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Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Three Faiths Summer School 2006 Ammerdown Centre Jerusalem in the Three Faiths Muslim Perspectives.

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Presentation on theme: "Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Three Faiths Summer School 2006 Ammerdown Centre Jerusalem in the Three Faiths Muslim Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Three Faiths Summer School 2006 Ammerdown Centre Jerusalem in the Three Faiths Muslim Perspectives

2 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Faith

3 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Interfaith Faith

4 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Conflict Faith Interfaith

5 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Iliya madinat bayt al-makdis Aelia, the City of the Temple Al-Bayt al Mukaddas the Holy House Al Bayt al Maqdis the House of the Sanctuary Al-Quds the Holy One Jerusalem – The Holy House Prophet Muhammad praying in front of the Kaaba in Mecca

6 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives... take then the place wheron Abraham once stood as your place of prayer... (Quran 2:125) Changing the qibla

7 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Limitless in His glory is He who transported His servant by night from the Inviolable House of Worship (al-masjid al-haram ) to the Remote House of Worship (al-masjid al-aqsa)... (Quran 17:1) The journey to the farthest mosque

8 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives - Isra Night Journey and Miraj Ascension of the Prophet Muhammad - Prophets like David, Salomon, Zacharias and John - Mary and Jesus - the Day of Resurrection Jerusalem as a holy place for Muslims

9 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Qubbat al-Sakhra - The Dome of the Rock Completed 72 AH / 691 CE on the ancient Temple platform 60 years after Jerusalem was taken by the Muslims.

10 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives The Dome of the Rock – it's mission? Commemoration of Muhammads ascension? Diverting pilgrims from Mecca to Jerusalem? Demonstration of Islam's superiority? Trying to win converts? Muslim equivalent to the Holy Sepulchre? Caliph Abd al-Malik

11 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives The Dome of the Rock – it's inscriptions There is no God but God alone, without partner. Muhammad is God's messenger. The Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, is only a messenger Blessings on Muhammad and Jesus. "Say: He is God, One, God the Everlasting, who has not begotten and has not been begotten. He is without equal."

12 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Haram Al-Sharif "the Noble Sanctuary" Qubbat al-Sakhra and Al-Aqsa Mosque

13 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Hebron – city of Abraham, Khalil al-Rahman, "the friend of the merciful (God)

14 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives "... ours is the creed of Abraham" "And they say, 'Be Jews' – or, 'Christians' – and you shall be on the right path.' Say: 'Nay but ours is the creed of Abraham, who turned away from all that is false, and was not of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God. " (Qur'an 2:135) Maqam Ibrahim, "Place of Abraham" in front of the Kaaba in Mecca

15 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives "... we make no distinction between any of them" Tree of Prophets "Say: We believe in God, and in that which has been bestowed from on high upon us, and that which has been bestowed upon Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and their descendants, and that which has been vouchsafed to Moses and Jesus, and that which has been vouchsafed to all the other prophets by their Sustainer: we make no distinction between any of them. And it is unto Him that we surrender ourselves." (Qur'an 2:135)

16 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Ahl al-Kitab "The People of the Book" "Unto every one of you have We appointed a law and way of life. And if God had so willed, He could surely have made you all one single community: but [He willed it otherwise] in order to test you by means of what He has vouchsafed unto you. Vie, then, with one another in doing good works! Unto God you all must return; and then He will make you truly understand all that on which you were wont to differ." (Qur'an 5:48)

17 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Fighting for Muslim superiority "Fight against those who - despite having been vouchsafed revelation - do not believe either in God or the Last Day, and do not consider forbidden that which God and His Apostle have forbidden, and do not follow the religion of truth till they pay the exemption tax with a willing hand, after having been humbled [in war]." (Qur'an 9:29) Arab Cavallry

18 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Muslims and Jews Sephardi Synagogue in Jerusalem 1836 Close contacts since the times of early Islam Severe confrontations during the stay of the Prophet in Medina Religious and cultural autonomy was respected "Convivenza" in Andalusia and Ottoman times Anti-semitism imported from the west Israeli-Arab conflict tends to be presented as a Jewish-Muslim conflict

19 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Jesus Christ – Isa "al-Masih The Christ Jesus, son of Mary, was but God's Apostle - [the fulfilment of] His promise which He had conveyed unto Mary - and a soul created by Him. Believe, then, in God and His apostles, and do not say, [God is] a trinity ". (Quran 4:171)

20 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Christian apologetics St John of Damascus ( 676 – 749 ) Islam not as a religion of it's own but a Jewish or Christian heresy Muslims as "the Children of Ishmael" Muslims as forerunners of apocalyptic events Muhammad as a false Prophet Critic of Muhammad's and Muslims moral compared with Christian chasity

