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Lecture 1 Voodoo Children Vesa Matteo Piludu Helsinki Department of Comparative Religion and Institute for Art Research University of Helsinki.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1 Voodoo Children Vesa Matteo Piludu Helsinki Department of Comparative Religion and Institute for Art Research University of Helsinki."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 1 Voodoo Children Vesa Matteo Piludu Helsinki Department of Comparative Religion and Institute for Art Research University of Helsinki

2 Influence of Afro-American religions on popular music This lectures tells about the relationship between Afro-American religions and popular music The Afro-American religions has a significant influence on popular music 1. The influence could be musical In popular music could be used same instruments, rhythms, time-lines in a different contest: profane, not sacred 2. The influence could be at the level of the lyrics: the songs have words that mention directly or indirectly Afro-American religions’ features 3. The influence could be both musical and lyrical

3 Similarities between Afro-American religious and popular music Rhythms, dance, collectivity Antiphonal choruses: solo question and chorus answer Vocal – instrumental dialogue Relevant use of time-lines: short rhythmic patterns Importance of the song and lyrics: songs should tell something relevant about life, should have soul, content mystery and passion. Bad lyrics aren’t considered. The music is not only entertainment, it’s a lifestyle, a philosophy. Mystic role of the singer similar to the preacher’s one Relation to music that is quite similar to trance state Respect revered to the great musicians similar to an “ancestor cult “

4 Santana: Black Magic Woman, 1970 Album: Abraxas, Author: Peter Green Got a black magic woman Got a black magic woman I’ve got a black magic woman Got me so blind I cant see That she’s a black magic woman She’s trying to make a devil out of me Don’t turn your back on me baby Don’t turn your back on me baby Yes don’t turn your back on me baby Stop messing round with your tricks Don’t turn your back on me baby You just might pick up my magic sticks Got your spell on me baby Got your spell on me baby Yes you got your spell on me baby Turning my heart into stone I need you so bad, magic woman I can’t leave you alone Cc025HH0E&feature=related Cc025HH0E&feature=related

5 Black Magic Woman The black magic woman has the features of a dark lady (fascinating, but dangerous, as an expert of hoodoo love spells) Dark ladies are frequent in American popular culture, they aren’t necessarily Afro

6 Dark ladies sells incredibly well (from Hollywood to gothic rock)

7 Joe Cocker: Civilized Man Songwriters: Alter, Louis / Delange, Eddie SEFA31Gt8T8&feature=related SEFA31Gt8T8&feature=related You made me need you Need you so bad Would you believe And never so mad, oh yeah Double cross me once, and never cross me again Now you're running 'round looking for some sympathy Well you know as well as I that we're history You're lucky, I'm a civilized man You're lucky, I'm a civilized man Oh yeah, a civilized man A poison arrow, right from the start Right down to zero, you went for my heart Oh yeah You've been hoodoo, voodoo Start the fire again Now you ask me to forget all you've brought me to When you know as well as I you've got it coming to you You're lucky, I'm a civilized man You're lucky, I'm a civilized man Oh yeah, a civilized man

8 Both songs refers to hoodoo love spells In the photos: symbols of Erzulie - Ezilí Dantó - Ezili Freda, goddess of love in vodoun pantheon

9 Almamegretta (Italy): Black Athena 00&playnext_from=PL&feature=PlayList&p= EB07C8678B&playnext=1&index=29 00&playnext_from=PL&feature=PlayList&p= EB07C8678B&playnext=1&index=29 Original man you got to understand we were all Africans yes the knowledge of myself makes me a better self so pick that dusty book up off the shelf and read the truth read the truth science was created in Timbuktu center of the world is Africa the rhythm of the drum comes from Africa Look back look back Athena was black If you look back realize visualize open your eyes truth and lies we will despise oppressed must rise

