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What is HCI and where does GUI design fit in?

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Presentation on theme: "What is HCI and where does GUI design fit in?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is HCI and where does GUI design fit in?
Lecture 1 CSE3030

2 Outcomes of the lecture
Be able to describe the field of HCI Be able to argue whether or not specific subjects should fall within the field Understand how the design of graphical interfaces fit within the broader field of HCI

3 HCI defined Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them This is a ‘working definition’ From the ACM SIGCHI (Association of Computing Machinery, Special Interest Group for Human-Computer Interaction)

4 What is and isn’t HCI? On the H side? On the C side?

5 Three Mile Island

6 The Control Panel

7 Palm Beach Ballot


9 Beyond intuition Human-machine system designers cannot just rely on intuition – too many complex factors are operating. Instead, need to look to: High level theories/models/principles Middle level principles Specific & practical guidelines Intuition – that looks good or right to me is not an adequate design criteria High level theories – human factors Middle level - specific computer interface Low level – guidelines for types of computer applications - eg style guides for a particular look and feel, widget-level guidelines

10 HCI principles General design principles involve being aware of, and catering to, human abilities, skills and differences (human factors). These apply to design of any human-machine system e.g. cars, playgrounds, lifts, phones, computers. Designing human-computer interaction is a particular area of human factors design with specific principles and guidelines. Designing user interfaces is specific area of HCI and concerns general principles & low level concerns. High level theories – human factors Middle level – specific computer interface Low level – guidelines for types of computer applications - eg style guides for a particular look and feel, widget-level guidelines

11 HCI: Three basic principles
People want ease of use – usually provided by simplicity and transfer of existing experience. The user view is different to the system engineers view. Often engineers design systems to perform a set of functions rather than with the user in mind. Computers and people are both better at some tasks than others – however they are better at different tasks. E.g. we see a word spelt jomp our brain says its probably meant be jump but a computer is totally literal. See sh p. 84.

12 Human factors Invention of machines (cars, airplanes, electronic devices ...) taxed people’s sensorimotor abilities to control them. Even after high degree of training, frequent errors (often fatal) occurred. Result: human factors became critically important.

13 Human factors However, designers still often consider cost and appearance over human factors design. People tend to blame themselves when errors occur: “I was never very good with machines” “I knew I should have read the manual!” “Look at what I did! Do I feel stupid!” Bad design not always visible, but sometimes it is very obvious!

14 Human factors How many of you can program or use all aspects of your:
digital watch? Fax machines? VCR? stereo system (especially car stereos) unfamiliar water taps? “ need to understand the underlying physics ..(or code) of everything …simply the relationship between the controls and the outcomes” - Donald Norman – “The design of everyday things” Technology is getting more complicated. Different taps.

15 Related Fields Computer science Psychology Sociology and anthropology
application design and engineering of human interfaces Psychology the application of theories of cognitive processes and the empirical analysis of user behavior Sociology and anthropology interactions between technology, work, and organization Industrial design interactive products

16 Design process Important to consider the What, Why and How of design process for an application before you even begin to think about the interface, coding, etc. User needs and usability goals must be addressed at the beginning of the design process. Designers can make incorrect assumptions about the requirements. Designers are really often not in tune with the users needs - even their basic requirements and situations

17 WAP mobile phone example
People want to be kept informed of up-to-date news wherever they are - reasonable People want to interact with information on the move - reasonable People are happy using a very small display and using an extremely restricted interface - unreasonable People will be happy doing things on a cell phone that they normally do on their PCs (e.g. surf the web, read , shop, bet, play video games) - reasonable only for a very select bunch of users See Was WAP a solution looking for a problem? Worst aspect - time taken to get info and generally paying by time used.

18 User needs & usability 63% of large software projects go over cost
Managers gave four usability-related reasons users requested changes overlooked tasks users did not understand their own requirements insufficient user-developer communication and understanding (Greenberg, 2001)

19 Human factors Norman – “Design of everyday things”
Most failures of human-machine system are due to poor designs that don’t recognize peoples’ capabilities and fallibility's This leads to apparent machine misuse and “human error” Good design always accounts for human capabilities.

20 Darn these hooves. I hit the wrong switch again
Darn these hooves! I hit the wrong switch again! Who designs these instrument panels, raccoons?

21 Human characteristics
Designer must take into account variations in human senses and motor abilities: Vision – e.g. depth, contrast, colour blindness, and motion sensitivity. Hearing - e.g. audio cues must be distinct. Touch: e.g. keyboard and touchscreen sensitivity. Motor control/ hand-eye coordination e.g use of pointing devices. Physical strength, coordination. Not yet for taste and smell!

22 Cognitive and perceptual abilities
There are many aspects to human cognitive abilities. For example: short-term memory long-term memory and learning problem solving, decision making attention and set (scope of concern) perception & recognition

23 from Science magazine In 1988, the Soviet Union’s Phobos 1 satellite was lost on its way to Mars, when it went into a tumble from which it never recovered. “not long after the launch, a ground controller omitted a single letter in a series of digital commands sent to the spacecraft. And by malignant bad luck, that omission caused the code to be mistranslated in such a way as to trigger the [ROM] test sequence [that was intended to be used only during checkout of the spacecraft on the ground]” Failure of attention, memory, in controller OR failure in design process???

