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**Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf Extreme Matter in the Universe**

B. Kämpfer Indian Summer School 2011 Extreme Matter in the Universe (part 3)

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**LHC at CERN: searching Higgs, SUSY, the unknown**

SM: masses of quarks & part of leptons (e.g., e-) P. Higgs 1964

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Mystery of Mass

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**LHC at CERN: investigating the quark-gluon plasma**

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**Rel. Heavy-Ion Colls.: RHIC & LHC**

hydro applies: Frankfurt HIC group

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**Thermal Model at Work chemical freeze-out densities ratios**

adjust to data Andronic et al

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**Chemical Freeze-Out Systematics**

PBM, Stachel,

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**Particles vs. Antiparticles**

post- and pre-dictions Andronic et al

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**Blast Wave Fits kinetic freeze-out chem. f.o. fit of pT spectra**

by T and v ALICE BK 1996

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**Fluid Dynamics for urHICs**

t present day standard tool: 3. kinetics (transport model) 2. hydrodynamics 1. kinetics (transport model) mid rapidity hydro: hadron gas hadronization chemical f.o. weak decays preequilibrium hydro: sQGP first contact kinetic f.o. x t free stream ? fluid free stream

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Milne Coordinates Bjorken flow: Bjorken symmetry: Gubser flow:

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**Bjorken Flow Milne cordinates Bjorken symmetry**

EoS in conformal limit: e = 3p entropy in comoving volume = conserved for every EoS w/o dissipation mystery:

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**Longitudinal Pressure Gradient**

v = th y initial conds: Bjorken flow Bozek, PRC 2009 init. non-Bjorken flow: different evolution it is hard to modify Bjorken‘s flow once it is there origin of Bjorken flow? Kajantie, Eskola, Russkanen, EPJC 1998

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Soft and Hard Probes ALICE, PLB 2011 jets

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**Hard Probes: Medium Modifications**

energy loss RHIC: disappearence of away-side jet

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**Transverse Flow soft probes central semi-central peripheral no p**

momentum space configuration space

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**hydro Cooper-Frye momentum distrib. v2(p_perp)**

STAR at RHIC Bluhm et al., PRC 2007 hydro Cooper-Frye momentum distrib. v2(p_perp)

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B. Schenke

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U.Heinz, Crete 2011

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U.Heinz, Crete 2011

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**Viscous Fluid Dynamics**

water is good fluid, honey not, oil partially

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bulk viscosity shear viscosity rel. Navier-Stokes eqs.

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**Viscosities from Calculations**

Bluhm, BK, Redlich, PRC 2011

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**A Unified Description: AdS/CFT**

2 1 Chesler, Yaffe, PRL 2011 1‘ 3 2‘ time AdS/CFT: 1. solve 5d Einstein vacuum eqs. (with symmetries) with negative cosmological constant 2. obtain 4d energy-momentum tensor from holographic renormalization (boundary theory)

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**What remains for CBM at FAIR?**

energy frontier SIS18 Bevalac AGS SPS RHIC LHC SIS100/300 intensity frontier: rare probes (charm, photons, dileptons) T = mu

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GSI FAIR 1.2 BEUR

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FAIR

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PBM, Stachel,

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physics case technical design simulations & feasibility

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**Key Issues for CBM in-depth study of onset of deconfinement**

EoS & transport coefficients medium modifications hadrons „never studied“ at SIS100/300 energies: charm: hidden & open, charm baryons (created early probe dense stage) dileptons & photons: penetrating probes (monitoring the dense stage, looking into fireball) fluctuations: higher moments sensitive to proxy of CEP correlations: size (temporal & spatial) measurements

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**Strongly Coupled Systems**

transport peak quasi-particles AdS/CFT weak coupling strong coupling

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**Summary Cosmic Confinement/Hadronization: no imprints**

nucleons as remainder due small excess (= accident?) Nucleosynthesis: sensitive test of cosmic dynamics abundancies of light elements is specific imprint Neutron Stars: quark cores seem possible (but hard to verify; need fine tuning of cold EoS) RHIC & LHC: sQGP seems w/o doubts, EoS from lattice QCD, sQGP = most perfect fluid: viscosities are small, energy scan at RHIC gives orientation (no rare probes) HADES&CBM at SIS100/300: exploration of phase diagram, rare & penetrating probes, closer link to hadron physics

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**Probing the Fireball‘s Interior**

PRL 2007 thermal radiation: Gallmeister et al. PLB 2000 Rapp-Shuryak PLB 2000

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**DLS Puzzle Solved by Bremsstrahlung?**

Nikola Tesla 1888 Barz et al Bratkovskaya, Cassing NPA 2008 C(1 AGeV) + C DLS: PRL 1997 HADES: PLB 2008 M [GeV] 1997: bremsstrahlung ... contribution was found to be small 2007: DLS puzzle... may be solved when incorporating a stronger bremsstr. contribution Aichelin et al. 2008: w/ bremsstrahlung Santini et al. 2008: w/o bremsstrahlung Schmidt et al. 2009: w/o bremsstrahlung

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**CERES Pb(158 AGeV)+Au <T> = 170 MeV cocktail thermal rad.**

DY thermal rad. cocktail t pre-equ. fireball freeze-out

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**NA60: Di-Muons LMR IMR NA60 broadening no shift NA60 0907.3935**

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**RHIC real photons cocktail confirmed by pp Quarks & Gluons PHENIX**

Drees PHENIX real photons Quarks & Gluons Hadrons cocktail confirmed by pp PHENIX PHENIX

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Dielectrons PHENIX data

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Photons PHENIX data

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**Fluid Dynamics from Gravity**

FG coordinates Bhattacharyya, Hubeny, Rangamani ... JHEP 2008 bulk near z = 0, asymp. AdS metric & black brane strong coupling regime: universal sector in long-wavelength solutions, isotropization assume as relevant d.o.f.

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**epsilon expansion: z expansion equivalent?**

iterative solutions of Einstein eqs. constitutive eqs.: extrinsic curvature on r = const from

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**The Janik Route Bjorken flow + symmetry, Milne coordinates e**

Janik, Lecture Notes Phys. 2011 Bjorken flow + symmetry, Milne coordinates e

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**Get e(tau) from AdS/CFT**

FG coordinates: 1 boundary theory: z = 0 z expansion (indices suppressed): ... iterative solution for n > 4 Einstein eqs. Skenderis et al., 2000 Definition: Kretschmann

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**requirement: K = regular (no singularities in the bulk) values of**

Large tau: requirement: K = regular (no singularities in the bulk) values of the only scale shear viscosity = Gyulassy, Danilewicz PRD 1985 numbers Small tau: Einstein eqs. constraints for A, B, C allowed init. conds. anisotropy measure Beuf et al., JHEP 2009

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**1st-order hydro stage: q = 0 F/w = 2/3**

Heller, Janik, Witaszczyk 2011 1st-order hydro stage: q = 0 F/w = 2/3

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**Comparison of with Frankfurt**

third-order rel. diss. hydro, extension of Israel-Stewart El, Xu, Greiner, PRC 2010 Denicol, Koide, Rischke, PRL 2010 shear tensor: for Bjorken flow & symm. Boltzmann m = 0 transient dynamics looks as gradient expansion

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**start from equilibrium:**

start from off-equilibrium:

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