10 Jimi Hendrix, Album: Electric Ladyland (1968) Voodoo Child (Slight Return). Part 1 1. Well, I stand up next to a mountain And I chop it down with the edge of my hand Yeah Well, I stand up next to a mountain And I chop it down with the edge of my hand Well, I pick up all the pieces and make an island Might even raise a little sand Yeah, 'Cause I'm a voodoo child 2. Lord knows I'm a voodoo child Baby I want to say one more last thing I didn't mean to take up all your sweet time I'll give it right back to ya one of these days Ha ha ha I said I didn't mean to take up all your sweet time I'll give it right back one of these days Oh yeah

11 Jimi Hendrix, Album: Electric Ladyland (1968) Voodoo Child (Slight Return). Part 2 3. If I don't meet you no more in this world then uh I'll meet ya on the next one And don't be late Don't be late 'Cause i'm a voodoo child voodoo child Lord knows I'm a voodoo child Hey hey hey I'm a voodoo child baby I don't take no for an answer Question no Yeah Hendrix refers to the song as the Black Panthers' national anthem Jimi Hendrix - Voodoo Chile Atlanta v7yPRYL_Oq0&feature=related v7yPRYL_Oq0&feature=related

12 Analogies in Voodoo Child Voodoist Afro-American Expert of religious trance Uses hypnotic music Said to be able to control the forces of nature with his or the divinities’ powers Black Power Afro-American Movement in ascension (at the time) Related to Afro-American music Radical: I don't take no for an answer If I don't meet you no more in this world then uh I'll meet ya on the next one Rocker (Jimi Hendrix) Afro-American In musical trance Uses hypnotic music His music have relationship with Afro-American religions Had power of influence on the masses via music Politically radical

13 Angelique Kidjo,Voodoo Child LP: Oremi. ch?v=L9ACprQXFwI ch?v=L9ACprQXFwI In the video it is possible to see classical Benin sculptures on the background

14 The origins West Africa, Benin, Nigeria, Congo

15 The slave ship Brooks of Liverpool, 1791

16 Sade: Slave Song, part 1 LP: Lovers Rock ym5zjRRTqU0 ym5zjRRTqU0 I see them gathered, see them on the shore I turned to look once more And he who knows me not Takes me to the belly of darkness The tears run swift and hard And when they fall Even, even the comfort of a stone Would be a gain There was a time when I thought I would have to give up But I'm thankful that I'm Strong as I am and I'll Try to do the best I can 1 - Tears will run swift And tears will come that fall like rain I pray that it's swift though Tears will fall as cold as pain I pray to the almighty Let me not to him do As he has unto me Teach my beloved children Who have been enslaved To reach for the light continually So many times I prayed So many times I've prayed for you Prayed for you

17 Sade: Slave Song, part 2 LP: Lovers Rock The tears run swift and hard and cold as pain Even, even the comfort of a stone would be a gain Had I not had the strength and wisdom of a warrior I would have to give up But I'm thankful that I'm Strong as I am and I'll Try to do the best I can Repeat 1 I pray to the almighty Let us not do as he has unto us Teach my beloved children I've been a slave But reach for the light continually Wisdom is the flame Wisdom is the brave warrior Who will carry us into the sun I pray that it's swift though Tears will come that fall like rain So many times, so many times

18 Cidade negra (Brazil): Mucama (as the new slave) LP: Sobre todas as forcas. Mucama Na cama do patrao Me chama do negao Me paga Salário di bufao Mas come Como a populacao nao come Servant In the Lord’s bed He call me ”big nigger” He pay me A ridiculous salary But he eats What the people doesn’t

19 Slave trade

20 Afro-American Religions Brazil: candomblé, tambor de minas, macumba, umbanda, others Haiti: vodou, others Cuba: santeria, others Usa: hoodoo, others

21 Haitian vodou

22 Superficial syncretism In Latin America the African divinities were ”fused” or identified with Catholic saints … But the syncretism was quite superficial … as the logic of the possession ritual is deeply African Syncretism was a useful strategy for the survival of the African beliefs

