Presentation on theme: "Unit 9 Where Is the News Leading Us. I. Teaching objectives 1. Understand the role of the news media in social life. 2. Develop an ability to criticize."— Presentation transcript:
I. Teaching objectives 1. Understand the role of the news media in social life. 2. Develop an ability to criticize the social function of the news media. 3. Learn to use argument in combination with other expository means.
Ⅱ.Language points nitrogen fixation( 固氮作用 ): The formation of nitrogenous compounds by the metabolic assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain soil bacteria.
Example: - those living symbiotically on the root nodules of various leguminous plants When these bacteria die, the fixed nitrogen is made available in the soil as plant food.
IV. Organization of the text Part I: (Para 1 - 4) Introducing the topic by referring to a question raised in a public symposium (“Why are the newspapers and the television news programs so disaster- prone?”)
IV. Organization of the text Para 1: An introduction of the public symposium and the other two speakers. Para 2: The purpose of the symposium. Para 3: The question asked by the gentleman Para 4:The answer and the reaction by the anchorman and the editor
IV. Organization of the text Part II: (Para 5 -- 10) By defining the word “news”, the author explains why “bad news” is always reported while “good news” overlooked. He goes on to point out the adverse consequence of such practice.
IV. Organization of the text Para 5: The author interprets the question raised by the gentleman and the answer given by the anchorman.
IV. Organization of the text Para 6-7 ： The author gives his definition of “news”. (“News is supposed to deal with happenings of the past 12 hours—24 hours at most.”).
IV. Organization of the text The definition helps to explain partly why “bad news”(eruptive) is mostly reported whereas “good news”(i.e. progress which comes in bits and pieces) is neglected.
IV. Organization of the text Para 8: The author criticizes the normal practice of the media by pointing out the harm done to the public mood by media’s obsession in “bad news”.
IV. Organization of the text Para 9: The author’s self-defense for the necessity of reporting both “good” and “bad” news ( “I’m not suggesting …” “Nor do I define …” “ ‘What I’m trying to get across is the notion …”)
IV. Organization of the text Para 10 The author further elaborates and strengthens his viewpoint by citing examples of what he considers positive developments of the world.
IV. Organization of the text Part III: (Para 11-13) The author argues that the media are obliged to serve as the “public philosopher”, responsible for affecting the public attitude in the right manner (obligations of the media). And this explains why progress (“good news” ) should be reported.
V. Rhetorical focus Argument in association with other expository devices Argument: a reason or a set of reasons.
Argument The aim: 1) to convince others that an action/idea is right or wrong so that they will give up their belief and accept what is said to be right. 2) to persuade others to believe in sth. so that they will act in accordance with what they are advised to do.
Argument The essay aims to argue for the premise that the responsibility of the news media is to search out and report on important events. It also aims at persuading newsmen and women to take up this responsibility.
Other Expository Means In order to make his argument reasonable, convincing and valid, the author resorts to other modes of expression and expository means, including:
Other Expository Means 1. Narration Happenings at the symposium; descriptions of the two speakers, questions raised at the symposium, etc.
Other Expository Means 2. Definition: “news”, “civilization”, “progress”, “ positive news”
Other Expository Means 3. Cause-and-effect Cause: people being over-informed about disasters while under-informed about progress; Effect: a public mood of defeatism and despair, detrimental to society; inhibiting progress
Other Expository Means 4. Exemplification: nitrogen fixation, which is not eruptive, but which will make a contribution to human life and progress.
Other Expository Means 5. Quotation: From Walter Lippmann and Bernard de Chatres to illustrate the role the media should play.
Other Expository Means 6. Analogy: between History and News to illustrate that reporting more good news can better improve ourselves
So, the present argument is well-knit and convincing, and will undoubtedly be accepted by sensible and responsible newsmen and women.
The Use of nominalization Compare A: You would not be so fat if you took more exercise. B: Taking more exercise would keep you thinner / help you to loose weight. 多锻炼锻炼你就不会这么胖了。
英镑进一步贬值必将引起货币危机。 If the pound is further devaluated, it will surely cause monetary crisis. Further devaluation of the pound will surely cause monetary crisis.
