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Colouring COMPARA contrastive and monolingual colour studies in English and Portuguese Rosário Silva Susana Inácio Diana Santos.

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Presentation on theme: "Colouring COMPARA contrastive and monolingual colour studies in English and Portuguese Rosário Silva Susana Inácio Diana Santos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colouring COMPARA contrastive and monolingual colour studies in English and Portuguese Rosário Silva Susana Inácio Diana Santos

2 Colouring COMPARA 2 Key aspects COMPARA Colouring COMPARA English-speaking authors Contrastive analysis (Portuguese vs. English) Morphosyntactic patterns in Portuguese and in English Originals vs. Translations

3 Colouring COMPARA 3 COMPARA An English-Portuguese publicly available parallel corpus (since 2001) developed at Linguateca, project leaders: Ana Frankenberg-Garcia & Diana Santos manually revised texts, alignment and grammatical annotation (from PALAVRAS and CLAWS, in progress) several innovative features COMPARA

4 Colouring COMPARA 4 COMPARA contents 75 pairs, corresponding to 72 fiction works million words in Portuguese (Africa, Brazil and Portugal) million words in English (Great- Britain, America and South Africa) 97,728 alignment units see COMPARA

5 Colouring COMPARA 5 Colour research by: Language  Portuguese  English Language variety  Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique and Angola)  English (United Kingdom, United States and South Africa) Colouring COMPARA

6 6 Colour research by: Text Author Translated or Original text(s) Date of publication Colouring COMPARA Several outputs available (concordances and distributions)

7 Colouring COMPARA 7 Why COLOUR? We wanted to start semantic annotation of COMPARA An easy to grasp and relatively-contained lexical category The subject of many arguments in linguistics A frequent category, both literally and metaphorically Colouring COMPARA

8 8 What is COLOUR? – Criteria All straightforward words conveying colour, regardless of word class Words that convey colour but are not in themselves a colour Words that have colours in them but have gone beyond the mere colour reference The word “colour” and its derivations. Colouring COMPARA For more information see (continually updated)

9 Colouring COMPARA 9 COLOUR categories and groups Colour colour:race colour:human colour:wine colour:original Colouring COMPARA Purple Red Silver White Yellow Other Multiple Unspecified Beige Black Blue Brown Gold Green Grey Orange Pink

10 Colouring COMPARA 10 Colour categories - examples colour amber-coloured; blackened; lime-green; red- and-white; watery-blue; white; yellowing... colour:race whites; blacks; white-skinned; coloureds... colour:human blond; blushed; brunette; red-haired; rosy-cheeked; suntanned; white- bearded... colour:wine white; red. colour:original blacklist; bluebirds; brownies; whitewash; eggwhite...

11 Colouring COMPARA 11 Quantitative data Instances marked as colour in COMPARA: 4,609 in PT and 4,548 in EN Number of different colours in COMPARA: 409 in PT (209 lemmas) and 427 in EN Colouring COMPARA % %

12 Colouring COMPARA 12 ENGLISH-SPEAKING AUTHORS IN COMPARA Julian Barnes Lewis Carrol Joseph Conrad Nadine Gordimer Joseph Heller Kazuo Ishiguro Henry James English-speaking authors David Lodge Ian McEwan Mary Shelley Joanna Trollope Oscar Wilde Richard Zimler

13 Colouring COMPARA 13 English AuthorsTexts and Dates# types# wordsfreq. Barnes EBJB1 (1984) e EBJB2 (1989) e EBJB3 (1991) ,02 Carrol EBLC1 (1871) 7110,99 Conrad EBJC1 (1902) 19413,37 Gordimer ESNG1 (1990) e ESNG2 (1979) e ESNG3 (1981) e ESNG4 (1974) ,01 Heller EUJH1 (1990) 12251,89 Ishiguro EBKI1 (1995) e EBKI2 (1989) 23690,81 James EUHJ1 (1880) e EUHJ2 (1895) e EUHJ3 (1893) 22651,38 Lodge EBDL1 (1995) e EBDL2 (1989) e EBDL3 (1975) e EBDL4 (1980) e EBDL5 (1991) e EBDL6 (1984) ,90 McEwan EBIM1 (1992) e EBIM2 (1998) e EBIM3 (1978) ,47 Poe EUEP1 (1837) 7200,82 Shelley EBMS1 (1818) 6120,57 Trollope EBJT1 (1996) e EBJT2 (1993) e EBJT3 (1995) ,70 Wilde EBOW1 (1890) ,47 Zimler EURZ1 (1998) e EURZ2 (2000) ,46 English-speaking authors