23 African and Afro-American possession religion The finality of the rituals is the possession itself, the descent of the divinities and their embodiment … in the “heads” of the possessed The possessed dances in trance, acquiring the voice dance steps and behaviours of the spirit. The beliver has the dress and the symbols of the divinities the trance is extremely ritualized The divinities enjoy to dance, the offers, the sacrifices, the ritual itself The possessed enjoy the bodily communion with the divinity

24 Haitian vodou: please, forget zombies

25 "I Walked With A Zombie"1943 Trailer full of Hollywood stereotypes ch?v=hT_JnFXC6UA ch?v=hT_JnFXC6UA R.e.M. I walked with a zombie ?v=wIptH1awUNI&NR=1 ?v=wIptH1awUNI&NR=1 I walk with a zombie I walk with a zombie last night

26 Haitian vodou: please, forget black magic’s puppets

27 Haitian vodou is much more connected with healing A vodou priest treats an ill woman with mud from the sacred pool in Plaine du Nord 300 kilometres north of Haiti's capital, Port-au- Prince, during the annual festival honouring the spirit Ogou

28 Haitian ritual song Leaf Oh, save my life I’m in misery My child is sick, I run to the healer-priest If he’s a good priest, he’ll save my life I live in poverty, Oh

29 Haitian mambo priestess

30 Lakou Souvenance with rada drums

31 Danças Brasileiras - Candomblé m/watch?v=9dlSVHZtQ _A&feature=related m/watch?v=9dlSVHZtQ _A&feature=related

32 Danças Brasileiras Tambor de Mina m/watch?v=q23VwCve dmQ&feature=related m/watch?v=q23VwCve dmQ&feature=related

33 Milton Nascimento, Os Tambores De Minas LP: Nascimento (Grammy winner for world music) Era um, era dois, era cem Mil tambores e as vozes do além Morro velho, senzala, casa cheia Repinica, rebate, revolteia E trovão no céu é candeia Era bumbo, era surdo e era caixa Meia-volta e mais volta e meia Pocotó, trem de ferro e uma luz Procissão, chão de flores e Jesus Bate forte até sangrar a mão E batendo pelos que se foram Os batendo pelos que voltaram Os tambores de Minas soarão Seus tambores nunca se calaram There was one, two, a hundred, a thousand drum and the voices from beyond Old hill, senzala, full house The sound rebounds, bounces and bounds Thunder in the sky is a candle It was bumbo, surdo and caixa Half-round and one and half Horse track, iron train and a light Procession, soil of flowers and Jesus Hit strong until the hand bleeds Hit for the departed ones Hit for the ones returned The drums of Minas will play The drums that never were in silence

34 Milton Nascimento, Os Tambores De Minas LP: Nascimento (...) E o futuro nas mãos do menino Batucando por fé e destino (...) And the future in the child’s hands Drumming for faith and destiny Free translation: Vesa Matteo Piludu Senzala: slave’s houses Bumbo, caixa, surdo = drums

35 Angelique Kidjo: Shango ch?v=C_VjmiPDZmU&featu re=channel ch?v=C_VjmiPDZmU&featu re=channel

36 Xangô Lord of the thunders and fires King of Oyó, royalty Brave, dominator Masculine, virile Half-human and half orixá Color: white and red Symbols: oxé, double battle-axe

37 Xangô Cd Festa da Musica do Gantois 2 track 5 Rhythm: barra vento The dance represent royal appearance, the assignation of judgments, thunders Fire dance Kawô kabiesileh!

38 Xangó, Brazil

39 Xango, Brazil

40 Xango, Benin, Africa

41 Xango, Benin

42 Xango, Brazil

43 Xango

44 Xango, Brazil

45 Xango, Benin, Africa

46

47 Vinicius de Moraes – Baden Powell: Canto de Ossanha Amigo sinhô Saravá Xangô me mandou lhe dizer Se é canto de Ossanha Não vá! Que muito vai se arrepender Pergunte pr'o seu Orixá O amor só é bom se doer Friend, old boy Saravá Xango send me to say to you If it is Song of Ossanha Don’t go! You will regret it! Ask to your orixá The love is good only if it hurts! Xango, opposed to the herbalist Ossanha, is here represented as a protector of passionate and brave love, including risks of pain and sorrow

