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Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock The global consequences of.

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Presentation on theme: "Kurt Schmidinger – www.futurefood.org Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock The global consequences of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock The global consequences of our nutritional habits - The consequences of the worldwide production of 65 billion farm animals per year on the environment and climate, global nutrition, animal welfare and human health – and possible alternatives!

2 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Livestock / Consumption of animal products Global consequences – the major 4: Environment (incl. climate) Human health Animal rights and animal welfare World nutrition / world hunger

3 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Environment / Climate Film: Mechanisms of the greenhouse effect – described in simple form: Film: Veggie-Day as a first political measure: Already existing in Gent (BE), Bremen (DE), Sao Paolo (BR), San Francisco (US), Washington DC (US), Kapstadt (ZA), Zagreb (HR)

4 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock World hunger / environment Meat = lengthened food chain => requires 5-15 times more areas, plants, water etc. to feed humans (Exception: Pure pasture management of ruminants, which on the other hand requires huge areas, causes much of the methane-issues, furthermore only small share of global production).

5 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock World hunger / environment Input / Output: 1 out of 7 calories converted to meat, what happens with the rest? Metabolic losses inevitable (compare humans), Bread example, livestock first of all an efficient production of excrements, meat as side product, by far biggest waste of food globally, 1/3 of world harvest (cereals+soya) converted to excrements!

6 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock « The livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. The findings of this report suggest that it should be a major policy focus when dealing with problems of land degradation, climate change and air pollution, water shortage and water pollution and loss of biodiversity. Livestocks contribution to environmental problems is on a massive scale and its potential contribution to their solution is equally large. The impact is so significant that it needs to be addressed with urgency. Major redutions in impact could be achieved at reasonable cost » Livestocks Long Shadow, FAO 2006 Environment: Climate, water, erosion, land consumption,... Land consumption, water consumption, water pollution, rainforest destruction Climate, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, air pollution

7 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock < According to the FAO, the livestock-sector is responsible for 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions – more than total worldwide traffic (aeroplanes, cars, trucks, trains,...): Methane (CH 4 ): digestion of ruminants, … Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O): fertilizer, manure, … Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ): fire clearing of rainforests etc. Environment: Climate change (1)

8 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Interdisciplinary Study NL: Worldwide Reduction (definition see paper) of consumption of animal products saves US$ (=50%) of climate stabilisation costs (Aim: GHG concentration levels 2050 same as today) - enough to build 130 million one-family houses at the cost of US$ each - new houses for whole Europe! < Environment: Climate change (2) Reasons: 1. Saving of the CO 2, N 2 O and CH 4 -emissions from livestock, 2. Vastly reduced land consumption, partly regrowing forests, bushes => huge CO 2 -sink due to regrowing forests => climate protection almost for free! Link: climate-costs.html

9 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Interdisciplinary Study NL: Worldwide Reduction (definition see paper) of consumption of animal products saves US$ (=80%) of climate stabilisation costs (Aim: GHG concentration levels 2050 same as today) - enough to build > 200 million one-family houses at the cost of US$ each - new houses for whole Europe, Russia, Australia, Canada! < Environment: Climate change (2) Reasons: 1. Saving of the CO 2, N 2 O and CH 4 -emissions from livestock, 2. Vastly reduced land consumption, partly regrowing forests, bushes => huge CO 2 -sink due to regrowing forests => climate protection almost for free! Link: climate-costs.html

10 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock

11 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Fire clearance of rainforests Pastures for cattle Feed monocultures (85% of global soy harvest as animal feed) CO 2 -emissions due to fire clearances or later: agricultural areas prevent that woods can function as CO 2 -sink (CO 2 -sponge) Environment: Rainforest destruction

12 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Environment: Excrements Enormous amounts, more than humans produce - no wonder as farm animal population > 25 billion (> 3 times number of humans) and production of 65 billion farm animals per year. Manure – water pollution worldwide

