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What do you already know? What do you want to learn? SEEC Ecuador 2010 Presentation by: Mary D. Curtis Brittany L. Heller iwith.org.

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Presentation on theme: "What do you already know? What do you want to learn? SEEC Ecuador 2010 Presentation by: Mary D. Curtis Brittany L. Heller iwith.org."— Presentation transcript:

1 What do you already know? What do you want to learn? SEEC Ecuador 2010 Presentation by: Mary D. Curtis Brittany L. Heller iwith.org

2 Continental Drift – theory, first advanced by Alfred Wegener, that Earth's continents were originally one land mass. Pieces of the land mass split off and migrated to form the continents. Plate Tectonics – theory that the Earth's crust and upper mantle (the lithosphere) is broken into a number of more or less rigid, but constantly moving, segments or plates. Plate boundary – The place where two or more plates in the Earth's crust meet. Lithosphere – the rigid, brittle layer made up of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. It is broken up into pieces called tectonic plates. Plates – large pieces of the lithosphere that slowly move on top of the mantle. There are seven primary plates and many smaller ones. Convection – transfer of heat by movement of a fluid. Example: (Convection currents in the mantle occur because hot rock in the lower part of the mantle is less dense and rises, and cooler rock in the upper part of the mantle cools, becomes more dense, and sinks. Mantle convection is thought to be the mechanism driving the movement of tectonic plates.)

3 Divergent Plate Boundaries – where plates are moving apart and new crust is being created. Also called Spreading Center, Rift Valley, Sea-floor spreading, Mid-oceanic Ridge. Convergent Plate Boundaries – where plates are moving together Transform Plate Boundaries – where plates slide past one another. Example: San Andreas Fault Subduction – the process by which one tectonic plate sinks below another, returning to the mantle where the rock is re-melted. Subduction takes place at convergent plate boundaries Hot spots – isolated, roughly circular plumes of melted rock (magma) that rise from deep in the mantle (Mantle Plume) to the earth's surface Volcano – a vent (opening) in the Earth’s surface through which magma erupts Composite volcano – a steep-sided volcano built by lava flows and deposits Magma – melted rock below the Earth’s surface Lava – term used for magma once it has erupted onto the Earth's surface Shield Volcano – a broad volcano with repeated non-explosive eruptions of basalt that forms a low dome or shield Archipelago – a group of islands

4 Lithosphere = The crust and part of the upper mantle – The crust is broken into small parts called plates – Plates move due to the movement of the magma in the upper mantle – Magma moves due to convection (heating & cooling of magma)

5 Continental Drift Theory (Alfred Wegener): - Continents once formed supercontinent, Pangaea, that later broke apart. - Look at the map and see how continents “fit.” geology.rutgers.edu

6 Plate Tectonics: - Crust is broken into many small and large plates - Plates “float” on top of magma in upper mantle - Magma moves due to convection - Plates move toward, away, and next to one another - Plate movement causes: - Mountains and valleys to form - Natural hazards like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, landslides, lahars, etc.

7 Oceanic plates - denser rock composition located below the ocean water Continental plates – lighter rock composition located below the continents Three types of Plate Boundaries Divergent Convergent Transform (also called Transverse)

8 Transform Divergent Convergent

9 Divergent Boundaries Boundary between two plates that are moving apart or rifting A valley forms with some active volcanoes along center – On land: Rift Valley – In the Ocean: Seafloor spreading, Mid-Oceanic Ridges

10 Convergent Boundaries Boundaries between two plates that are colliding (coming together) There are 2 types: – Type 1: Oceanic plate to Continental plate (subduction) – Type 2: Same plates move towards each other (collide) divediscover.whoi.edu geologytimes.com

11 Convergent 1: Subduction Zone Oceanic plate colliding with a less dense continental plate Oceanic plate moves beneath the continental plate; it melts into mantle. Volcanoes (mountains), trenches, earthquakes occur at subduction zones. (Ex. Andes Mts.) livescience.com

12 Convergent 2: Colliding Plates (Same Composition) A continental (or oceanic) plate colliding with another continental (or oceanic) plate Have Collision Zones: a place where folded mountains form. - Earthquakes, landslides Convergence3.gif atmos.washington.edu

13 Transform Fault Boundaries Plates slide past each other causing a rubbing motion. Motion causes earthquakes inkycircus.com sanandreas.jpg geomaps.wr.usgs.gov