48 Xangô: justice and wifes As other gods of thunder, Xango is connected to justice and he is a punisher of thieves and evil-doers In Africa house stroked by lighting is considered marked by the rave of Xangô Xangô has 3 wifes: Oia-Iansã (storm), Oxum (river) and Obá (a she-warrior, also connected to a river) There is a strong rivality between Oxum and Obá

49 Santana: Jingo ch?v=Rc4vZHf5iSQ ch?v=Rc4vZHf5iSQ

50 Galn Costa and Milton Nascimento: Voz do Tambor (Fonseca/Bastos) LP: Aquele frevo axé Fala por nós a voz do tambor Voz que trae o meu amor As cahoeiras Céu onde está Olorum Toda a beleza Agradecer a Oxum Luz das estrelas Agradecer a Xango O bem da vida O bem da vida vem no bater do tambor EaNba-3Wy8Y EaNba-3Wy8Y The voice of the drums speaks for us The voice that takes my love The rapids Sky where Olorum lives All the beauty Will please Oxum Starlight Will please Xango The joy of life Come from drumming Olorum: God of skies Xango: god of thunder Oxum: goddess of Free translation: Vesa Matteo Piludu

51 Iemanjá - Yemanjá Lady of the seas and oceans, salted water Both calm and stormy Fertility, childbirth protector of family Is considered the mother of all the orixás Colours: silver white and turquoise Symbol: silver mirror, abebé

52 Yemanjá Cd Festa da Musica do Gantois 2 track 4 Various rhythms Odu iyá! The dance represents the movements of the sea, the waves and calm femininity

53 African legend: back to the sea She is the daughter of Olookun, divinity of the deep seas His husband is completely drunk and pokes fun at the impressive dimensions of the breasts of Yemanjá Offended, she beats the ground with her foot and transforms herself into a river, that goes back to the sea

54 Procession of Iemanjá: 2 of February

55 Procession of Jemanjá

56 Gal Costa (Author: Dorival Caymmy, Brazil): Dois de Fevereiro, LP: Gal Costa canta Caymmy Dia dois de fevereiro Dia de festa no mar Eu quero ser o primeiro Pra salvar Yemanjá Eu mandei um bilhete pra ela Pedindo para ela me ajudar Ela então me respondeu Que eu tivesse paciência de esperar O presente que eu mandei pra ela De cravos e rosas vingou The Second of February It’s a day of celebration in the Sea I want to be the first one To hail Yemanjá I send her a paper Asking for help She answered To have patience and wait I gave her a present Done by carnation and roses

57 Zeca Baleiro: Mamae Oxum (traditional, Brazil) Iemanjá Celebration – Mamãe Oxum Nk Nk Dances of Oxum: 4s54&feature=related 4s54&feature=related Zeca Baleiro: Mamãe Oxum w w Eu vi mamãe Oxum na cachoeira Sentada na beira do rio Colhendo lírio lirulê Colhendo lírio lirulá Colhendo lírio Pra enfeitar o seu congá Ê areia do mar que o céu serena Ê areia do mar que o céu serenou Na areia do mar mar é areia Maré cheia ê mar marejou I’ve seen Mother Oxúm in a fall Sitting on the river’s shores Picking flowers, oh yeah Picking flowers To fascinate her congá (altar) It’s the sea sand illuminated by the sky, Sea sand illuminated by the sky, In the sea sand, the sea is sand Full tide, oh, the sea shores!

