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**Thermodynamics Lecture Series**

3/31/2017 Thermodynamics Lecture Series Reference: Chap 20 Halliday & Resnick Fundamental of Physics 6th edition Assoc. Prof. Dr. J.J. Kinetic Theory of Gases – Microscopic Thermodynamics Applied Sciences Education Research Group (ASERG) Faculty of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review – Steam Power Plant**

High T Res., TH Furnace Working fluid: Water qin = qH Boiler Turbine Pump out in Condenser qout = qL qin - qout = out - in Low T Res., TL Water from river qin - qout = net,out A Schematic diagram for a Steam Power Plant Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review - Steam Power Plant**

High T Res., TH Furnace Working fluid: Water Purpose: Produce work, Wout, out qin = qH Steam Power Plant net,out qout = qL Low T Res., TL Water from river An Energy-Flow diagram for a SPP Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review - Steam Power Plant**

Thermal Efficiency for steam power plants For real engines, need to find qL and qH. Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review - Entropy Balance**

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device Heat exchanger 1 2 4 3, Hot water inlet Cold water Inlet Out Case 1 – blue border Qin Case 2 – red border Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review - Entropy Balance**

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device Qin Heat exchanger: energy balance; where Assume kemass = 0, pemass = 0 Case 1 Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review - Entropy Balance**

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device Qin Heat exchanger: energy balance; where Assume kemass = 0, pemass = 0 Case 1 Case 2 Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review - Entropy Balance**

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device Qin Heat exchanger: Entropy Balance where Case 1 Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Review - Entropy Balance**

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device Qin Heat exchanger: Entropy Balance where Case 2 Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**Introduction - Objectives**

3/31/2017 Introduction - Objectives Objectives: State terminologies and their relations among each other for ideal gases. Write the ideal gas equation in terms of the universal gas constant and in terms the Boltzmann constant. Derive and obtain the relationship between pressure and root mean square speed of molecules. Obtain the relationship of rms speed and gas temperature Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Microscopic Variables Classical Thermodynamics Properties are macroscopic measurables: P,V,T,U No inclusion of atomic behaviour Did not discuss about the origin of P,T or explain V. T = 30 C P = kPa H2O: Sat. liquid Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Microscopic Variables-Molecular Approach High density Kinetic Theory of Gases Pressure exerted by gas related to molecules colliding with walls T and U related to kinetic energies of molecules V filled by gas relate to freedom of motion of molecules. Must look at same number of molecules when measure size of samples Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Microscopic Variables-Molecular Approach High density Kinetic Theory of Gases: Sizes Mole: the number of atoms contained in 12 g sample of carbon-12 Avogadro’s number: NA =6.02 x 1023 atoms/mol Number of moles is N is the ratio of number of molecules with respect to NA Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Microscopic Variables-Molecular Approach Kinetic Theory of Gases: Sizes Number of moles is N is the ratio of sample mass to the molar mass, M (kg/kmol) or molecular mass m (kg/atoms) High density Where the molar mass is related to the molecular mass by Avogadro number Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

High density Low density Molecules far apart Ideal Gases Low density (mass in 1 m3) gases. Molecules are further apart Real gases satisfying condition Pgas << Pcrit; Tgas >> Tcrit , have low density and can be treated as ideal gases Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

High density Low density Molecules far apart Ideal Gases Equation of State - P--T behaviour P=RT (energy contained by 1 kg mass) where is the specific volume in m3/kg, R is gas constant, kJ/kgK, T is absolute temp in Kelvin. Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Ideal Gases Low density High density Equation of State - P--T behaviour P=RT , since = V/Msam then, P(V/ Msam)=RT. So, PV=MsamRT, in kPam3=kJ. Total energy of a system. Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Ideal Gases Low density High density Equation of State - P--T behaviour PV =MsamRT =NMRT=N(MR)T But Ru=MR. Hence, can also write PV = NRuT where N is no of kilomoles, kmol, M is molar mass in kg/kmole , R is a gas constant and Ru is universal gas constant; Ru=MR= kJ/kmolK Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Ideal Gases Low density High density Equation of State - P--T behaviour PV =NRuT =NkNAT=(n/NA)(kNA)T. Hence, can also write PV = nkT where N is no of kilomoles, kmol, n is no of molecules, k is Boltzmann constant; Ru = kJ/kmolK = kNA k = Ru / NA = 1.38 x J/K Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed y m L z x Normal To wall How is the pressure P that an ideal gas of N moles confined to a cubical box of volume V and held at temperature T, related to the speeds of the molecules?? Before collision Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed y Ms L z x Normal To wall After collision Assume elastic collision, then after collide with right wall, only x component of velocity will change. Then momentum change is: Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed y m L z x So momentum change received by the wall is: Normal To wall The time to hit the right wall again is After collision Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed y m L z x So average rate of momentum transfer received by the wall due to 1 molecule is: Normal To wall After collision Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed The total force along x is the sum due to collision by all N molecules with different speeds. The pressure on the wall is the force exerted for each unit area and is then: Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed The total force along x is the sum due to collision by all n molecules with different speeds. The pressure on the wall is then: But there are n velocities representing n molecules and so we can represent the different speeds by an average speed. Note also that N = n/NA. So, n =NNA. Then the pressure on the wall is: Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed But there are N velocities representing N molecules and so we can represent the different speeds by and average speed. Note also that N = n/NA. So, n =NNA. Then the pressure on the wall is: But mNA is the molar mass, M of the gas mass of 1 mol and L3 is the volume of the box. So, Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed Then the pressure is: But mNA is the molar mass, M of the gas mass of 1 mol and L3 is the volume of the box. So, In the 3D box each molecule has speed along x,y and z direction. Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed Since there are many molecules in the box each moving with different velocities and in random directions, the average square of velocity components are equal. Then, Hence Finally, Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed The square root of the average of the square of the velocity is called root-mean-square speed of the molecules. It means square each speed, find the mean, then take its square root. So, Hence, the pressure is: Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed The square root of the average of the square of the velocity is called root-mean-square speed of the molecules. It means square each speed, find the mean, then take its square root. So, The rms speed can be determined If P,T is known. Using PV=NRuT Hence, the pressure is: Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed Since the square of the root mean square of the velocity is: The root mean square is then: Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Pressure, Temperature and Root Mean Square Speed Gas (Values taken at T=300K) Molar mass, M (10-3 kg/kmol) rms, (m/s) Hydrogen (H2) 2.02 1920 Helium (He) 4.0 1370 Water vapor (H2O) 18.0 645 Nitrogen (N2) 28.0 517 Oxygen(O2) 32.0 483 Carbon dioxide (CO2) 44.0 412 Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 64.1 342 Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

Temperature-Translational kinetic Energy Consider a molecule in the box which are colliding with other molecules and changes speed after collision. It moves with translational kinetic energy at any instant But the average translational kinetic energy is over a period of time is: Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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**New Way of Looking at Gases**

3/31/2017 New Way of Looking at Gases Temperature-Translational kinetic Energy Substitute the rms speed in terms of T, then: Note that the molar mass M=mNA. Note also that Ru = kNA. Hence the average translational kinetic energy is: Regardless of mass , all ideal gas molecules at temperature T have the same avg. translational KE. Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005 Copyrights DR JJ, ASERG, FSG, UiTM Shah Alam, 2005

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