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Chapter 10 Islam.

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1 Chapter 10 Islam

2 Bedouins Who: nomadic herders
What: moved through the desert to reach seasonal pasturelands for their animals; predecessors the Islamic peoples Where: southwest Asia, Middle East When: 500 Why: they traded with settled Arab tribes in oasis towns; & protected caravan routes

3 Bedouins (6) Who: nomadic herders
What: moved through the desert to reach pasturelands for their herds Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 500 AD Why: competition for water & grazing land led to warfare; predecessors of the Islamic ppl

4 Muhammad Who: prophet of Islam
What: messenger of God, he founded the Islamic faith Where: Mecca, Arabian peninsula When: ? Why: he was troubled by the morals of society & would meditate in the hills- heard an angel’s voice telling him “There is one God and one ppl” = the basis of Islamic faith, he started the Islam religion

5 Muhammad (6) Who: Arab prophet of Islam; founder of Islam
What: established the Muslim faith after receiving a vision that told him there was only one God Where: Mecca, Arabian penin., ME When: AD Why: the Muslim faith has greatly influenced modern culture and would not exist w/o him

6 Workbook part A 570- Muhammad was born
595- Muhammad meets Khadija (his wife) 622- faced w. threat of murder, M & his followers left Mecca for Yathrib (Medina); this marked the 1st year of the Islamic calendar- this journey was known as the Hijra 630- Muhammad returned to Mecca 632 Muhammad died

7 Mecca Who: Muslims, Muhammad
What: a market town at the crossroads of several trading routes, where Muhammad was born, where Islam was founded Where: Arabian peninsula, Middle East When: 570 AD Why: this is where Muhammad the prophet was born; the Islamic religion was founded here; the Kaaba is here

8 Mecca (6) Who: Arabs & Muslims, Muhammad
What: a bustling market town that is at the crossroads of many trading routes Where: Southern Arabian penin, ME When: 570 Why: the trading in the area helped make merchants wealthy; this is where M was born; this is where Islam was founded; this is where the Kaaba is located

9 Yathrib Who: Muhammad & his followers
What: a city that M & his followers flee to to avoid death; the journey here is known as the Hijra, a city near Mecca Where: Arabian peninsula, ME When: 622 Why: this city is where Muhammad & his followers escaped to avoid murder; it was later renamed Medina


11 Hijra Who: Muhammad & his followers
What: the journey from Meccca to Yathrib (Medina) of Muhammad & his followers Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 622 AD * Why: they left Mecca b.c. of the threat of murder= went to Yathrib (Medina) = this journey marks the 1st year on the Islamic calendar (beginning of Islam); today Muslims complete this journey as part of their religion

12 Hijra (6) Who: Muhammad & his followers
What: a religious journey from Mecca to Yathrib Where: from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina), Arabian penin, ME When: 622 * Why: this journey led M & his followers to safety = marked the 1st year of the Islamic calendar = Islam was now a religion

13 Medina Who: M & his followers
What: city that was renamed this, used to be Yathrib Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 622 AD Why: M visited here and it became known as “City of the prophet” & was renamed Medina; his journey to here marked the 1st year on the Islamic calendar


15 Kaaba (Ka’ba) Who: Muslims
What: a temple that Muslims believed Abraham built to worship God Where: Mecca, Arabain penin, ME When: 630 Why: this became the most holy place in Islam; Muslims travel here to pay homage to Islam & Allah


17 Quran Who: Muslims What: the sacred text of Islam
Where: Mecca, Arabian penin, ME When: 622 Why: this states that ppl are responsible for theoir own actions, teaches God is all powerful & compassionate; lists the 5 pillars of the faith: Declaration of the faith; Daily prayer, Alms for the poor, Fasting, Hajj

18 Mosques Who: Muslims What: a house of worship for the Islamic faith
Where: Southwestern Asia, Mecca, ME When: 622- present Why: the second pillar of faith in the Islam religion is prayer- Muslims often meet in the mosque in order to pray

19 Hajj Who: Muslim pilgrims
What: a pilgrimage to Mecca to participate in ceremonies commemorating the actions of Muhammad Where: Mecca to Medina When: 622- present Why : their simple attire symbolized the abandonment of the material world for God; the 5th pillar for Muslims- they must make this journey 1 time in their life

20 Jihad Who: Muslims What: struggle in God’s service, a personal duty of Muslims who focus on overcoming immortality w/in themselves; religious war Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 600s Why: this is a duty of the Muslims to defend their religion = still around today

21 Sharia Who: Muslim scholars
What: a body of law that includes interpretations of the Quran, Islamic law Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 600s Why: this regulates moral conduct, life, business practices, and government in Islamic nations and for Islamic ppl

