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What is chemical digestion?

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Presentation on theme: "What is chemical digestion?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is chemical digestion?
Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino acids. Proteins and amino acids are different substances.

2 Where does chemical digestion occur and name the enzyme found in each location
Mouth- salivary amylase Stomach - pepsin Small intestine- amylase, lipase, protease

3 What is mechanical digestion?
Food is broken into smaller pieces by teeth or churning Big protein molecules broken down into smaller protein molecules Big fat molecules broken down into smaller fat molecules

4 Where does mechanical digestion take place?
Mouth stomach

5 What types of organisms do cell respiration?
All Living things- grass, trees, birds, dogs, cats, gorillas, monkeys, bugs, etc etc.

6 Give an example of a catalyst
Any enzyme! Catalysts are things that speed up reactions

7 In this sentence what does catalyze mean
In this sentence what does catalyze mean? How do enzymes catalyze reactions? Speed up

8 What is the equation for a catalyzed reaction?
Enzyme + substrate --> enzyme + product *** the substrate is what is broken down into product (example: H202 broken into H20 and O2


10 Can enzymes ever be used up?
NO. Enzymes are never used up and are not changed from reactions.

11 How many substrates can an enzyme work on?
ONE! Enzymes are specific, they only attach to one substrate. Just like a key only goes with one lock.

12 What had a faster reaction- raw or cooked liver? Why?
Raw liver. Liver has enzymes in it. Cooked liver means the liver was in heat. Heat causes enzymes to denature which means they lose their shape. Enzymes must have an exact shape (like a key) to work

13 What conditions have an impact on how well enzymes work?
pH (acidity and basic) and temperature. Enzymes like to be in a certain range. If enzymes are in environments that are too hot, too cold, too acidic or too basic they won’t work as well and might not work at all

14 In the lab, what items had catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) in them?
Catalase (hydrogen peroxidase) is an enzyme. All enzymes are found in living things. So they would be found in: raw liver and cooked liver

15 Hydrogen peroxide is made by reactions in our body and is dangerous to our cells. It must be broken down by the enzyme hydrogen peroxidase


17 What order does food travel through the digestive tract beginning with the mouth?
Mouth then esophagus then stomach then small intestine then large intestine then rectum then anus

18 What are the 3 major groups of nutrients?
Carbohydrates, lipids (fat), protein

19 Where are the salivary glands located?

20 This connects mouth to stomach

21 This is the place where most absorption and digestion takes place
Small intestine

22 This is under the stomach and makes enzymes

23 The first place where carbs are broken down chemically by enzymes

24 This is where peristalsis occurs

25 This is where wastes are produced
Large intestine

26 Here you can find villi Small intestine

27 This produces bile liver

28 Where are carbs broken down by salivary amylase?

29 Are vitamins and minerals considered nutrients? Where are they absorbed?
They are not nutrients because they do not have calories They are absorbed in the large intestine

30 The places where no digestion occur
Esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, large intestine, rectum

31 This is the place where churning occurs

32 This is where vitamins and minerals are absorbed
Large intestine

33 Here you find little fingerlike projections that absorb nutrients
Small intestine

34 What enzyme breaks carbs down chemically into simple sugars?

35 Last place where digestion occurs
Small intestine

36 This is where wastes are stored right before they exit the body

37 In this spot, nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars are small enough to pass into villi Small intestine

38 This is where reabsorption of water occurs
large intestine

39 This is where any extra water is removed before it exits the body
large intestine

40 This is a triple threat- proteins, lipids and carbs can be broken down chemically here
Small intestine

41 Pepper, mustard, horseradish, nicotine, coffee and alcohol irritate this

42 What is the flap that covers the opening to the wind pipe (trachea) when you are swallowing food?

43 This structure is under the stomach and is important for making enzymes

44 Here you can only find simple sugars
Mouth (because in mouth ONLY carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase)

45 Here you can find amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars
Small intestine (because carbs are broken down into simple sugars by amylase; proteins are broken down into amino acids by protease and lipids broken down into fatty acids by lipase)

46 The place where waves of muscular contractions move food

47 This structure makes the enzymes protease, amylase and lipase

48 Stomach because enzyme pepsin is made by stomach
This is where proteins are broken down into amino acids by the enzyme pepsin Stomach because enzyme pepsin is made by stomach