24 Factors affecting cognitive, perceptual & motor performance
Arousal, vigilance, fatigue Cognitive (mental) load Boredom, isolation, sensory deprivation Anxiety and fear Illness, ageing Drugs and alcohol Circadian rhythms, sleep deprivation Was that controller tired, overexcited, trying to do /remember too many things at once, very anxious, unwell, old, drunk, hadn’t slept for two days…

25 Personality factors There is no single taxonomy for identifying user personality types. Designers must be aware that populations are subdivided and that these subdivisions have various responses to different stimuli. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) extroversion versus introversion sensing versus intuition perceptive versus judging feeling versus thinking Why does this matter? For example: sensing types – good at routine and precision whereas intuitive types like change and challenge but are often imprecise…

26 Awareness of cultural and international diversity
Characters, numerals, special characters, grammar, spelling L-to-r vs r-to-l vs vertical input & reading Date and time formats Numeric and currency formats Telephone numbers and addresses Names and titles (Mr., Ms., Mme.) Social-security, national id & passport numbers Etiquette, policies, tone, formality, metaphors See Preece etc slides for examples

27 Which are universal and which are culturally-specific?
Learned arbitrary conventions - like red triangles for warning Buddhists – white is mourning, west is used in weddings for celebration 4 is unlucky in Chinese, 13 in west…

28 Users with disabilities
Need to plan early to accommodate users with disabilities as costs may be very high later Some countries have laws which specify requirements to comply with equal opportunity legislation See list of guidelines

29 Current Computing Systems
Human factors and HCI design impact on all of the large variety of current and emerging computer systems. However, the impact of various human factors and design decisions depends on the nature of the system.

30 System types: Critical systems
Examples: air traffic control, nuclear reactors: High costs, reliability and effectiveness are expected. Lengthy training periods are acceptable to provide error-free performance. Subject satisfaction is less an issue due to well motivated users. Retention via frequent use and practice. Designing this type of system will require quite different approach and specific evaluation criteria

31 Systems types: Commercial/industrial
Examples: banking, production control, banking, insurance, order entry, inventory management, reservation, billing, and point-of-sales systems: Lower cost may sacrifice reliability. Training is expensive, learning must be easy. Speed and error rates are relative to cost, however speed is the supreme concern. Subject satisfaction is fairly important to limit operator burnout. Often have to train lots of people, and may have large staff turnover also. Eg system to support directory assistance found that .8 secs reduction in call time meant 40 million per annum savings

32 System types: Office/home/entertainment
Examples: Word processing, electronic mail, computer conferencing, and video games, education: Choosing functionality is difficult because the population has a wide range of both novice and expert users. Competition causes the need for low cost. Subject satisfaction is very important.

33 System types: ??? Examples: Artist toolkits, statistical packages, and scientific modelling systems Benchmarks are hard to describe due to the wide array of tasks With these applications, the computer should "vanish" so that the user can be absorbed in their task domain. Difficult to design and evaluate….

34 System engineering versus interface design
System engineering evaluated by: Coverage of task functionality. Reliability, security, integrity of system and data. Standardization, consistency and portability. Time and budget considerations.

35 User interface evaluation
Depends largely on human factors criteria: 1. Learning time 2. Performance speed 3. Error rates of users 4. Retention over time 5. Subjective satisfaction How long does it take for typical members of the community to learn relevant task? How long does it take to perform relevant benchmarks How many and what kinds of errors are commonly made during typical applications? Frequency of use and ease of learning help make for better user retention Allow for user feedback via interviews, free-form comments and satisfaction scales.

36 HCI is concerned with… Humans and machines jointly performing tasks
The structure of communication between human and machine Human capabilities to use and learn to use machines Algorithms and programming of the interface Engineering concerns that arise in designing and building interfaces The process of specifying, designing, and implementing interfaces Design trade-offs

37 5 Areas of HCI The nature of human-computer interaction
Use and context of computers Human characteristics Computer system and interface architecture Development processes


39 Nature of Human-Computer Interaction
Overviews of, and theoretical frameworks for, topics in human-computer communication

40 N1 The Nature of Human-Computer Interaction
Points of view HCI as communication agent paradigm, tool paradigm Human / system / tasks division Objectives or goals productivity, user empowerment History and intellectual roots HCI as an academic topic journals, literature relation to other fields science vs. engineering vs. design aspects

41 Use and Context of Computers
Applications of computers Applications and appropriate interfaces The general social, work, and business context In addition to technical requirements, an interface may have to satisfy quality-of-work-life goals of a labor union meet legal constraints on "look and feel“ position the image of a company in a certain market General problems of fitting computers, uses, and context of use together

42 U1 Social Organization and Work
The human as an interacting social being The nature of work Human and technical systems mutually adapt to each other and must be considered as a whole Models of human activity, groups, organizations Models of work, workflow, cooperative activity Organizations as adaptive open systems Impact of computer systems on work and vice versa Computer systems for group tasks, case studies Quality of work life and job satisfaction

