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What is chemical digestion? Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino.

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Presentation on theme: "What is chemical digestion? Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is chemical digestion? Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino acids. Proteins and amino acids are different substances. Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino acids. Proteins and amino acids are different substances.

3 Where does chemical digestion occur and name the enzyme found in each location Mouth- salivary amylase Stomach - pepsin Small intestine- amylase, lipase, protease Mouth- salivary amylase Stomach - pepsin Small intestine- amylase, lipase, protease

4 What is mechanical digestion? Food is broken into smaller pieces by teeth or churning Big protein molecules broken down into smaller protein molecules Big fat molecules broken down into smaller fat molecules Food is broken into smaller pieces by teeth or churning Big protein molecules broken down into smaller protein molecules Big fat molecules broken down into smaller fat molecules

5 Where does mechanical digestion take place? Mouth stomach Mouth stomach

6 What types of organisms do cell respiration? All Living things- grass, trees, birds, dogs, cats, gorillas, monkeys, bugs, etc etc.

7 Give an example of a catalyst Any enzyme! Catalysts are things that speed up reactions Any enzyme! Catalysts are things that speed up reactions

8 In this sentence what does catalyze mean? How do enzymes catalyze reactions? Speed up

9 What is the equation for a catalyzed reaction? Enzyme + substrate --> enzyme + product *** the substrate is what is broken down into product (example: H202 broken into H20 and O2 Enzyme + substrate --> enzyme + product *** the substrate is what is broken down into product (example: H202 broken into H20 and O2

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11 Can enzymes ever be used up? NO. Enzymes are never used up and are not changed from reactions.

12 How many substrates can an enzyme work on? ONE! Enzymes are specific, they only attach to one substrate. Just like a key only goes with one lock.

13 What had a faster reaction- raw or cooked liver? Why? Raw liver. Liver has enzymes in it. Cooked liver means the liver was in heat. Heat causes enzymes to denature which means they lose their shape. Enzymes must have an exact shape (like a key) to work

14 What conditions have an impact on how well enzymes work? pH (acidity and basic) and temperature. Enzymes like to be in a certain range. If enzymes are in environments that are too hot, too cold, too acidic or too basic they wont work as well and might not work at all

15 In the lab, what items had catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) in them? Catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) is an enzyme. All enzymes are found in living things. So they would be found in: raw liver and cooked liver

16 Hydrogen peroxide is made by reactions in our body and is dangerous to our cells. It must be broken down by the enzyme hydrogen peroxidase

17 /Enzyme/catalase.htm /Enzyme/catalase.htm

18 What order does food travel through the digestive tract beginning with the mouth? Mouth then esophagus then stomach then small intestine then large intestine then rectum then anus

19 What are the 3 major groups of nutrients? Carbohydrates, lipids (fat), protein

20 Where are the salivary glands located? Mouth

21 This connects mouth to stomach Esophagus

22 This is the place where most absorption and digestion takes place Small intestine

23 This is under the stomach and makes enzymes pancreas

24 The first place where carbs are broken down chemically by enzymes Mouth

25 This is where peristalsis occurs Esophagus

26 This is where wastes are produced Large intestine

27 Here you can find villi Small intestine

28 This produces bile liver

29 Where are carbs broken down by salivary amylase? Mouth

30 Are vitamins and minerals considered nutrients? Where are they absorbed? They are not nutrients because they do not have calories They are absorbed in the large intestine They are not nutrients because they do not have calories They are absorbed in the large intestine

31 The places where no digestion occur Esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, large intestine, rectum

32 This is the place where churning occurs Stomach

33 This is where vitamins and minerals are absorbed Large intestine

34 Here you find little fingerlike projections that absorb nutrients Small intestine

35 What enzyme breaks carbs down chemically into simple sugars? Amylase

36 Last place where digestion occurs Small intestine

37 This is where wastes are stored right before they exit the body rectum

38 In this spot, nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars are small enough to pass into villi Small intestine

39 This is where reabsorption of water occurs large intestine

40 This is where any extra water is removed before it exits the body large intestine

41 This is a triple threat- proteins, lipids and carbs can be broken down chemically here Small intestine

42 Pepper, mustard, horseradish, nicotine, coffee and alcohol irritate this Stomach

43 What is the flap that covers the opening to the wind pipe (trachea) when you are swallowing food? Epiglottis

44 This structure is under the stomach and is important for making enzymes pancreas

45 Here you can only find simple sugars Mouth (because in mouth ONLY carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase)