13 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? Warum kommen Studien zur Auswirkung von Tierhaltung / Fleischkonsum aufs Weltklima auf so dramatisch unterschiedliche Ergebnisse? Worldwatch 51%, FAO 18%, einige behaupten < 5%, z.B. für die USA die U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008) (U.S. EPA Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: U.S. EPA, Washington, DC. )

14 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? 1. Die Methoden (LCA, ökolog. Fußabdruck,...) –LCA blind für Flächenverbrauch, misst nur THG- Emissionen –Footprint misst alles in Flächen (gha): Flächen die wir direkt brauchen, und auch Flächen (Wald), die nötig wären/sind, um z.B. unsere THG-Emissionen wieder zu binden und aus der Atmosphäre zu bringen. Tierhaltung hier also durch zwei Faktoren: THG-Emissionen und direkte Flächen (Tierhaltung 80% der landwirtsch. Flächen weltweit) –missed carbon sink durch Flächenverbrauch im Footprint de facto drinnen, in LCAs (noch?) gar nicht

15 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? Interdisziplinäre Studie NL: Weltweiter Verzicht auf Tierhaltung spart US$ (=80%) an Klimastabilisierungskosten (Ziel: Treibhausgaskonzentration 2050 in etwa so wie heute). Das entspricht > 200 Millionen Einfamilienhäusern zu je US$!! Neue Häuser für ganz Europa, Russland, Australien, Kanada! Gründe: 1. Wegfall der CO 2, N 2 O und CH 4 -Emissionen aus Tierhaltung, 2. weitaus geringerer Flächenbedarf, z.T. Wiederbewaldung => riesige CO 2 -Senke durch nachwachsende Wälder => Klimaschutz fast zum Nulltarif! Link: climate-costs.html <

16 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? 2. Überzählige oder fehlende Faktoren in der Bilanz –Z.B. Worldwatch rechnet Atmung der Tiere mit (CO 2 entsteht), aber nicht CO 2 -Aufnahme durch die Futtermittel-Pflanzen: Beides bildet aber einen kurzlebigen Kreislauf, ein Nullsummenspiel, entweder ich zähl beides, oder lass es (als Nullsumme) gleich weg aus der Bilanz. Nur eines in die Bilanz aufzunehmen ist falsch. –Österreichs Landwirtschaft lässt gern die importierten Futtermittel aus der Bilanz raus.

17 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? 3. Landänderungen (v.a. Regenwaldbrandrodung/- abholzung) – tendenziöse Zuordnung zu Ursachen –Ziel: Fleisch kein Klimakiller: Ursache Landspekulationen o.ä., spätere Nutzung für Futtermittel oder Rinderweiden hat mit Emissionen aus Zerstörung nichts mehr zu tun –Ziel: Fleisch ist Klimakiller: Ursache natürlich Futtermittel und Weideland, auch Landspekulation wäre ohne spätere Nutzung für diese Zwecke nicht möglich. –Spielen kann man auch mit weiteren Schräubchen wie dem Zeitraum, über den man diese Emissionen den Produkten anlastet.

18 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? 4. GWP-Zeithorizonte –Global Warming Potential Methan = 72 CO 2 -Eq.Methan = 25 CO 2 -Eq. 20 Jahre 100 Jahre <

19 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? 5. Tierhaltungssysteme der Zukunft effizienter! ?? –Oft wird argumentiert, je produktiver/hochgezüchteter ein Tier, umso weniger THG-Emissionen pro Kilogramm Fleisch/Milch/Eier. –Achtung, viele andere Faktoren: Welternährung (effiziente Nutztiere sind Nahrungskonkurrenten, keine Weidetiere), Verknappung der Ackerflächen, Biodiversität, Bodenerosion, Wasserverschmutzung, Tierschutz... kein gangbarer Weg

