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Colonization: Who, What, When, Where, and Why

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Presentation on theme: "Colonization: Who, What, When, Where, and Why"— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonization: Who, What, When, Where, and Why

2 Reasons for Colonization
Economic Reasons - $$$$$ High unemployment in England caused by landowners forcing small farmers off the land in order to raise wool-producing sheep Manufacturing interests in England wanted markets for their goods Manufacturers wanted a source for raw materials Political Reasons Search for a new passage to India in order to compete with Spain and Portugal Promise of gold to increase England’s wealth Acquisition of territory to add to empire Buffer against Spanish colonies in America Social Reasons Freedom from religious persecution and the ability to spread their religion Protection of culture Provide opportunities for unhappy or unemployed English people

3 Answer the following Question…
Which of the following is a reason for the establishment of English Colonies in America? A. Source of raw materials B. Freedom from religious persecution C. High unemployment in England D. Acquisition of territory to add to empire E. All of the above

4 1st attempt to colonize…
In 1587, 117 colonists arrived in North America. They settled on Roanoke Island. This was the second English attempt to colonize Roanoke. By 1590, Roanoke Island was once more abandoned. All traces of the English settlers had vanished, except for the mysterious word CRO, carved into a tree trunk. What do you think happened to the colonist? Consider the following information… It had a poor climate It was swampy, humid, and insect infested It offered little protection from the surrounding Indians The native population was resentful of the settler’s demands for food and labor The settlers were basically ignored by the British government while they were fighting Spain in Europe

5 Reflection Write a one paragraph (3-5 sentences) response to explain what you think happened at the lost colony of Roanoke.

6 New England Colonies Connecticut New Hampshire Massachusetts
Rhode Island

7 New England Colonies Who founded the colonies and why…
Massachusetts: Freedom of Religion Boston had a major port for trade Pilgrims 1620 Plymouth Mayflower Compact set forth ideas of self government in the colonies saw the Compact as a way to bind themselves to agreed upon laws. Was written on board the Mayflower before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth and established a permanent settlement. Became a basis for ideas in the US Constitution written in 1787. Puritans Emigrated to escape religious persecution Established the Massachusetts Bay Colony for a settlement involved in a more “purified” church. Also founded New Hampshire and Connecticut

8 New England Colonies Who founded the colonies and why…
Rhode Island: Freedom of Religion Roger Williams Anne Hutchison Believed that God spoke directly to her and not through the bible as everyone else believed Caused her and her followers to be banished Both were trying to find a more accepting place to live The government was separate from church leadership Connecticut Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Extended voting rights to non-church members Limited the power of the governor in charge Expanded the idea of representative government

9 New England Colonies Geography and Climate Long, cold winters
Rocky soil, not good for farming. Positioned on the North Atlantic Coast Many forests and rivers

10 New England Colonies Based on their geography and climate as well as the location of the New England colonies; what resources do you think they might have used to make a living? How did the New England colonists make money to survive?

11 New England Colonies Economy (how they made their money)
Used the ocean as a source of food and commerce (trade, economics) Fishing, Whaling, Timber, Shipping, and Trade. Traded furs Subsistence farming: small farms where people grew just enough to feed themselves and their families… they did not sell their goods.

12 Middle Colonies New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware

13 Middle Colonies Who founded the colonies and why…
New York: Founded to make money Had a major port for trade New Jersey: Founded to make money Pennsylvania: Founded for religious freedom William Penn THE QUAKERS Gave religious freedom to ALL Christians Contributed to future reform movements in the US Philadelphia had a major port for trade Delaware: Founded for political freedom from the people living in Pennsylvania.

14 Middle Colonies Geography and Climate Very flat, fertile land
Mild winters

15 Middle Colonies Based on their geography and climate as well as the location of the Middle Colonies; what resources do you think they might have used to make a living? How did the middle colonists make money to survive?

16 Middle Colonies Economy (how they made their money)
“Breadbasket Colonies” Farmed wheat and other food products to feed the colonies. Produced wheat, grain, iron, and dairy

17 Religious Groups in the New England and Middle Colonies
Pilgrims: Separatists (wanted to break away from the Church of England) group that wanted to settle as “a distinct body by themselves”. Created the Mayflower Compact Puritans: Wanted to “purify” the Church of England. They left to move to the new world in hopes of finding a better life during the 1630’s and 1640’s (this was called The Great Migration) The church controlled every aspect of life: town meetings, elected representatives, made laws Quakers: Believed that all people should live in peace and harmony. Wrote a constitution and established a legislature.