49 The name for the mushy ball of food that leaves your mouth and goes down the esophagus

50 This is the place where ONLY proteins can broken down by enzymes

51 Is bile an enzyme? What does it break down?
NO; it breaks down fats by mechanical digestion. It takes big lipids (fats) and turns them into smaller pieces of lipid (fat)

52 This is where carbs are broken down into simple sugars by the enzyme pancreatic amylase
Small intestine

53 This structure makes 3 enzymes that it releases into the small intestine

54 The 2 places where both chemical and mechanical digestion occur
Mouth and stomach

55 Proteins are broken by pepsin in this location

56 How do enzymes cause reactions to go faster?
They lower the energy needed for the reaction to start (enzymes lower the activation energy)

57 This is where lipids are broken down into fatty acids by the enzyme lipase
Small intestine

58 Where you can find gastric juice

59 This is the place where ONLY CHEMICAL digestion occurs
Small intestine

60 What are the 3 biomolecules (nutrients)?
Proteins, lipids, carbs

61 All digestion finishes in this location
Small intestine

62 Empties bile into the small intestine
Gall Bladder

63 What is the building block of carbs
What is the building block of carbs? (another way of asking that is…what are carbs broken down into by enzymes?) Simple sugars

64 What is enzyme specificity?
1 enzyme for every substrate

65 Breaks down proteins in the small intestine

66 Is H202 (hydrogen peroxide) or catalase the enzyme?

67 This enzyme is found in mouth and small intestine

68 What letters do enzymes end in?

69 How are photosynthesis and respiration related?
They are opposites. The products of one are the reactants of the other

70 What is the building block of lipids
What is the building block of lipids? (another way of asking that is… what are lipids broken down into by enzymes?) Fatty acids

71 What is the building block of proteins
What is the building block of proteins? (another way of asking that is…what are proteins broken down into by enzymes?) Amino acids

72 Glucose is an example of which biomolecule (nutrient)?

73 What is being irritated if you have heartburn?

74 Which does not change from beginning of a reaction to the end- enzyme or substrate?

75 Enzyme in the stomach pepsin

76 Fats are also called…… lipids

77 What types of living things can do photosynthesis?
Organisms that have chloroplasts- autotrophs - trees, grass. Flowers, plants, etc.

78 What does aerobic mean? oxygen

79 Which 2 steps of respiration are aerobic?
Krebs and Electron transport chain (because aerobic means requires oxygen)

80 Which 2 steps of respiration require oxygen?
Krebs and electron transport chain

81 What are the 3 steps of respiration and how much ATP do they make?
Glycolysis makes 2 ATP 2) kreb s makes 2 and 3) electron transport chain makes 34 ATP

82 During anaerobic respiration (no oxygen present) what happens?
Instead of the krebs cycle and electron transport chain, glucose is changed into lactate (lactic acid)

83 What cells do photosynthesis? Where does it happen?
Plant cells. In the chloroplasts

84 What cells do respiration? Where does it take place?
Animal and plant cells. All living things do respiration! Mitochondria

85 What are the parts of the plant and what is each used for

86 What are the products of respiration?
Carbon dioxide, 38 ATP, water

87 What are 3 things that effects photosynthesis?
Temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity

88 What is needed (the reactants) for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide, sun energy, water

89 What goes into the mitochondria during cell respiration?
Glucose and oxygen

90 Which step of respiration produces the most ATP?
Electron transport chain

91 How much ATP does each step of respiration produce?
Glycolysis gives 2 ATP Krebs cycle gives two Electron transport chain gives 34

92 What happens in glycolysis?
Goes in : Glucose (C-C-C-C-C-C) a 6 carbon molecule is split into 2. Each new molecule C-C-C is called pyruvate

93 What is correct order of aerobic (oxygen) respiration?
Glycolysis, krebs, and electron transport chain

94 What is anaerobic respiration?
No oxygen available, glycolysis keeps repeating over and over

95 ATP is produced during which steps of cell respiration?
Glycolysis, krebs and electron transport

96 Which step(s) of respiration require chloroplasts?
None. Chloroplasts is for photosynthesis. Respiration occurs in mitochondria

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