20 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? Hauptschraube (deckt ab): Politische Absicht! Wie groß ist der Klimaeffekt der Tierhaltung weltweit wirklich? –Diskussion anhand der FAO- und Worldwatch-Zahlen und der 5 Punkte und grobe Einschätzung. –1. FAO lässt methodisch missed carbon sink aus: sehr relevant. –2. Bilanzfaktoren bei FAO weitgehend korrekt, Worldwatch-Fehler –3. Zuordnung Landänderung: FAO bemüht um Objektivität –4. Evtl. GWP 50 Jahre, FAO dann moderat zu niedrig (Methan) –5. Theoret. FAO zu hoch, aber industrielle Tierhaltung Sackgasse

21 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Tierhaltung: 51%, 18%, <5% - was stimmt ?? In vielen Bereichen Spielräume, kein richtig und falsch Aber ich schätze es auf: 20 – 30 % des globalen Klimaeffekts

22 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Planet Earth 2013

23 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock World hunger Of 7 billion humans suffer from hunger, among these are children people die from malnutrition each day. FAO-Report Crop Prospects and Food Situation 2008: 754 million tons of cereals are fed to farm animals each year (with a yield of 1:7 for calorie-conversion this is a loss of calculated 650 million tons of cereals for human nutrition) – soy, etc. not yet included Compare: Due to biofuel production (2nd biggest problem for loss of calories at croplands) we lose only 100 million tons of cereals for human nutrition

24 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock World hunger FAO-Report Crop Prospects and Food Situation 2008: 754 million tons of cereals are fed to farm animals each year (with a yield of 1:7 for calorie-conversion this is a loss of calculated 650 million tons of cereals for human nutrition). Soy, etc. not yet included. Compare: Due to biofuel production (2nd biggest problem for loss of calories at croplands) we lose only 100 million tons of cereals for human nutrition.

25 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock The biomass of all farm animals exceeds the mass of all wild vertebrates on land by a factor of 20!! Source: V. Smil The Earths Biosphere 25 billion alive at a moment 65 billion slaughtered per year World hunger / environment

26 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Food waste during the production of animal based food Animal derived foods: Food chain with 3 (plant animal human) instead of 2 elements (plant human) => inefficient > 10 plant calories for 1 calorie of beef > 5 plant calories für 1 calorie of pork > 3 plant calories für 1 calorie of poultry World hunger / environment 1/3 of world harvest (soy + cereals) converted to excrements (with an upward tendency) !!

27 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock World hunger / environment Meat = lengthened food chain => requires 5-15 times more areas, plants, water etc. to feed humans (Exception: Pure pasture management of ruminants, which on the other hand requires huge areas, causes much of the methane-issues, furthermore only small share of global production).

28 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Short food chain plant human could release enormous areas globally: Possibilities to use these: Regrowing vegetation could absorb huge amounts of CO 2 from the atmosphere (see slides earlier, interdisciplinary study NL): Massive contribution to climate stabilisation Growing of maize for renewable plastic alternatives without causing a global food crisis Photovoltaics for energy production, maybe even biofuels would make sense again... World hunger / environment

29 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Livestock and the cultivation of feed require: = almost 80% of total global agricultural land (cropland plus pastures) = 30% of total land surface of the earth = 2/3 OF ALL areas used by humans globally Source: FAO, 2006; Goodland R. et al,1999 World hunger / environment

30 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock # Fazit… 7 Milliarden Menschen essen 65 Milliarden Tiere pro Jahr über 65 Milliarden Nutztiere verbrauchen 40% der Getreide- und 85% der Sojaernte weltweit, konvertieren 1/3 der Welternte in Exkremente dafür werden 80% der landwirtschaftlichen Flächen verwendet diese Ernten und das Land könnten weit effizienter für direkte menschliche Ernährung verwendet werden Menschen in den Industrieländern sind übergewichtig und sterben an Zivilisationskrankheiten als Folge dieser Überernährung

31 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock The future?

