5 History of secondary education in India European system of education(early 19th centaury)As a pre University course (3 New universities in India in 1857)Establishment of secondary education board (early 20th centaury)
6 Problems of Sec. Education Imported curriculumIntended only for production of few Government clerks; not for the massesIntended only for the subjugated groups; not for the free citizens of a democracy(Hugh B Woods, 1954)
7 Hugh B Woods, 1954“Its (secondary education) only relation to the real needs of Indian youth today is by chance, not design”“The examination determines the curricu-lum and the methods of teaching”
8 Constitutional Breach The State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.(Article 45, Indian Constitution)
9 In India: STARK REALITY about 30% of children fail to complete Grade V (lower primary)about 50% drop out before completing Grade VIII (upper primary),60% do not finish Grade X (lower secondary)(Selected educational statistics, )
10 Drop out in BIMARO states Class Age Drop out Bihar(BI) I-X 6-14 79.54 Madhya Pradesh61.60Rajasthan71.45Orissa64.70
11 GDP and education in 2015-16 (BUGDET Document) Nation% of GDP to educationCuba18.71USA5.7Pakistan1.8India3.89Malasia8.1UK5.3Brazil4.2Ethiopia4.6
19 Vision Cont..Providing access to secondary education with special references to economically weaker sections of the society, the educationally backward, the girls and the disabled children residing in rural areas and other marginalized categories like SC, ST, OBC and Educationally Backward Minorities (EBM).
24 Delayed responseCABE recommended Universalisation of secondary education in 2005But announced only in 2007Implementation of RMSA was further delayed
25 MismatchRMSA (2007) aim is universalisation of secondary education. Its main target was 100% enrollment at secondary level.The 11th plan started in envisages only 75% enrollment at secondary level at all India level.
26 Hypotheses RMSA is suffering from following problems: overlapping administrative systemUnilateral decisions and poor planning with state governmentsInterference on academic freedom of teachers
27 Problems in implementation Diverse conditions prevailing in different states (Eg: Kerala X Bihar)Flimsy planning of statesDeviation from national visions ( State visions has become a verbal game)Financial issuesNo curricular and pedagogic out look: administrative dominance
28 Contradiction National Visions Uttarakhand-Vision Access (5 Km For Sec &10 Km for H.Sec)Universal access by 2017Universal retention by 2020Weaker sections“To ensure quality education that is available, accessible and affordable to every young person in the age group of and prepare them to become global citizens with intellectual, scientific, social, cultural and humane outlook.”
29 Equity through Distance learning! “Expansion of Open and Distance Learning needs to be undertaken, especially for those who cannot pursue full time secondary education”(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chater II,2.1.3, P-7)If this is the case, what is the meaning of raising enrollment ratio?
30 Participation Controversy! Involvement of Panchayati Raj and Municipal Bodies, Community, Teachers, Parents and other stakeholders (??) in the management of Secondary Education, through bodies like School Management Committees and Parent –Teacher Associations will be ensured in planning process, implementation, monitoring and evaluationFrame work for implementation of RMSA, Chapter II,2.1.5, P-7)
31 SMDC in RMSASchool Management and Development Committee (SMDC) is a key body in implementation of RMSAConstitution is in the same model of university Syndicates(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chater VII, , P-54)SMDC suggested as part of RTE still remain as an un resolved issue in many states
32 SMDC: THE SUPER POWER! Monitor progress of implementation The Head Master/ Principal will present all the documents and Registers before every meetingHe / She will also brief the SMDC regarding progress of implementation and status of education in his or her schoolSMDC will inspect the work sites,
33 SMDC: THE SUPER POWER!take stock of progress of non-recurring expenditure under various components of the scheme,take stock of consumables and recurring expenditure on various components of thescheme, availability of required facilities and text books etc.,take stock of status of education including teachers attendance, Students attendance, conduct of teachers and students, quality aspects, law and order situation in and around school premises, health conditions & immunization of students, equity aspects like problems encountered by the girls, SCs, STs, children belonging to BPL families and Educationally Backward Minorities etc(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chapter IX, 9.1.1, P-58)
34 Panchayatwill also (in addition to SMDC) monitor progress of implementation of all the components at school level.documents must be presented before the Gram Panchayat / Gram Sabha/ ULBs.briefing regarding progress of implementation and status of education in the school.