58 Oxúm in the Fall

59 Oxum Divinity of fresh, running waters Waterfalls Sensual, feminine, vain But also protective and full of compassion She is full of strength of will connected to childbirth and Ifá divination Symbol: golden mirror, abebé Colour: golden yellow, copper

60 Oxum Cd Festa da Musica do Gantois 2 track 1 Rhythm: ijexá Ore yê yê ô! The dance represent both the movement of a flowing river and sensual femininity The divinity is looking at the mirror and taking care of her jewellery and hairs

61 Oxum

62 Oxum, Brazil

63 Oxum

64 In Nigeria she is the divinity of the river Oxum According to a legend she was offended because the male orixás’ organized reunions without women As a revenge, she make all the women barren and the all the orixas’ projects failed At the end all, she is invited to the reunions, and the things turn back to the normality

65 Rappa (Brazil): Lado B Lado A Se eles sao Exu Eu sou Yemanjá Se elem matam bicho Eu tomo banho de mar (…) Nao abro mao da mitologia negra Pra dizer: Eu nao pareco com com voce (…) Eu soh guerreiro, sou trabalhador Eh todo dia vou encarar Com Fé em Deus e na minha batalha (...) If they are Exú I’m Yemanjá If they kill a beast I swim in the sea (…) I’m not renouncing to the Black Mythology To say: I’m not like you! I’m a warrior, a worker Fighting every day With faith in God and in my battle (…) Exú = crossroads’ god Yemanjá= Sea goddess Free translation: Vesa Matteo Piludu

66 Exú (Salvador, Brazil)

67 Exu’s colors: red and black

68 Exú - Carybe Traditional trickster Is uncontrollable, unpredictable But it is possible to ask him favours Dominantly male, but also female, strongly human and emotive, full of desires It is dangerous for his human- like behaviour … but isn’t evil He is the mediator, the bridge between humans and divinities He must called before all the others divinities to avoid “confusion”

69 Exú Exu (known as Eleggua in Cuba and Legba in Haiti) is the owner of the roads and doors in this world. He is the repository of axé (life energy). The colours red and black or white and black are his and codify his contradictory nature. In particular, Exu stands at the crossroads of the human and the divine, as he is a child-like messenger between the two worlds Exú is also connected to sacrifices and offer

70 Eshú l'arôye! In general, if Exú is respected, it ”opens the doors” and it is helpful If isn’t considered, he could cause every kinds of catastrophes

71 Exú ceremony - padé The exú ceremony is called padé It consist of an offer of vegetals to Exú … and it is performed before the real ceremony, to avoid “confusion” during the ritual CD Filhos de Gandhi, track 3: “sire de exú”

72 Exú (Salvador, Brazil)

73 Vinicius de Moraes – Baden Powell Lamento de Exú The ”cry” of Exú is interpreted with a feeling similar to the blues

74 Martinho da Vila: Sincretismo religioso Singer from Rio in favor of syncretism Ê, ô, todos os povos são filhos do senhor! Deus está em todo lugar. Nas mãos que criam, nas bocas que cantam, nos corpos que dançam, nas relações amorosas, no lazer sadio, no trabalho honesto. Onde está Deus? - Em todo lugar! Olorum, Jeová, Oxalá, Alah, N`Zambi... Jesus! E o espírito Santo? É Deus! Salve sincretismo religioso! - Salve! Quem é Omulu, gente? - São Lázaro! Iansã? - Santa Bárbara! Ogum? - São Jorge! All the peoples are God’s sons God is everywhere! In the hands that create, in the mouths that song, in the bodies that dance, in the love relations, in the healthy and in the honest work Where is God? Everywhere! Olorum, Jeová, Oxalá, Alah, N`Zambi... Jesus! And the Holy Spirit? Is Jesus! Hail the syncretism! Hail! Who’s Omolú, people? Saint Lazarus! Iansã? - Saint Barbara! Ogum? – Saint George!

75 Mãe Stella of Oxossi (Salvador) against the syncretism: Iansã is not Santa Barbara “The catholic saints and images have their value. We do not want to stop having faith in Saint Barbara. Sure, an elevated spirit. But we know that Iansã is another energy, it is not St. Barbara. Religion is not something to be imposed, it depends of the consciousness of everyone. But we want respect with the Candomblé. It is a non-sense, for example, to give food to Iansa at St.Barbara's feet. It has no meaning. The food is of Iansa, it is another energy, completely different of what it is St.Barbara, do you understand?”


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