINSTEIN CLAIMS THAT WHEN YOU GET BACK….

You would not have aged as much as your twin…
Back from your trip! The twin who stayed at home!

Question 10 Einstein says that when you accelerate time slows down.
On your recent space rocket ride…. in which direction have you travelled in time? A: Forward in time B: Backwards in time C: You haven’t travelled in time at all it’s just an illusion.

Answer 10: A You have travelled into your twins future! …but Einstein realised that there was more to time travel than hair raising spaceship rides….

Question 11 Something else can slow down time. What is it ?
A: Electricity B: Magnetism C: Gravity

Answer 11: C Gravity The strength of gravity on the earths surface slows down our clocks by about 1 second every century. Scientists have put clocks on high flying planes (high up gravity is weaker) and they come back having gained a tiny bit of a “tick”

For serious time travel you need “BIG” GRAVITY!
The more mass something has the bigger it’s gravitational pull… You need something like a BLACK HOLE !!! The gravity monsters of the universe

So now you know why Einstein is a GENIUS
Sitting at his desk he carried out “thought experiments” That led him to conclude that…

“Spacetime” Warp Stretch
That Space and Time are not as simple as our everyday experience suggests! “Spacetime” (as Einstein called it) can It’s not science fiction but real physics! Warp Stretch &

Congratulations on completing the Einstein Challenge
Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new! Time for one last challenge ?

Try a bit of “free thinking”
We’ve been watching our friend moving past us in a space rocket at nearly half the speed of light…. We understand that we will see: Their MASS increase Their LENGTH shrink Their TIME slow down The question is……

When your friend looks out of her window at you…
HOW DO YOU LOOK TO HER? Will she see any difference in your MASS, LENGTH and TIME? What do you think?