2Do you know what’s meant by 1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person? 1st person is the person who is speaking – I2nd is the person to whom one is speaking – you3rd is the person about whom one is speaking -- he,she, itI, you, he, she, it are all singular pronouns. Each refers to one person. But we also have plural pronouns:1st person plural = I + another person = we2nd person plural = you + another person = y’all3rd person plural = he/she/it + another person = they
3These pronouns are called SUBJECT PRONOUNS: I weyou y’allhe, she, it theyWhat that means is that these pronouns are used as the SUBJECT of the sentence:I read a book. (Not *Me read a book.)You read a book. (Not *Your read a book.)He reads a book. (Not *Him reads a book.)
4singular plural1st person I we2nd person you y’all3rd person he, she, it theyPronouns are always, always, ALWAYS in this order. When you learn pronouns in any language, this is the order in which you’ll find them. When you learn the verbs that go with the pronouns, the verbs will always, always, ALWAYS be in this order.
5singular plural1st person _____ ______2nd person _____ ______3rd person _____ ______Question: How often are pronouns found in thisorder?Answer: Always, always, ALWAYS.
7Following are the Spanish subject pronouns: yo nosotrostú vosotrosél, ella ellosThey correspond to the English subject pronouns:I weyou y’allhe, she they
8Spanish has two additional pronouns: usted (Ud.) and ustedes (Uds.). “Ud.” means “you.”“Uds.” means “y’all.”“Ud.” is used with people to whom you should show respect, people who are older than you are or in a position of authority. It’s pretty safe to say that if you call the person Mr./Mrs./Ms./Miss/Dr./Prof. + last name rather than by his first name, you should use “Ud.” rather than “tú.” If you call the person by his first name, you should probably use “tú” with him.“Uds.” is used in Spain to show respect just like Ud. is. However, “vosotros,” the familiar form you use with friends (people you address by their first name), doesn’t exist in Latin America, and they use “Uds.” no matter who they’re talking to.
9In spite of the fact that “Ud In spite of the fact that “Ud.” means the same thing “tú” does (“you”), it’s treated like a third person pronoun:yo nosotrostú vosotrosél, ella, Ud. ellosWhat that means is that anything that applies to the third person (like verb endings and OBJECT pronouns) also applies to “Ud.”
10The same is true of “Uds.” Even though it means the same thing as “vosotros” (“y’all”), it goes with the 3rd person plural:yo nosotrostú vosotrosél, ella, Ud. ellos, Uds.
11One more note about subject pronouns: the -os in three of them can change to –as ifevery member of the group is female:yo nosotros, nosotrastú vosotros, vosotrasél, ella, Ud. ellos, ellas, Uds.
12SER“Ser” means “to be.” It’s the most irregular verb there is in both English and Spanish.am areare areis aresoy somoseres soises son
13I we am areyou y’all are arehe, she they is areyo nosotros soy somostú vosotros eres soisél, ella ellos es sonJust as “I” takes the verb that’s in its position (“am”), “yo” takes the verb that’s in its position (“soy”). In other words, “yo soy” is “I am,” “tú eres” is “you are,” etc.
14However, you don’t have to use the pronouns However, you don’t have to use the pronouns. Look at the Spanish forms of “ser”:soy somoseres soises sonAll of them are different. So “soy” all by itself means “I am.” “Soy alto” means “I am tall.” “Eres” all by itself means “you are.” “Soy” can never mean anything but “I am,” and “eres” can never mean anything but “you are.” You never have to use a subject pronoun in Spanish, because when you look at the verb, you know what the subject has to be.If you say “yo soy,” it doesn’t mean “I am”; it means “I am.” In other words, it emphasizes the pronoun. However, you can say “él es” or “ella es” or “Ud. es” or “ellos son” or “Uds. son” to clarify the subject. That is, “soy” can mean only “I am,” so the only time you use “yo” is if you want to emphasize it, but “es” can mean “he is,” “she is,” or “you are,” so you can use the pronoun to show whether you mean “he,” “she,” or “you.”
15In your homework, I’ll give you a subject and a blank In your homework, I’ll give you a subject and a blank. You’ll put in the correct form of “ser”:Ellos _______Juan _______ (Note: “Juan” is the same as “él.”)Elena y yo ______ (Note: “Elena y yo” is the same as “nosotros.”)Ud. ___________Tú ___________sonessomoseseres