21 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Muslims and Christians High esteem: Christian spiritual and ascetic practises Acceptance: birth of Jesus, his mission, certain teachings and miracles Refutation: trinitarian doctrines and death on the cross Irritation: refusing to accept Islam a continuation of former revelations Christian delegation in Medina at the times of the prophet

22 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Muslim apologetics Accusations against Jews and Christians: Altering the divine relevation Accusations against Christians: Propagation of errant doctrines Grievous mistakes in religious practice Opening the frontiers to polytheism and pagan practises

23 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives The Covenant of Umar Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem "This is a letter to the servant of God Umar, Commander of the Faithful, from the Christians of such-and-such a city. When you came against us, we asked you for safe-conduct for ourselves, our descendants, our property, and the people of our community, and we untertook the following obligations toward you:..." "We shall not build... new churches." "We shall not manifest our religion publicly." "We shall not seek to resemble the Muslims."

24 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Living side by side – everyday life Jerusalem 1883

25 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Festivities and rituals of faith communities Greek Orthodox Easter processionGreek Orthodox wedding in Christian Quarter

26 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Saint George St GeorgeKhidr – "the Green One" Qubbat al-Khidr on the Haram 16. century

27 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Festival of "Nabi Musa" Procession of "Nabi Musa" in front of Al-Aqsa around 1920

28 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Charity Ottoman imaret (soup kithcen) "The Turkish … are just enough not to deprive poor Christians who come there, and these later receive the same amount as the Muslims, but as they go there only rarely the director of the place is not bothered by them." (French traveller 1705)

29 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Praying side by side Tomb of Mary in Kidron Valley "Do not come to the Church of Mary … nor go into the two pillars into the church of the Mount of Olives, for they are both idols and whoever enters there in a spirit of devotion, his act shall be annulled." (Muslim tradition)

30 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Pilgrims "No day passed without foreigners" (Al Muqaddasi – 10. century) Medieval Pilgrims entering "Outremer"Russian Pilgrims entering Jerusalem 1905

31 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives The shade of the Crusades Richard Lion Heart (London)Salah al-Din (Damascus) George W. Bush (Washington) - as seen by Al-Jazeera

32 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Crusades "In the long sequence of interaction and fusion between Orient and Occident out of which our civilization has grown, the Crusades were a tragic and destructive episode" (Stepen Runciman: The Crusades. 1951)

33 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives 19. Century – conquest, colonialism and civilization Napoleon in Egypt 1798French iIllustration 1837

34 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Ottoman dilemma Ottoman coat of Arms

35 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Ottoman dilemma Ottomans recruiting soldiers in Jaffa

36 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Christians under Ottoman rule Representatives of Christian denominations in PalestineKawass of Anglican bishop

37 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Tanzimat-i Hayriye – Salutary Reforms Greek Newspaper illustration – Athens 1858 Hatt-i Humayun 1856 All Ottoman citizens equal under law

38 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Jewish immigration in Jerusalem Jewish quarters in Jerusalem 1920

39 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Jewish dilemma: integration or separation Shomerim (guards) of a Zionist settlement 1920Jewish soldiers in Ottoman army 1910

40 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives British rule British troops in Jaffa Road, Jerusalem, 1929

41 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Jerusalem in 20. century Dome of the Rock and Western Wall 1937Dome of the Rock and Western Wall today

42 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Israeli-Arab confrontation in Jerusalem

43 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Jerusalem – her future – two Muslim perspectives "Ultimately if the entire world truly strives for peace in the city of al-Quds, Muslims must retake the upper hand and regain its rule, as they alone would provide continuously the guarantee of freedom of worship and safety for the citizens of the City and they will re-implement Umar's Covenant for a third time. Only then will al-Quds be, as it is meant to be, a City of Peace." (Mohammed Abdul Hameed Al-Khateeb. Al-Quds. 1998)

44 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives Jerusalem – her future – two Muslim perspectives "The shared heritage and belief in one God summons all believers to be peace-makers. We should affirm the holiness of the Jerusalem for all three faiths and recognize the rights of all to worship in their own way. We should affirm that claims made in the name of tradition cannot exclude or nullify the claims of others." (Muhammad Hourani: A Muslim Approach to Dialogue in Jerusalem in the New Millennium. 2000)

45 Jerusalem in the Three Faiths - Muslim Perspectives... and in the end... wa Allah a'alam and God knows best Wilhelm Sabri Hoffmann German Muslim League Bonn


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