35 Panchayat; Cont…Gram Panchayat/ Gram Sabha to inspect the work sites, take stock of progress of non-recurring expenditure under various components of the scheme, take stock of consumables and non recurring expenditure on various components of the scheme, availability of required facilities and text books etc., take stock of status of education including teachers attendance, Students attendance, conduct of teachers and students, health conditions and immunization of students, quality aspects, law and order situation in and around school premises, equity aspects like problems encountered by the girls, SCs, STs, children belonging to BPL families and Educationally Backward Minorities etc.(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chapter IX, 9.1.2, P-58)
36 Secondary Education Management Information System (SEMIS) Chapter 5(3) NUEPA as nodal agencyThe DISE data management is a perfect indicator for the flaws of such system. No systematic measures had been suggested to improve management of DISE.
37 Strengthening of resource institutions Strengthening of resource institutions at various levels like NCERT, SCERT, University departments of education, RIE’s, IASE’s, Teacher education institutions etc. are vaguely stated.No modus operandi suggested for that!The term ’strengthening’ is not defined!
38 Unilateral!!“……all types of schools, including unaided private schools will also contribute towards Universalisation of Secondary Education (USE) by ensuring adequate enrolments for the children from under privileged society and the children Below Poverty Line (BPL) families”(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, Chapter I, 1.4, P-4)
39 Ensuring Access through PPP! “New schools will also be set up in PPP mode”(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, Chapter II,2.1.1, P-6)
40 Unilateral framework!“Requirement of incentives like scholarship, uniforms, shoes, textbooks, note books etc. will have to be worked out on the basis of State norms. These would be part of the RMSA but the funding would be mainly from the State Plan”(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chater III, , P-13)No discussions had been conducted with States, till date!
41 ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES Out of the 14 conditions for allocation of resources, there are several flaws and issues to be resolved!Commitment from the State Government with regard to the State share;Institutional reforms in states to facilitate decentralized management of education,Availability of financial resources in a particular year.However, the release will also be performance linked.If an educationally backward district does not utilize the resources inthe manner intended, it is unlikely to continue to receive a priority.(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chater III,3.12, P-15)
42 Financing patternsDuring 11th plan period funding for central and state share will be 75:25 (for north eastern states it will be 90:10)For the 12th plan period it will be 50:50 (for north eastern states it will be 90:10)(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chater III, and , P-15)
43 Teaching under scanning! Theme specific supervision visits besides the overall assessment visits would also be undertaken. Classroom observation by resource persons has also been provided for.(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chapter III,3.16.3, P- 15)SMDC :Another threat to academic freedom of teachers!
44 MCQ domination“It is proposed that the incidence of short-answer questions be reduced and replaced with Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) on one-hand and Reflective (long answer) type questions on the other. Orientation programmes to make the teachers familiar with MCQs and how to have them test higher-order thinking need to be organized. While long answer type questions involve more examiner time thansperant today, MCQs, being machine- marked, will involve nil”(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chater V,5.9.3, P-34)
45 Strong Planning District level Perspective plan and annual plan State plan by coordinating the district level planningNational planning and allocation
46 Learning resource centers (LRC) “……all schools need to be equipped with Learning Resource Centres (LRC) with following inputs.LibraryProvision for ICT supportLink with EDUSAT(Frame work for implementation of RMSA, chater V,5.7, P-33)
47 “…..things gain meaning by being used in a shared experience or joint action” (John Dewy, 1916) 2017 and 2020 are not too far……..absence of coordinated actions in the implementation of RMSA will repeat the same pathetic story of Article 45 of Indian constitution