32 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Environment Average water consumption / kg.… potatoes 500 litres wheat 900 litres soybeans litres beef litres Please interpret these numbers with caution, more details (green, blue, grey water-footprint) beyond the scope of this presentation

33 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Health: What means... vegetarian: No meat, no fish, but milk and dairy products and eggs. vegan: no animal products at all, i.e. no meat, dairy, eggs, fish,... further forms like raw food, macrobiotics, frutarism,...

34 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Maybe at least meat is healthy... ? Vegan instead of ears!

35 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Maybe at least meat is healthy... ?

36 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Health – take care of Of what should we especially take care of? Especially for vegan/vegetarian diets: Mix Proteins: Cereals (short of lysine or threonine but good source for methionine), nuts/oat flakes/cacao (much tryptophan) and legumes (rich in all but methionine) Minerals: Calcium, iron, zinc Vitamins: Take care of Vit. B12, possibly also D (especially in winter) Omega-3-fatty acids: Linseed oil (do not heat!) as a good source. Alternative: EPA- und DHA-containing algae supplement (food supplement) => Interesting values for blood-tests especially for vegans/vegetarians: Vit. B12 + D + folic acid, calcium, iron+ferritin, zinc, homocysteine, HDL:LDL- quotient

37 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock And these are especially important advantages again especially for vegan diets: De facto all worldwide pandemics of the last decades (bird flu, swine flu, EHEC, BSE,...) and of the future (...,...,...) from intensive livestock farms: Billions of animals packed together, bad housing, bad immune system,... => without livestock avoidable! Antibiotic resistance from intensive livestock farms (factory farming) would be avoidable Bacterial food poisoning (salmonellosis, E Coli, etc.) mostly a problem with animal products => avoidable You get far less of these evils: Cholesterol, arachidonic acid, purines, saturated fatty acids, also free radicals/ox.stress,... You get more of these good things: Vitamin C+E, fibres (whole meal) and phytochemiclas (fruits!, vegetables!, antioxidative effects etc.) Health – veggies celebrate!

38 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Health – factory farming Industrial livestock farms can harm humans, think of antibiotic resistance, but also this: and swine flu ? and.... ?

39 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Health – meat sicknesses (1) The (high) consumption of animal products is linked to the following sicknesses: Cardiovascular diseases (Oxford Studies, 7th Day Adventists study, studies of the ADA, Uni Gießen, Bundesgesundheitsamt Berlin, u.v.m.) Colon Cancer (American Cancer Society, Univ. Oxford, Univ. San Diego, Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg), breast cancer (Harvard Medical School), prostate cancer (PCRM, Washington DC), gastric cancers (EPIC)

40 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Health – meat sicknesses (2) Osteoporosis (!) (UC San Francisco, USDA-ARS) Multiple sclerosis (CHRU Grenoble) Gallstones Type 2 diabetes Obesity Allergies Rheumatoid Arthritis (UUH Oslo) Links to the papers For the world Healthwww.futurefood.org

41 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Ergebnisse der Nationalen Ernährungsumfrage: Zu wenig Gemüse Zu wenig Obst Zu wenig Ballaststoffe Zu wenig Flüssigkeit Zu viel Süßes / Alkohol Zu viel Fleisch Aktueller Entwurf Gesundheitsvorsorge-Plan Mehr Gemüse! Mehr Obst! Mehr Ballaststoffe! Mehr trinken! Weniger Süßes / Alkohol ?? # Gesundheit: in Belgien

42 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock

43 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Health – Veggie also for Kids,..?! Vegetarian diets with milk (and eggs) are widely accepted: They reduce many – but do not avoid all – problems caused by animal products. A deliberate vegan diet avoids all disadvantages of animal products and avoids the disadvantages of a non-deliberate vegan diet optimum For infants: ADA (the world biggest dietetic association) and others recommend a vegan diet for all stages of the life cycle, others are more sceptical. Vegan mothers have to be well nourished and should breast feed the child For small and big children: Pay attention to slide => Health – take care of !... and then make use of the benefits!