22 Workbook part B 3 main Bubbles: Quran Sharia law 5 pillars of Islam
Sacred text of Islam Sharia law 5 pillars of Islam Declaration of faith Pray 5 times daily Give charity to the poor Fast during Ramadan (don’t eat) Make Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca once in your lifetime

23 Section 2

24 Abu Bakr Who: Muhammad’s father in law
What: the first Caliph (leader after M’s death) Where: ME When: 632 Why: he is the first successor after Muhammad died & led the Islamic religion after M was gone; he encouraged Muslims to follow God not M = ppl leaving Islam; however, converted many ppl to Islam = Islam grew; military campaigns to spread Islam

25 Caliph Who: Abu Bakr What: successor to Muhammad in leading the Islamic faith; the leaders of Islam religion after M Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 632- Why: M died, Muslims were searching for a new leader= the Caliph was the leader that led the religion after M; the 1st 4 caliphs had successful military campaigns; the disagreement over who should be leader = Sunni v Shiite

26 Sunni Who: Muslims What: a large group of Muslims that formed the majority of Muslims, believed leader should be chosen Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 600s Why: they felt that any good Muslim could lead the community since there was no prophet after M; felt that the leader should be a pious, male Muslim & should be chosen

27 Shiite Who: Muslims What: a smaller group of Muslims that wanted to leave the larger community of Muslims based on who should be leader When: 600s- present Where: Arabian penin, ME Why: M died = Muslims disagreed who should be leader = this grp of Muslims said it must be a descendant of M through his daughter & son in law Ali; they believe the descendants are divinely inspired and meant to rule.

28 Sunni v. Shiite (both) workbook pg 92
Largest group (90%) Believed the leader of Islam should be good, pious male Muslim Iran Shiite: Smaller group (10%) Believed the leader of Islam shoud be a descendant of M Iraq Both: Allah, Quran, worship in a Mosque, obey 5 pillars

29 Sufis Who: Muslim mystics
What: a small group of Muslims that sought communion w. Allah through meditation, fasting, and other rituals Where: Arab. Penin, ME When: 600s Why: they helped spread Islam by traveling, preaching, & being good examples; they carried their faith to remote villages where they blended local traditions & Muslim beliefs ; were very pious & some thought to be mystical

30 Umayyad Who: Meccan Muslims
What: a dynasty of Sunni caliphs that rules a Muslim Empire until 750 Where: Mecca, Arabian penin, ME When: Why: their conquests enabled the spread of Islam & Muslim civilization; spread as far Spain; try to conquer Constantinople; they were successful militarily b.c. they were stronger than other empires; they created an effective govt; they were restrictive on ppl they conquered- forcing ppl to convert; eventually they couldn’t govern effectively & were taken over by Abbasid

31 Abbasid Who: Muslims, Abu al-Abbas, Shiite, & non Arab Muslims
What: a Shiite Muslim dynasty founded by Abu al-Abbas Where: Baghdad, ME When: Why: tried to create an empire based on equality of all Muslims; halted the large military conquest; the empire reached its’ greatest wealth & power; Muslim civilization flourished; created a more sophisticated bureaucracy & encouraged learning; Moved capital to Baghdad; Persian traditions influenced the empire

32 Baghdad Who: Shiite Abbasid Muslims
What: a new capital the Abbasid Caliphate created Where: Arabian penin, ME When: Why: the caliph’s palace was in the center of this new capital city; poets, artists, scholars flocked here during the Abbasid rule; it exceeded Constantinople in size & wealth= became the grandest capital during this time

33 Minarets Who: Muslims What: slender towers that are part of the mosques Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 600s- present Why: Muslims (Meuzzins) would climb to the top and call all the Muslims to prayer 5 times a day

34 Sultan Who: leader of the Muslim Turkish ppl
What: a ruler of the Turks Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 600s Why: this leader was different from the Caliph- the Caliph was the religious leader of Islam; the Sultan was the political leader of the Turkish empires that were Muslim

35 Workbook pg 90 part B Copy the timeline on pg. 129 of your book

36 Section 3

37 Social Mobility Who: Muslim people
What: the ability to move up or down in social classes, up or down on the social pyramid Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 8th & 9th centuries (700s,800s) Why: people could improve their social rank through religious, scholarly or military achievements

38 Calligraphy Who: Muslims What: the art of beautiful handwriting
Where: Arabian penin, ME When: 688 Why: artists worked the flowing Arabic script into decorations on buildings; major characteristic of Muslim art; gave to the rest of the world (i.e. Western Europe)

39 Section 3 Workbook- Muslim Achievements
Look on the website for “Section 3 workbook answers”

40 Section 4

41 Delhi Who: Sultan What: a capital of the northern plains of India
Where: India When: 1100s-present Why: this was the capital of a Sultanate (land ruled by a sultan); the Delhi Sultanate ruled India which marked the start of Muslim rule in India- now there are Muslims & Hindus in India