18 Answer the following question
What is the difference between Puritans, Pilgrims, and Quakers?

19 Southern Colonies Virginia Maryland North and South Carolina Georgia

20 Southern Colonies Who founded the colonies and why…
Maryland: Founded for religious freedom Lord Baltimore The Catholics Maryland Toleration Acts A law granting religious freedom in hopes of attracting more settlers. Virginia: Founded for economic reasons (to MAKE MONEY) John Smith Jamestown 1607 Virginia House of Burgesses The first elected law-making body in the colonies. Provided local control over some issues so colonists didn’t have to wait for Britain to decide the outcome of all things. Expanded the idea of representative government

21 John Smith Most early settlers in Jamestown had NO idea how to create a settlement. They mostly looked for gold instead of trying to build a sustainable place to live and learning how to farm to feed themselves. Almost all the settlers died the first year and more had to come replace them. Smith saved the colony of Jamestown from certain death by instituting new rules such as everyone helping out and “if you don’t work, you don’t eat” Worked to develop trade relationships with the Powhatan Indians which gave the colonists food.

22 Southern Colonies Who founded the colonies and why…
North and South Carolina: Founded for economic reasons to make money Georgia: Founded as a refuge for debtors and as a buffer between the Spanish and English colonies. James Oglethorp

23 Southern Colonies Geography and Climate Fertile soil
Very long growing seasons This area was very warm and sunny

24 Southern Colonies Based on their geography and climate as well as the location of the Southern Colonies; what resources do you think they might have used to make a living? How did the southern colonists make money to survive?

25 Southern Colonies Economy (how they made their money)
Plantation agriculture such as cotton, rice, tobacco, indigo, and sugar cane. Southern crops took many nutrients out of the soil that were hard to replace. Farms needed to be much larger to profitable This helped develop the plantation system caused people to be much more spread out across the Southern colonies than in the Middle and New England colonies.

26 Southern Colonies and the growth of Slavery
Why did slavery grow in the south? Labor intensive crops Cotton is REALLY hard to pick and clean and takes lots of people a long time to have enough to make money. Not as many indentured servants were coming over from Europe because land was starting to run short. Without these people to work the land, owners needed a stable workforce to continue to make money

27 The Plantation System As the Southern Colonies grew and slavery increased many small land owners with just one or two slaves couldn’t make enough money to survive. These small farmers usually sold their land and moved elsewhere, leaving large pieces of land for the farmers who had the money to buy lots of slaves. This helped create the plantation system where owners of plantations were very rich and had many slaves and were often in charge of the colonies in which they lived.

28 The Colonists and Trade
Colonies traded in 3 ways Within the colonies (to each other) By directly exchanging goods back and forth with Europe. Various triangular trade routes.

29 Triangular Trade A trading route with 3 stops.
The colonists would send rum and iron to Africa where it would be traded for slaves and gold. The slaves would then be transported to the West Indies where they were traded for molasses and sugar. Slaves were then sold at auction or transported to the colonies to be sold there. These slaves were mostly used on plantations in the South. The molasses and sugar was then taken back to New England where it would be turned into rum and the pattern would start over again. New England made HUGE profits from this trade and this also made the slave trade big business.

30 Triangular Trade Now lets look at the route in action, then put it into practice in the room. 1st: Interactive Map: Triangular Trade Routes 2nd: Now lets put it into practice!

31 The Backcountry Area to the West of the colonies
Settled by many different nationalities of people. The Appalachian Mountains restricted more people from moving further West.

32 How the colonists affected our future economic system…
Many colonists came looking for economic opportunity (money) which helped the future US grow into a system of free enterprise. Colonists’ human nature: rugged, determined, individuals which also helped the future US develop as a free enterprise system because they didn’t want the government telling them how to run their lives.

33 Check for Understanding
What are the similarities and differences in physical and human characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies?

34 Mercantilism Britain's policy to control Colonial trade (all trade done by the colonies and any trade going through the colonies). The reason they did this was to make money! Britain used the natural resources found in the colonies to make manufactured goods. Britain then sold those goods back to the colonies and charged them a much higher price than the colonies made from selling the resources.

35 Mercantilism in Action
Draw the following chart on your paper so that you understand the flow of the mercantilist policy of Britain: Colonies Mother Country (Britain) Raw Materials Manufactured Goods

36 Representative Government
A government where people are involved in the decision making & law making for themselves and the people in their community. Democracy/Republicanism Britain helped the colonies work towards this type of government by staying out of their business for many years. This became known as salutatory neglect. This ‘neglect’ helped the colonies learn how to deal with their own problems & issues instead of waiting for Britain to fix things for them

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