朋友及时提供住处，解除了我的忧 虑。 My friend offered accommodation immediately, and this relieved my anxiety. My friend’s immediate offer of accommodation relieved my anxiety.
到达旅馆的时候，请打我的手机通 知我 。 When you arrive at your hotel, please notify me on my mobile. On arrival at your hotel, please notify me on my mobile.
你不在期间，务必通过手机与我保 持联系。 While you are absent, be sure to keep in contact with me through the cellphone. During your absence, be sure to keep in contact with me through the cellphone.
遍地都是深深的积雪，继续前进已 不可能。 Further progress was impossible because there were deep snowdrifts all over the place. Deep snowdrifts all over the place made further progress impossible / blocked further progress.
今天我们不能在黑板上书写了，因 为没有粉笔。 We can’t write on the blackboard today because we have no chalk. There is no writing on the blackboard today because we have no chalk.
她不懂演艺界的 “ 潜规则 ” ，因此至 今一事无成。 She is ignorant of the “unwritten rules” in showbiz so she has failed to accomplish anything so far. Her failure to accomplish anything so far is due to her ignorance of the “unwritten rules” in showbiz.
他以某教授的名义给自己写推荐信被 认作是伪造。 He wrote a letter of recommendation for himself in the name of a professor, which was regarded as forgery. His writing of a letter of recommendation for himself in the name of a professor was regarded as forgery.
旁观看这位老人在网上同他在美国的 小孙女儿下国际象棋，真有意思。 It is a delight to watch while the old man plays chess on line with his little granddaughter in the United States. The old man’s playing chess on line with his little granddaughter in the United States is a delight to watch.
Teaching objectives 1. Examining the professional ethic of journalism and other professions. 2. Discussing the conflicts between professional ethic and human nature. 3. Knowing something about John F. Kennedy, his family and the assassination.
Organization of the text Part I: (Para 1): Introducing the topic A hypothesis concerning the action of the photographer who shot the picture of the death of Oswald in the assassination case of J. F. Kenney.
Organization of the text Part 2 (Para2–4): What a journalist should do when facing the dilemma in work. Para 2: Journalists’ professional ethic vs. their cold-bloodedness. (Development pattern: the thesis statement + illustrations of a photographer in India and a soundman in Nigeria.)
Organization of the text Para 3: A dilemma of journalists: to join in and take sides or to be absolutely objective. Para 4: The guidelines of the profession of journalism.
Organization of the text Part Three (Para 5 –7) Further argument: Although journalists should try hard to fulfill their duty, there should be some point where they should behave as a human being.
Organization of the text Para 5: The case of a birdman accident in which a journalist who behaved inhuman. (“But it leaves out a lot” i.e. it is more than that.)
Organization of the text Para 6: When our professional ethic is in conflict with other things, we should try to stick to it.
Organization of the text Para 7: In any profession, there may be something more important than just sticking to professional ethic.
Organization of the text Part 4 ( Para 8): The conclusion The author presents her thesis statement explicitly, i.e. what I think a news man should do.
Rhetorical focus Sliding Scale Persuasion ↑ Argumentation 1)appeal to emotion 2)aim to convince the reader & move him to some action 3)achieved by arousing in the reader emotional responses that are likely to urge his to take some action. 1)appeal to reason 2)aim to show the truth of a statement & make the reader acknowledge its correctness 3) achieved by rigid and careful reasoning
Rhetorical focus Persuasion and argumentation are used almost interchangeably and we can hardly have one without the other.
Rhetorical focus The present author not only handles her reasoning by using examples to prove that what she says (i.e. the behavior on the part of the journalists and TV people who are far from being human) is nothing but the truth, but also relies on diction and tone in the examples (staggering pictures, amazingly cold-blooded, making sorrowing Indian family bury and rebury its dead, holding up a Nigerian execution ( followed by next page)
Rhetorical focus while he adjusted his sound equipment, ) to stir the feeling of the reader who might feel outraged at those journalists and an urge for immediate action.