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Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Chapter 7: Conditioning and Learning

2 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Learning: Some Key Terms Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience –Does NOT include temporary changes due to disease, injury, maturation, injury, or drugs, since these do NOT qualify as learning Reinforcement: Any event that increases the probability that a response will recur

3 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Learning: Some More Key Terms Response: Any identifiable behavior –Internal: Faster heartbeat –Observable: Eating, scratching

4 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Learning: Two More Key Terms Antecedents: Events that precede a response Consequences: Effects that follow a response

5 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist who initially was studying digestion Used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder Also known as Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning Reflex: Automatic, nonlearned response

6 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.3

7 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Table 7.1

8 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Basics of Classical Conditioning

9 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Principles of Classical Conditioning Acquisition: Training period when a response is strengthened Higher Order Conditioning: A conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning Expectancy: Anticipation concerning future events or relationships

10 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 More Classical Conditioning Terms Extinction: Weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement Spontaneous Recovery: Reappearance of a learned response following apparent extinction

11 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.4

12 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.5

13 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 More Principles of Classical Conditioning Stimulus Generalization: A tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus (e.g., responding to a buzzer or a hammer banging when the conditioning stimulus was a bell) Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli (e.g., Anya will respond differently to various bells: alarms, school, timer)

14 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Features and Phases of Classical Conditioning

15 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.6

16 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning in Humans Phobia: Intense, unrealistic, irrational fear of a specific situation or object (e.g., arachnophobia, fear of spiders) Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): Learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus

17 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning in Human (cont.) Desensitization: Exposing phobic people gradually to feared stimuli while they stay calm and relaxed Vicarious Classical Conditioning: Learning to respond emotionally to a stimulus by observing anothers emotional reactions

18 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.7

19 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning) Learning based on the consequences of responding; we associate responses with their consequences Law of Effect (Thorndike): The probability of a response is altered by the effect it has; responses that lead to desired effects are repeated; those that lead to undesired effects are not

20 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 More Operant Conditioning Terms Operant Reinforcer: Any event that follows a response and increases its likelihood of recurring Conditioning Chamber (Skinner Box): Apparatus designed to study operant conditioning in animals Response-Contingent Reinforcement: Reinforcement given only when a particular response occurs

21 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Rat in a Skinner Box

22 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.8

23 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.9

24 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Timing of Reinforcement Operant reinforcement most effective when given immediately after a correct response Effectiveness of reinforcement is inversely related to time elapsed after correct response occurs Response Chain: A linked series of actions that leads to reinforcement

25 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Timing of Reinforcement (cont.) Superstitious Behavior: Behavior that is repeated to produce reinforcement, even though it is not necessary Shaping: Molding responses gradually in a step-by-step fashion to a desired pattern Successive Approximations: Ever-closer matches

26 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Operant Extinction Definition: When learned responses that are NOT reinforced gradually fade away Negative Attention Seeking: Using misbehavior to gain attention

27 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.10

28 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.12

29 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 More Operant Conditioning Terms Positive Reinforcement: When a response is followed by a reward or other positive event Negative Reinforcement: When a response is followed by the removal of an unpleasant event (e.g., the bells in Fannies car stop when she puts the seatbelt on); ends discomfort

30 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Punishment Any event that follows a response and decreases the likelihood of it recurring (e.g., a spanking) Response Cost: Reinforcer or positive thing is removed (e.g., losing Xbox privileges)

31 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.1

32 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Types of Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer: Nonlearned and natural; satisfies physiological needs (e.g., food, water, sex) Intracranial Stimulation (ICS): Natural primary reinforcer; involves direct electrical activation of brains pleasure centers Secondary Reinforcer: Learned reinforcer (e.g., money, grades, approval, praise)

33 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 More Reinforcer Types Token Reinforcer: Tangible secondary reinforcer (e.g., money, gold stars, poker chips) Social Reinforcer: Provided by other people (e.g., learned desires for attention and approval)

34 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.14

35 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.16

36 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Feedback and Knowledge of Results Information about the effect a response had Knowledge of Results (KR): Increased feedback; informational

37 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Programmed Instruction Information is presented in small amounts, gives immediate practice, and provides continuous feedback Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): Learning is aided by computer-presented information and exercises Educational Simulations: Explore imaginary situations or microworld that simulates real- world problems (e.g., The Sims computer simulation)

38 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.17

39 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.18

40 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Partial Reinforcement Reinforcers do NOT follow every response Schedules of Reinforcement: Plans for determining which responses will be reinforced Continuous Reinforcement: A reinforcer follows every correct response Partial Reinforcement Effect: Responses acquired with partial reinforcement are very resistant to extinction

41 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR): A set number of correct responses must be made to obtain a reinforcer Variable Ratio Schedule (VR): Varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer

42 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement (cont.) Fixed Interval Schedule (FI): The first correct response made after a certain amount of time has elapsed is reinforced Variable Interval Schedule (VI): Reinforcement is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time

43 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.11

44 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.19

45 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Stimulus Control Stimuli that consistently precede a rewarded response tend to influence when and where the response will occur Operant Stimulus Generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcement

46 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Watson & Rayners Research with Little Albert

47 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Stimulus Control (cont.) Operant Stimulus Discrimination: Occurs when one learns to differentiate between antecedent stimuli that signal either a reward or a nonreward Discriminative Stimuli: Stimuli that precede reinforced and nonreinforced responses

48 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Punishment Punisher: Any consequence that reduces the frequency of a target behavior Keys: Timing, consistency, and intensity Severe Punishment: Intense punishment, capable of suppressing a response for a long period Mild Punishment: Weak punishment; usually slows responses temporarily

49 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Punishment Concepts Aversive Stimulus: Stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable (e.g., a shock) Escape Learning: Learning to make a response to end an aversive stimulus Avoidance Learning: Learning to make a response to avoid, postpone, or prevent discomfort (e.g., not going to a doctor or dentist) Punishment may also increase aggression

50 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.22

51 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Cognitive Learning Higher-level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipating Latent Learning: Occurs without obvious reinforcement and is not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided Rote Learning: Takes place mechanically, through repetition and memorization, or by learning a set of rules Discovery Learning: Based on insight and understanding

52 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.23

53 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.24

54 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Modeling or Observational Learning (Albert Bandura) Occurs by watching and imitating actions of another person or by noting consequences of a persons actions –Occurs before direct practice is allowed Model: Someone who serves as an example

55 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Steps to Successful Modeling Pay attention to model and remember what was done Reproduce modeled behavior If a model is successful or his/her behavior is rewarded, behavior more likely to recur Once response is tried, normal reinforcement determines whether it will be repeated Bandura created modeling theory with classic Bo-Bo Doll (inflatable clown) experiments

56 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Figure 7.26

57 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Self-Managed Behavior Premack Principle: Any high frequency response used to reinforce a low frequency response (e.g., no Halo 2 or GTA until you finish your homework) Self-Recording: Self-management based on keeping records of response frequencies

58 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 How to Break Bad Habits Alternate Responses: Try to get the same reinforcement with a new response Extinction: Try to discover what is reinforcing an unwanted response and remove, avoid, or delay the reinforcement Response Chains: Break up the chain of events that leads to an undesired response Cues and Antecedents: Try to avoid, narrow down, or remove stimuli that elicit the bad habit

59 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 7 Behavioral Contracting Behavioral Contract: Formal agreement stating behaviors to be changed and consequences that apply; written contract State a specific problem behavior you wish to control or a goal you wish to achieve State the rewards you will get, privileges you will forfeit, or punishments you will get Type the contract, sign it, and get a person you trust to sign it


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