14 Colouring COMPARA 14 Contrastive analysis (EN vs. PT) PT EN

15 Colouring COMPARA 15 Most colourful authors (no. of different colour types) Least colourful authors (no. of different colour types) Camilo Castelo Branco 6 negro, verde, amarelo, azul, cor, preto. Autran Dourado 51 preto, branco, negro, verde,... esbranquiçado, pratear, verde-garrafa, azuleleca, multicor, rubro, alvaiado,.... Mary Shelley 6 black, blue, green, white, red, blackness. Joanna Trollope 102 blue, white, black, red,... scarlet, hazel, peacock- blue, saffron-yellow, purplish, red-and-ochre, emerald-green...

16 Colouring COMPARA 16 Colour categories (1) English-speaking authors

17 Colouring COMPARA 17 Colour categories (1) Contrastive analysis (EN vs. PT) EN PT

18 Colouring COMPARA 18 Authors’ favourite colour groups (Each author contributed only with his/her favourite colour group) English-speaking authors

19 Colouring COMPARA 19 Lewis CarrolMary Shelley Henry James Joanna Trollope English-speaking authors Author with the highest individual percentage of the colour:

20 Colouring COMPARA 20 Favourite colour groups (Each author contributed only with his/her favourite colour group) Contrastive analysis (EN vs. PT) PT EN

21 Colouring COMPARA 21 Portuguese-speaking authors Author with the highest individual percentage of the colour: José de Alencar Camilo Castelo Branco Mia Couto 26% José Eduardo Agualusa 31% Jorge de Sena 24% Marcos Rey 44%

22 Colouring COMPARA 22 All colour groups (The authors contributed with all their colours) English-speaking authors

23 Colouring COMPARA 23 Contrastive analysis (EN vs. PT) (The authors contributed with all their colours) All colour groups PT EN

24 Colouring COMPARA 24 Races (colour:race) English-speaking authors 9 out of 14

25 Colouring COMPARA 25 Races (colour:race) Contrastive analysis (EN vs. PT) PT EN 14 out of 22

26 Colouring COMPARA 26 Does colour quantity change with time? Number of colour types per text dates English-speaking authors EN

27 Colouring COMPARA 27 Portuguese-speaking authors PT Does colour quantity change with time? Number of colour types per text dates

28 Colouring COMPARA 28 Does colour quantity change with time? Number of colour types per authors’ birth date English-speaking authors EN

29 Colouring COMPARA 29 Portuguese-speaking authors Does colour quantity change with time? Number of colour types per authors’ birth date PT

30 Colouring COMPARA 30 Grammatical Category of Colours Morphosyntactic Patterns in English NOUN: 932 words (...came back in the afternoon gold.) (...hand-painted in orange.) VERB: 108 words (...she smiled and blushed.) (...eyes blackened and engorged by fatigue...) ADVERB: 7 word (...she smiled rosily and said...) ADJECTIVE: 3,721 words (red-hot needle, white image, blue eyes,...)

31 Colouring COMPARA 31 Grammatical Category of Colours Syntactic Patterns in Portuguese NOUN: 1,349 words (93 lemmas) (...o verde era uma cor que...,...estou em pleno azul, suspenso...) VERB: 107 words (15 lemmas) (...muito além daquela serra, que ainda azula no horizonte...) (...as saladas esverdinhavam à hora do jantar.) ADVERB: 1 word (1 lemma) (purpureamente) ADJn: 29 words (16 lemmas) (-- No entanto gosto do azul -- prosseguiu, a cliente -- e o verde é muito bonito. ) ADJ_N: 27 words (5 lemmas) (Mas Isidoro, mesmo preto, não era capaz de uma coisa dessas.) ADJECTIVE: 3,193 words (161 lemmas) (carro verde, fato azul)

32 Colouring COMPARA 32 Morphosyntactic Patterns in English COLOUR + NOUN (1,138) hair 49 (brown hair, reddish hair, wine-red hair...) eye 45 (red eye, watery-blue eyes,...) silk 22 (crimson silk, amber-coloured silk,...) paper 16 (yellowing paper, brown paper,...) light 16 (purple light, greyish-blue light,...) velvet 11 (black velvet, purple velvet,...) sky 11 (indigo sky, grey sky,...) plastic 11 (pale-grey plastic, white plastic,...) bear 10 (brown bear, black bear,...) Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour Data from EN originals only; without colour:original, colour:race, colour:human and colour:wine