44 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Animal welfare Most mother sows in Europe, China or the US live like that … and almost all fattening pigs like this

45 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Animal welfare – factory farming life Before birth: Animals bred with extreme characteristics detrimental to the health for highest egg-, milk- or meat-production. Immediately after birth: Male laying-hen chicken gassed or killed otherwise Dairy calves separated from mothers shortly after birth Mutilations shortly after birth beak trimming, dehorning, clipping of teeth and tails castration globally mainly performed without anaesthesia

46 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Animal welfare – factory farming life Life Tiny cages (laying hens, rabbits, quails, mother sows, …) Tethered: Many dairy cows Kept densely packed: Fattening pigs, broiler chickens, turkeys, rabbits, ducks, … Often strong stench (smell) Individual : Force feeding (e.g. goose- or duck fatty liver) with 1/5 of the live weight of the ducks and geese per day. Injured animals left to die from injuries or thirst in cages or outside boxes … Broiler chicken runts die of thirst Technical failures / fire lead to mass deaths, usually no evacuation possible

47 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Animal welfare – factory farming life And the end? Transport to slaughterhouses, sometimes half way around the world, (e.g. sheep or cattle from Australia to Egypt) Slaughterhouse: Often stunning does not work, and billions are also butchered kosher/halal without intended stunning Individuals (pigs, poultry) live until they reach the tanks where they are scalded Some species are boiled alive (such as lobsters) Undercover investigations also show abuse and sadism carried out on animals Compare with golden rule of ethics: One should not treat others in ways that one would not like to be treated.

48 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Animal welfare – factory farming life Films / Documentaries Documentaries minutes: Meet your Meat (USA, but in many aspects similar conditions in Europe, too): Intensive pig farming, focus on Austria (German): Force feeding of ducks and geese (forbidden in many countries, but imported almost everywhere): 1909&language= &language=2

49 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Animal welfare – factory farming life Films / Documentaries 95 minutes documentary: Earthlings: Awarded comic (short) – The Meatrix:

50 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Animal welfare – impressions

51 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Livestock / consumption of animal products is the biggest... on earth !! land consumer water consumer water contaminator contributor to rainforest destructionfood-waster cause of billionfold suffering of animals risk factor for food poisonings risk factor for global pandemics one of the biggest or the biggest... on earth!! factor in loss of biodiversity cause for soil erosion risk factor for lifestyle diseases risk factor for antibiotic resistances is one of the biggest... on earth!! climate killers air polluter

52 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock With each meal the earth is at stake If too much meat is a big part of the problems, we should modernise our nutrition as part of the solutions

53 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock

54 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock The reasons Environment (climate) Health Animal welfare World nutrition / hunger - alternatives to animals products

55 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Human reason / ethics ???? Top-products as alternatives to animal products ?? Food shortages (climate?) / concurrency of non-food croplands (plastic alternatives made of maize, biofuels) ?? Antibiotic-resistances from intensive livestock facilities ??? Serious new pandemics from intensive livestock facilities ? What could lead to a collapse of the factory farming practices?

56 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Flavour: Taste, aroma, smell, texture, satiety feeling,... Price Marketing, target groups, advertising Health Shelf life / hygiene / logistic advantages Success criteria?

57 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Vegetarian meat: All raw materials to replace meat Non dairy milk products: All raw materials to replace dairy milk, cheese, joghurt etc. Replace egg products: All raw materials to replace egg products Alternatives to animal products

58 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock

59 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Wheat: Wheat gluten (seitan) Soy: Soya meat (TVP), tofu, tempeh, sprouted soybeans Sweet lupines Fresh mushrooms Fermented fungi, e.g. Quorn Algae Rice, peas Vegetarian meat

60 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Tofurky (Turtle Islands Foods): Oregon, USA Sausages, roasts and others, based on tofu and wheat gluten, but also tempeh. Gardein (Garden Protein Int.): British Columbia, Canada "Chicken"-wings,-filets,-breasts und-stripes, skewers and more, Based on soy protein and wheat gluten. Some top brands veget. meat