46 Here you can find amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars Small intestine (because carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase; proteins are broken down into amino acids by protease and lipids broken down into fatty acids by lipase)

47 The place where waves of muscular contractions move food esophagus

48 This structure makes the enzymes protease, amylase and lipase Pancreas

49 This is where proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin Stomach because enzyme pepsin is made by stomach

50 The name for the mushy ball of food that leaves your mouth and goes down the esophagus bolus

51 This is the place where ONLY proteins can broken down by enzymes stomach

52 Is bile an enzyme? What does it break down? NO; it breaks down fats by mechanical digestion. It takes big lipids (fats) and turns them into smaller pieces of lipid (fat)

53 This is where carbs are broken down into simple sugars by the enzyme pancreatic amylase Small intestine

54 This structure makes 3 enzymes that it releases into the small intestine pancreas

55 The 2 places where both chemical and mechanical digestion occur Mouth and stomach

56 Proteins are broken by pepsin in this location stomach

57 How do enzymes cause reactions to go faster? They lower the energy needed for the reaction to start (enzymes lower the activation energy)

58 This is where lipids are broken down into fatty acids by the enzyme lipase Small intestine

59 Where you can find gastric juice stomach

60 This is the place where ONLY CHEMICAL digestion occurs Small intestine

61 What are the 3 biomolecules (nutrients)? Proteins, lipids, carbs

62 All digestion finishes in this location Small intestine

63 Empties bile into the small intestine Gall Bladder

64 What is the building block of carbs? (another way of asking that is…what are carbs broken down into by enzymes?) Simple sugars

65 What is enzyme specificity? 1 enzyme for every substrate

66 Breaks down proteins in the small intestine protease

67 Is H202 (hydrogen peroxide) or catalase the enzyme? catalase

68 This enzyme is found in mouth and small intestine Amylase

69 What letters do enzymes end in? -ase

70 How are photosynthesis and respiration related? They are opposites. The products of one are the reactants of the other

71 What is the building block of lipids? (another way of asking that is… what are lipids broken down into by enzymes?) Fatty acids

72 What is the building block of proteins? (another way of asking that is…what are proteins broken down into by enzymes?) Amino acids

73 Glucose is an example of which biomolecule (nutrient)? carbohydrate

74 What is being irritated if you have heartburn? Esophagus

75 Which does not change from beginning of a reaction to the end- enzyme or substrate? enzyme

76 Enzyme in the stomach pepsin

77 Fats are also called…… lipids

78 What types of living things can do photosynthesis? Organisms that have chloroplasts- autotrophs - trees, grass. Flowers, plants, etc.

79 What does aerobic mean? oxygen

80 Which 2 steps of respiration are aerobic? Krebs and Electron transport chain (because aerobic means requires oxygen)

81 Which 2 steps of respiration require oxygen? Krebs and electron transport chain

82 What are the 3 steps of respiration and how much ATP do they make? §Glycolysis makes 2 ATP 2) kreb s makes 2 and 3) electron transport chain makes 34 ATP

83 During anaerobic respiration (no oxygen present) what happens? Instead of the krebs cycle and electron transport chain, glucose is changed into lactate (lactic acid)

84 What cells do photosynthesis? Where does it happen? Plant cells. In the chloroplasts

85 What cells do respiration? Where does it take place? Animal and plant cells. All living things do respiration! Mitochondria

86 What are the parts of the plant and what is each used for

87 What are the products of respiration? Carbon dioxide, 38 ATP, water

88 What are 3 things that effects photosynthesis? Temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity

89 What is needed (the reactants) for photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide, sun energy, water

90 What goes into the mitochondria during cell respiration? Glucose and oxygen

91 Which step of respiration produces the most ATP? Electron transport chain

92 How much ATP does each step of respiration produce? 1.Glycolysis gives 2 ATP 2.Krebs cycle gives two 3.Electron transport chain gives 34 1.Glycolysis gives 2 ATP 2.Krebs cycle gives two 3.Electron transport chain gives 34

93 What happens in glycolysis? Goes in : Glucose (C-C-C-C-C-C) a 6 carbon molecule is split into 2. Each new molecule C-C-C is called pyruvate

94 What is correct order of aerobic (oxygen) respiration? Glycolysis, krebs, and electron transport chain

95 What is anaerobic respiration? No oxygen available, glycolysis keeps repeating over and over

96 ATP is produced during which steps of cell respiration? Glycolysis, krebs and electron transport

97 Which step(s) of respiration require chloroplasts? None. Chloroplasts is for photosynthesis. Respiration occurs in mitochondria


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