Presentation on theme: "Regional distribution of ethnicities"— Presentation transcript:
1Regional distribution of ethnicities Chapter 7: Ethnicity: Where are ethnicities distributed?
2Ethnicity in the U.S. Latinos: 14% of the U.S. population African Americans: 12% of the U.S. populationAsian American: 4%American Indian: 1%
3Regional Concentrations African Americans are clustered in the Southeast.Hispanics in the Southwest.Asian Americans in the West.American Indians in the Southwest and Plains.
4African Americans Alabama Georgia Louisiana Maryland South Carolina 25% or Greater are African AmericanLess than 1% are African AmericanAlabamaGeorgiaLouisianaMarylandSouth CarolinaMississippiMaineNew HampshireVermontIdahoMontanaNorth DakotaSouth DakotaUtahWyoming
6Hispanic v. Latino/Latina A 1995 census study showed:58% of Americans of Latin descent prefer the term Hispanic12% prefer the term Latino/Latina64% come from Mexico10% from Puerto Rico4% from CubaClustered from the following states:California: 30%Texas: 20%Florida: 15%New York: 15%
12Distribution within cities Where are ethnicities distributed?
13African AmericansAfrican Americans are highly clustered within cities.¼ of all Americans live in cities, while over ½ of African Americans are city dwellers.At the state level it becomes even more concentrated.Michigan is 7% African American while Detroit is 85% A.A.
15Hispanic Population Distribution In states with the largest distribution (CA and TX) many urban areas are more than ½ Hispanic.
16ClusteringAbout 90% of Hispanic and African American ethnicities live in metro areas compared with 75% of the rest of the population.Discussion Question:What effect does this have on desegregation?How has this concentration affected education and the school systems, specifically the Brown v. Board of Education decision?
17Historical Impact of Ethnic Clusters in Metro Areas This clustering has been happening in cities since the early part of the 20th century.Cities like Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, etc attracted immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe to factory jobs.This led to the expansion of ethnic neighborhoods: Greektown, Little Italy, Poletown.Most of these immigrants moved out of the cities after a generation or so. Their ethnic identity is rooted more in religion, food, etc and not location.These neighborhoods were then filled with ethnicities that are most commonly found in urban areas today.
19DistributionDistribution of ehtnicities is explained in the same way as other cultural factors: migrations.These factors shape the distribution of African Americans in the U.S.:Forced migration from Africa to U.S.South to North after the Civil WarMovement from ghettos to urban neighborhoods after the civil rights movement to the present.
20Forced Migration: Slave Trade Between 1710 and 1810 an estimated 10 million slaves were shipped to the western hemisphere.This included but was not limited to the U.S.Most British slaves went to the Caribbean and Portuguese went to Brazil.Many Africans living on the west coast would use their tools and weapons to capture people living further inland and sell them to the Europeans.At the height of the slave trade Europeans used the triangular slave trade.
21Forced Migration: Slave Trade Leave Europe with materials to buy slaves.Transport slaves and gold from Africa to the Caribbean.Carry sugar and molasses back to Europe.
22Slave ShipsApproximately ¼ of salves died on the trip due to the terrible conditions.Most were packed in so tightly that the number of dead wasn’t known until they reached their destination.They were kept in chains and barely fed.Stronger and younger villagers were often seized first due to their high value.
23Movement NorthAfter the Civil War and the end of slavery many African Americans moved North.East: Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston.Central: Detroit, ClevelandWest: St. Louis, ChicagoSouthwest: California, Los Angles
25North American Ghetto Movement African Americans who moved to cities ended up in the same neighborhoods as blacks who were already there.These neighborhoods became known as ghettos after the term for Jewish neighborhoods in the Middle Ages.In 1950 most of Baltimore’s AA lived in a 1 square mile area NW of downtown.This map shows the expansion of AA neighborhoods.
26Ethnicity & RaceEthnicities display different cultural traditions that originate at particular hearths.Asian is a race recognized by the census, Asian American is an ethnicity.African American and black are different groups. Not all blacks are of African descent.African American infers a cultural background while black simply refers to skin color.Hispanic is not considered a race according to the U.S. census.
27Race Traits that characterize race are genetic. Lactose Intolerance Affects:95% of Asian Americans65% of African Americans65% of Native Americans50% of Hispanics15% of European AmericansMost Europeans have a genetic mutation that continues to produce lactase, enabling them to digest lactose for their whole lives.
28Usefulness of “Race” as a term At best: biological features very so widely as to be almost unscientificAt worst: it is a basis for racism and the belief that one race has superior biological characteristics.
29Separate But Equal in the U.S. Plessy v. FergusonBrown v. Board of EducationJim Crow laws
30South Africa: Apartheid While the U.S. was ending segregation laws South Africa was creating laws.The legal system in S.A. was called apartheid or physical separation of geographic areas.
31Classfications Under aparthied a newborn was 1 of 4 races. BlackWhiteColored (mixed white and black)AsianUnder these classifications it was determined where you could live, work, go to school, etc.This system was created by the settlers from Holland who settled in Cape Town in These people became known as Afrikaans, the name of their language.
33Afrikaans ResistanceWhile colonies lost power in African in the 20th century the Afrikaans vowed not to turn the government of South Africa over to the blacks.Apartheid laws were to created to force blacks out of powerful positions and allow whites to thrive economically and politically.This government created “homelands” for blacks where they were expected to move and live, removing the black population from the rest of society.
36ChangesDespite the multiple revolutionaries in South Africa, including Nelson Mandela, apartheid wasn’t repealed untilMandela, who was jailed for 27 years for being a member of the African National Congress and advocating black takeover of the government, was elected President of South Africa in 1994.While apartheid is over, the effects of the segregation have been longer lasting:Economic disparityAvg. income is about 10 times lower than white S.A.