61 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Frys: South Africa Huge variety of vegetarian meat alternatives, based on soy protein and wheat protein. and many others Some top brands veget. meat

62 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Drinks (milk), yoghurts, cream, sour cream made from soy, oat, almond, rice, coco, quinoa, millet, spelt, barley, kamut. Often fortified with B2, B12, D2, calcium, A, B6, folic acid, E Ice cream from soy, rice, etc. Cheese from soy protein, pea protein, tofu, potato starch, rice starch, soy oil, other plant based fats and oils, nut butter, thickening agents, yeast, but also: tapioca- u. arrowroot flour, rapeseed oil, safflower oil, coconut oil, etc. Desserts, confectionaries, margarine... Plant based alternatives to dairy products

63 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Some top brands for dairy alternatives Alpro / Provamel Belgium, but also Germany, UK European market leader, huge variety, mostly based on soy, to a lesser extent on rice, almond or oat, Provamel is the brand for the organic product range Turtle Mountain Oregon, USA So Delicious and Purely Decadent, ice cream, frozen desserts, based on soy

64 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Some top brands for dairy alternatives Valsoia Italiy Drinks, Desserts, ice cream, confectionary based on soy, partly also rice, also vegetarian meat products (burgers, sausages cutlets, …) Daiya Canada Cheese alternatives, also cooperation with other veggie-food- producers (e.g. as pizza cheese), unique composition: tapioca- and arrowroot flour, rapeseed oil, safflower oil, coconut oil, pea protein

65 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Alternatives to egg products for the industry: About 10 companies in the US, NL, UK and others. Made of gelling and thickening agents (alginate, carrageen, guar flour, locust bean gum, xanthan gum), soy lecithin, potato protein, potato starch, full soy beans, wheat gluten, corn syrup, sometimes also dairy(!) or egg(!!) ingredients see Plant based alternatives to egg products

66 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock At home: Egg replacers by Ener-G, Orgran or others (potato-, tapioca starch, CMC, citric acid, calcium carbonate) Or simply use soy flour, baking powder, mineral water, locust bean gum, agar-agar, soaked linseeds, etc. Vegan fried egg, vegan yolk by The Vegg: Yeast flakes, alginates, sulphur salt, β-carotene Plant based alternatives to egg products

67 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Biofermenter: Peter Arras / AKT, Germany, take ruminants as model/guide food out of straw, harvest waste, etc. (all this would suddenly also be basis for human nutrition) In Vitro Meat: Real meat without animals, produced out of cells in labs. Technological basic facts: Initial cells, culture medium incl. growth factors, bioreactors, etc. see chapt.12 Futuristic approaches

68 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Some protagonists: Henk Haagsman and Bernard Roelen (NL): Work continuously, search for basic understanding Mark Post (NL): Supported by Sergey Brin, presented the first in-vitro-meat burger of the world for in August Julie Gold (Sweden), US-NGO new-harvest.org and (in earlier times more active) Stig Omholt (Norway, with 1. in-vitro-meat symposium): Networking Gabor a. Andras Forgacs (USA): Modern Meadow, 3D-printer, Thiel-Foundation Vladimir Mironov and Nick Genovese (USA): PeTA, 3-D-printer, networking, mastermind Oron Catts & Ionat Zurr (AUS): Artists from Australia Willem van Eelen (NL): Pioneer, cultured meat patent Futuristic approaches – in vitro meat

69 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Handouts: e.g. Tofushopping, Link auf die Präsentation, ## This Präsentation: Tips for canteen kitchens: Canteen kitchen project: Regional veggie-gastronomy: ## z.b. Graz Ginko, Mangolds, Rest. Arche ## Tips:

70 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock We just have this 1 world …

71 Kurt Schmidinger – Geophysicist & Food Scientist Global consequences of our nutritional habits & livestock Dr. Kurt Schmidinger Graduate in Geophysics & Doctor in Food Science Project Leader Tel. +43 / 676 /


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