43 U2 Application Areas Characterization of application areas
Document-oriented interfaces Communications-oriented interfaces Design environments: programming environments, CAD/CAM On-line tutorial and help systems Multimedia information kiosks Continuous control systems: (process control systems, simulators, cockpits, video games) Embedded systems (Copier controls, elevator controls, consumer electronics and home appliances)

44 U3 Human-Machine Fit and Adaptation
Design addresses ‘fit’ between the object and its use Adjustments can be made (1) at design time or at time of use (2) by changing the system or the user (3) by the users or by the system. Adaptive systems Theories of system adoption Customizing and tailoring Compatible users and systems User adaptation: learning, training User guidance: help, documentation, error-handling

45 Human Characteristics
human information-processing characteristics how human action is structured the nature of human communication human physical and physiological requirements

46 H1 Human Information Processing
The human as a processor of information. Models of cognitive architecture Phenomena and theories of memory perception motor skills attention and vigilance problem solving learning and skill acquisition motivation Users' conceptual models Models of human action Human diversity, including disabled populations

47 H2 Language, Communication and Interaction
Language as a communication and interface medium Aspects of language: syntax, semantics, pragmatics Formal models of language Conversational interaction turn-taking, repair Special languages graphical interaction, query, command, production systems, editors Interaction reuse history lists

48 H3 Ergonomics Human anthropometry and workspace design
Arrangement of displays and controls Human cognitive and sensory limits Sensory and perceptual effects of display technologies Control design Fatigue and health issues Furniture and lighting design Temperature and environmental noise issues Design for stressful or hazardous environments Design for the disabled

49 Computer System and Interface Architecture
Machines have specialized components for interacting with humans Transducers for moving information physically between human and machine Have to do with the control structure and representation of parts of the interaction

50 C1 Input and Output Devices
Technical construction of devices Input devices Mechanics and performance Devices for the disabled Handwriting and gestures, virtual keyboard Speech input Eye tracking, EEG, other biological signals Output devices Sound and speech output 3D displays, motion (e.g., flight simulators) Device weight, portability, bandwidth, sensory mode

51 C2 Dialogue Techniques Techniques for interacting with humans
Dialogue Interaction Techniques Dialogue type and techniques Navigation, orientation, error management Agents and AI techniques Multi-person dialogues Dialogue Issues Real-time response Manual control theory Supervisory control, automatic systems, embedded systems Standards "Look and feel," intellectual property protection

52 C3 Dialogue Genre Conceptual uses for the technical means
Concepts arise in any media discipline (film, graphic design) Interaction metaphors Content metaphors Persona, personality, point of view Workspace models Transition management Techniques from other media (film, theater, graphic design) Style and aesthetics

53 C4 Computer Graphics Concepts from computer graphics that are useful for HCI Geometry in 2- and 3-D space, linear transformations Graphics primitives and attributes Solid modeling, splines, surface modeling, hidden surface removal, animation, rendering algorithms, lighting models Colour representation, colour maps, colour ranges of devices

54 C5 Dialogue Architecture
Software architectures and standards Layers and windows Screen imaging models (e.g. postscript) Window manager models, analysis of major window systems Models for specifying dialogues Multi-user interface architectures Standardization and interoperability

55 Development Process Both design and engineering
The methodology and practice of interface design The relationship of interface development to the engineering of the rest of the system

56 D1 Design Approaches The process of design
Alternative system development processes Choice of method under time/resource constraint Task analysis techniques Design specification techniques Design analysis techniques Graphic design basics Industrial design basics Design case studies and analyses of design

57 D2 Implementation Techniques and Tools
Tactics and tools for implementation. Relationships among design, evaluation, and implementation Independence and reusability, application independence, device independence Prototyping techniques Dialogue toolkits Object-oriented methods Data representation and algorithms

58 D3 Evaluation Techniques
Philosophy and methods for evaluations Productivity Measures Time Errors Learnability Design for guessing Preference Testing techniques, link testing to specifications Formative and summative evaluation Methods from psychology and sociology Ethics

59 D4 Example Systems and Case Studies
Classic designs that serve as examples of HCI Command-oriented Graphics-oriented Frame-based User-defined


61 Where does GUI fit in? U3 human-machine fit and adaptation
H1 human information processing H2 language, communication and interaction C1 input and output devices C2 dialog techniques C3 dialogue genre C4 computer graphics C5 dialogue architecture D1 design approaches D3 evaluation techniques

62 References ACM Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI). ACM SIGCHI is an international, interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of ideas about the field of human-computer interaction. Norman, D. A. (1998). The Design of Everyday Things. New York, New York, USA: Basic Books. Shneiderman, B., & Plaisant, C. (2005). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (Fourth ed.). USA: Pearson Education, Inc. Stone, D., Jarrett, C., Woodroffe, M., & Minocha, S. (2005). User Interface Design and Evaluation. San Francisco, California, USA: Elsevier.

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