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15 Continental Drift – theory, first advanced by Alfred Wegener, that Earth's continents were originally one land mass. Pieces of the land mass split off and migrated to form the continents. Plate Tectonics – theory that the Earth's crust and upper mantle (the lithosphere) is broken into a number of more or less rigid, but constantly moving, segments or plates. Plate boundary – The place where two or more plates in the Earth's crust meet. Lithosphere – the rigid, brittle layer made up of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. It is broken up into pieces called tectonic plates. Plates – large pieces of the lithosphere that slowly move on top of the mantle. There are seven primary plates and many smaller ones. Convection – transfer of heat by movement of a fluid. Example: (Convection currents in the mantle occur because hot rock in the lower part of the mantle is less dense and rises, and cooler rock in the upper part of the mantle cools, becomes more dense, and sinks. Mantle convection is thought to be the mechanism driving the movement of tectonic plates.)

16 Divergent Plate Boundaries – where plates are moving apart and new crust is being created. Also called Spreading Center, Rift Valley, Sea-floor spreading, Mid-oceanic Ridge. Convergent Plate Boundaries – where plates are moving together Transform Plate Boundaries – where plates slide past one another. Example: San Andreas Fault Subduction – the process by which one tectonic plate sinks below another, returning to the mantle where the rock is re-melted. Subduction takes place at convergent plate boundaries Hot spots – isolated, roughly circular plumes of melted rock (magma) that rise from deep in the mantle (Mantle Plume) to the earth's surface Volcano – a vent (opening) in the Earth’s surface through which magma erupts Composite volcano – a steep-sided volcano built by lava flows and deposits Magma – melted rock below the Earth’s surface Lava – term used for magma once it has erupted onto the Earth's surface Shield Volcano – a broad volcano with repeated non-explosive eruptions of basalt that forms a low dome or shield Archipelago – a group of islands

17 Ecuador: Land of Tectonic Activity Fact: Nine large plates and a number of smaller plates on Earth Key Terms: Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent, Transform Fact: Nine large plates and a number of smaller plates on Earth Key Terms: Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent, Transform What do you already know?

18 geol.umd.edu Nazca Plate is moving away from the Cocos Plate in a South, southwest direction (Divergent Plate Boundary). A small area of the Nazca Plate (northwest of the Galapagos) is rubbing along the Cocos Plate (Transform Plate Boundary). Nazca Plate moving toward and under the South American Plate (Convergent Plate Boundary).

19 oceanexplorer.noaa.gov The Galapagos Islands are formed by a Hot Spot. A Hot Spot is an area on a plate where magma wells up in what is called a Mantle Plume. When the magma reaches the surface in the ocean, islands are formed. facility.unavco.org Ecuador experiences a divergent (spreading zone) and transform plate boundary near the Galapagos Islands. Transform Hot Spot

20 tulane.edu cotf.edu Create a series of islands. Move with the plate movement. Islands directly over the mantle plume have active volcanoes (Shield Volcanoes). Islands erode over time and may become sea mounts. Shield Volcanoes - relatively low, broad volcanoes with repeated non-explosive eruptions of basalt that form a low dome or shield-like shape.

21 The Northern Galápagos is made up of Wolf, Darwin, Pinta, Marchena, and Genovesa islands. These islands may have formed from the hotspot “leaking” northward. The Central Galápagos comprises three main islands, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz and Floreana and is where most of the population of the Galápagos lives. The Western Galápagos are made up of Isabela and Fernandina. These are the youngest islands in the archipelago with the most active volcanoes. bizz-101.com The Galápagos is a group of volcanic islands (archipelago); each of the 13 major islands is made up of at least one volcano. The Galápagos Islands have three different geographic and geologic regions: Northern, Central, and Western. Northern Western Central

22 fuvirese.org pugsjones.wikispaces.com Geologic Formations: Mountain Ranges/ Volcanic Arc Volcanoes Ocean Trenches Valleys A subduction zone is a convergent plate boundary Subduction- the process by which one tectonic plate sinks below another, returning to the mantle.

23 geology.com peer.berkeley.edu Andes Mountains Formed on top of a subduction zone. (Here, the Nazca Plate is descending under the South American Plate.) As the Nazca Plate melts, pressure and friction occur resulting in the formation of stratovolcanoes. Stratovolcanoes Mantle Ecuador Natural Hazards: Earthquakes Volcanoes Lahars/mudslides Tsunamis

24 whirley.wordpress.com 30 Volcanoes (most are active) Stratovolcano (most dangerous) Active volcanoes are near population centers Recent eruption: Tungurahua (2010)

25 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ec.html geol.umd.edu oceanexplorer.noaa.gov divediscover.whoi.edu peer.berkeley.edu geology.com tulane.edu


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