33 Colouring COMPARA 33 Morphosyntactic Patterns in Portuguese NOUN + COLOUR (914) cabelo 41 (cabelos brancos, cabelo negro,...) olho 32 (olhos azuis, olhos castanhos, olhos verdes,...) luz 21 (luz vermelha, luz anilada,...) seda 20 (seda verde, seda roxa,...) papel 19 (papel colorido, papel amarelo,...) mármore 13 (mármore negro, mármore verde,...) vestido 10 (vestido azul, vestido prateado,...) céu 9 (céu azul, céu cinzento, céu negro,...) Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour Data from PT originals only; without cor:original, cor:raça, cor:humana and cor:vinho

34 Colouring COMPARA 34 Morphosyntactic Patterns in Portuguese COLOUR + NOUN (45) mar 6 (verdes mares...) praia 2 (alvas praias...) areia 2 (brancas areias...) cor 2 (alva cor...) rede 2 (alva rede...) fio 2 (alvos fios...) pelúcia 2 (verde pelúcia...) Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour Data from PT originals only; without cor:original, cor:raça, cor:humana and cor:vinho

35 Colouring COMPARA 35 Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour Morphosyntactic Patterns in English COLOUR + “and” + COLOUR (98) pink and (colour) 17 black and (colour) 10 red and (colour) 9 green and (colour) 7 white and (colour) 6 orange and (colour) 6 blue and (colour) 6 Data from EN originals only

36 Colouring COMPARA 36 Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour Morphosyntactic Patterns in Portuguese COLOUR + “e” + COLOUR (32) branco e (colour) 7 azul e (colour) 5 preto e (colour) 3 ouro e (colour) 2 verde e (colour) 2 vermelho e (colour) 2 amarelo e (colour) 2 Data from PT originals only

37 Colouring COMPARA 37 Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour COLOUR (hyphenated words ) (396) colour-[borrowed from something] 85 (cherry-red,...) colour-[hue modifier] 66 (deep-blue,...) colour-[applied to something] 66 (green-shirted,...) colour-[“colo(u)red”] 61 (carrot-colored,...) colour-[colour] 46 (pink-brown,...) colour-[hair-related] 44 (red-haired,...) colour-[skin-related] 20 (olive-skinned,...) colour-[eye-related] 8 (gray-eyed,...) Colour can appear on both sides of the hyphen Morphosyntactic Patterns in English EN-side of the corpus

38 Colouring COMPARA 38 Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour Morphosyntactic Patterns in Portuguese COLOUR (hyphenated words) (219) [hue modification] 104 (verde-vivo, vermelho-escuro,...) cor-de (cor-de-rosa, cor-de-rato,...) [borrowed from something] 46 (verde-musgo,...) [several colours] 6 (verde-azul, rosa-e-azul,...) [applied to something] 1 (saliva-laranja) Hyphenated form of clitics in PT not included PT-side of the corpus

39 Colouring COMPARA 39 Morphosyntactic Patterns using Colour Morphosyntactic Patterns in Portuguese COR + DE +... (105) laranja 12 azeitona 8 areia 7 cobre 4 prata 4 PT-side of the corpus

40 Colouring COMPARA 40 Colour - Originals vs. Translations

41 Colouring COMPARA 41 Colour categories - Originals vs. Translations Originals vs. Translations - EN texts colour:human colour:race colour

42 Colouring COMPARA 42 Example: Julian Barnes colour:human Julian Barnes7 Translator (JB)4 -3 Originals vs. Translations No translation Translations fall into other colour categories

43 Colouring COMPARA 43 Example: Julian Barnes Red Julian Barnes16 Translator (JB)9 -7 Originals vs. Translations No translation Translations fall into other colour categories

44 Colouring COMPARA 44 Which language uses more colour? COLOUR DENSITY (per 1,000 words) English: Portuguese: COLOUR DIVERSITY (per 1,000 words) English: Portuguese: without colour:original

45 Colouring COMPARA 45 Which language uses more...? COLOUR:RACE (per 10,000 words) English: Portuguese: COLOUR:WINE (per 10,000 words) English: Portuguese: COLOUR:HUMAN (per 10,000 words) English: Portuguese: COLOUR:ORIGINAL (per 10,000 words) English: Portuguese: 1.414

46 Colouring COMPARA 46 We presented a large repository of aligned coloured texts available to every researcher interested in Portuguese or English. COMPARA is also open to the semi-automatic annotation of other semantic fields, in collaboration with interested researchers who volunteer to revise the final annotation.

47 Colouring COMPARA 47 Acknowledgment This work was done in the scope of Linguateca, contract no. 339/1.3/C/NAC, project jointly funded by the Portuguese Government and the European Union.


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