42 Rajahs Who: Muslims, local Hindu rulers
What: a local Hindu ruler that would be left in charge of a region of India by the real Muslim rulers (Sultan) Where: India When: Why: The Muslims came into India to rule = some would leave these local Hindu rulers in charge of their region in India = this showed a blending of cultures b/n the Hindus & Muslims

43 Sikhism Who: Nanuk, Indian holy man
What: a new religion that was created in Northern India Where: India When: 1300s Why: this blended Indian Islamic & Hindu beliefs together to make one religion; it preached unity of God, brotherhood of men, rejection of caste system (social structure); no to idol worship; believe reincarnation; later organized into military forces that clashed with Mughal (Muslim empire) rulers

44 Babur Who: descended from Genghis Khan & Tamer Lane
What: military genius, poet, & author; Mughal leader that started the Mughal Dynasty in Muslim India Where: India When: 1526 Why: he got rid of the remnants of the Delhi Sultanate; set up Mughal Dynasty ( ); his grandson was Akbar the Great

45 Mughal Who: Muslim Mongol armies
What: Persian word for Mongol, a dynasty that took over Delhi Sultanate in India Where: India When: Why: they conquered the Delhi Sultanate in India, est a Muslim dynasty; great rulers of the dynasty: Babur, Akbar, & Shah Jahan; great achievements were left to India from this dynasty

46 Akbar Who: chief builder of the Mughal dynasty, Akbar the Great
What: ruler of Mughal dynasty; created strong central gov’t Where: India When: Why: he created a strong gov’t = Akbar the great; Muslim ruler that respected Hindu ppl- married a Hindu princess to show his tolerance of the other religion; he gave Hindus gov’t jobs

47 Shah Jahan Who: Akbar’s grandson, Mughal ruler
What: known for building the Taj Mahal Where: India When: 1658- Why: his rule was during the highpoint of the Mughal dynasty- art, literature, & architecture; built the Taj Mahal- most well-known monument in Indian history

48 Taj Mahal Who: Shah Jahan, Mumtaz (his wife)
What: a tomb that Shah Jahan built for his wife Where: India, When: 1658 Why: Shah Jahan loved his wife soooo much that he built this grand tomb for her when she died; this became the most well-known monument in Indian history; took 20 years to build = really $$$$ = bankrupt India b.c. he had to increase taxes of the ppl

49 Section 5

50 Ottomans Who: Turkish speaking nomadic people
What: migrated into northwestern Asia (where the Byzantine Empire was) & took over; Muslim empire Where: northwestern Asia (where the Byz Emp was) When: Why: they conquered the Byz Emp & created the Ottoman Empire; they rename Constantinople to Istanbul; powerful empire that controlled this region- Suleyman & Janissaries; taken over by more powerful empires in 1914

51 Istanbul Who: Ottomans
What: capital of the Ottoman Empire, used to be Constantinople (Byz Emp) Where: Ottoman Empire When: Why: the Ottomans conquered the Byzantine Emp & took over Constantinople; they rename the most important city Istanbul

52 Suleyman Who: ruler of the Ottomans
What: “the Lawgiver”; Suleyman the Great; ruler of the Ottomans that ruled at the height of the Ottoman Empire Where: Ottoman empire When: Why: he modernized the army, conquered new lands for the Ottoman Empire; he ruled the most powerful & largest Empire in the world; strengthened the gov’t, made an effective law system; ruled w. absolute power; created the Janissaries

53 Janissaries (Janizeries)
Who: Suleyman, Ottoman soldiers What: the elite force of the Ottoman army Where: Ottoman empire When: Why: Muslim Ottomans would take Christian boys from conquered lands, convert them to Islam, raise them &train them to be military soldiers for the Ottomans;

54 Safavid Who: Shiite Muslims What: muslim empire in Persia (Iran)
Where: Iran, ME When: Why: they took over in Iran & forced everyone there to be Shiite Muslim; they eventually collapsed due to rebellion from the Afghans (thus the area became known as Afghanistan)

55 Shah

56 Shah Abbas Who: most famous ruler of the Safavid Empire
What: ruler of the Safavid Empire who revived the glory of ancient Persia Where: Safavid Empire (Iran, ME) When: Why: he centralized the gov’t; created powerful military modeled after the Janissaries; made the economy better; tolerated non-Muslims (only shah to do this); made Isfahan the capital

57 Isfahan Who: Shah Abbas, Safavids
What: capital city of the Safavid Empire built by Shah Abbas Where: Safavid Empire, ME When: early 1600s Why: this city became the center of trade & showed the glory of the Safavid Empire

58 Sec 4 & 5 workbook answers are on the website

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