Presentation on theme: "Tuul-Terelj basin of Mongolia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Tuul-Terelj basin of Mongolia N.Buyankhishig Mongolian University of Science and TechnologyG.Udvaltsetseg Institute of Geoecology, Mongolian Academy of Science
2 Basic information of Mongolia Population: millionArea: 1,566,000 sq km (610,740 sq mi) Land boundaries: 8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and withChina 4,673 kmAverage altitude: 1,580 m above sea-levelClimate: Extremely continetal climateAverage summer temperature +20'C, average winter temperature -26'C, average rainfall mm.
4 Allocation of water usage The annual usage and demand of water in Mongolia is estimated to be only 0.5 to 0.6 km3, however due to alteration in soil and flora of the river basins economic activities, and negative impacts to the water regime, source and quality have been decreasingSource of water supplyAlong with increasing water consumption due to expansion of population, production, and enterprise activities and a considerable waste in the usage of water in some regions of the country. Main problems are pollution and scarcity of water resources, harmful effect of the human activities on the environment, industrial pollution, extensive cutting of trees along the river’s catchments area, digging mines in some river basins. The waste water discharge from urban areas is one of sources of environmental pollution because waste water treatment rate is comparatively low.FIRST PICTURE -GROUND WATER USAGE 70% - SURFACE WATER USAGE 30%SECOND PICTURE – INDUSTRY 34%, - DRINKING WATER 30% - LIVESTOCK 27% - IRRRIGATED AGRICULTURE 6% - GREEN ZONE OF CITY 1%OTHERS -2%Main problems are pollution and scarcity of water resources, harmful effect of the human activities on the environment, industrial pollution,digging mines in some river basins.
5 The country’s geographic location is sitting at the major continental basins: Northern Arctic Ocean Basin (AOB)(51% of the precipitation and 20.5% of the territory)Pacific Ocean Basin (POB)(37% of the precipitation and67% of the territory)AOBPOBADBThe territory of Mongolia divided into 3 watersheds in the Central and Eastern Asia, namely:Northern Arctic Ocean Basin (AOB)Pacific Ocean Basin (POB)Central Asian Internal Drainage Basin (ADB)Central Asian Inland Basin (ADB)(12% of the precipitation and12.5% of the territory)
6 Surface Water 3811 rivers with 67000 km length 3436 lakes and oasis 9600 springs187 glaciers250 mineral watersthermal 40 (N2)cold 70 (CO2)
7 Mongolia has limited freshwater resources. In total, 599 km3 of water is available:- of which 500 km3 of water is contained in lakes(including 90 km3 in saline lakes),km3 in glaciers andkm3 of water is contained in rivers and theirunderground basins.The National Survey for Surface Water was conducted in 2003 bythe MNE the following:- River and streams are 5565: 683 are dried up, 4882 with discharge- Springs are 9600: 1484 are dried up, 8116 with discharge- lakes and oasis are 4196: 760 are dried up, 3436 with discharge.Mongolia has limited freshwater resources. In total, 599 km3 of water is available, of which 500 km3 of water is contained in lakes of Mongolia (including 90 km3 in saline lakes), 62.9 km3 in glaciers and 34.6 km3 of water is contained in rivers and their underground basins.The National Survey for Surface Water was conducted in 2003 by the Ministry of Nature and Environment. Below is summary of the survey findings:- River and streams are 5565: 683 are dried up, 4882 with discharge- Springs are 9600: 1484 are dried up, 8116 with discharge- lakes and oasis are 4196: 760 are dried up, 3436 with discharge.
8 Groundwater Southern part Northern part Mezozoic sedimentary rocks Precipitation mm/ yearYield of spring Q= l/ sWell specific yields l/ sTDS mg/lNorthern partFrom Archezoic to Cenozoic magmatic metamorphic and sedimentary rocksPrecipitation mm/ yearQ= l/s sometimes Q=100 l/ sq= l/ sTDS 200 mg/l
9 Regional hydrogeological study and a location of groundwater monitoring net
10 HydroCommonConstHydroEnergyProjectPNIIISJICAFirst groundwater model was done by Jadambaa.N in 1977.Organization of formal Soviet Union PNIIIS carried out hydrogeological investigation on new water resources for Ulaanbaatar city in 1983.Japan International Cooperation Agencey (JICA) investigated water supply system of Ulaanbaatar and its surroundings in 1995.Narangerel, ZH (1974), Jadambaa, N (1977), Banzar, E (1979), Lhan-Aasuren, G (1982), Anand, A (1983), Batsukh, N (1994) are described the in detail the hydrogeology, engineering geology, hydrogeologic characteristics, hydraulic properties, yield, water level and budgets, and water quality of the Ulaanbaatar area.In Geoecological Institute did some observation work in the area.
12 Large river basins in Mongolia The territory of Mongolia divided into eight large river basins based oneconomic and environmental significances, namely:1. Kherlen River basinLarge river basins in Mongolia7872. Great-Lakes basin3. Selenge River basin74. Onon, Ulz, andKhalkh rivers basin4238415. Northern Gobi Riversbasin56. Southern Gobi ofAltai basin6The territory of Mongolia is also divided into eight large water basins based on economic and environmental significances, namely it is:-Selenge River basin-Kherlen River basin-Great-Lakes basin-Onon, Ulz, and Khalkh river basin-Northern Gobi Rivers basin-Southern Gobi or Altai basin-Tuul River basin-Khubsugul Lake basinThe Water Authority of Mongolia is performing regulations based on these water basins by the River Basin Committees on water resources and management, which is initiated by the Ministry of Nature and Environment7. Khubsugul Lake basin8. Tuul River basinLarge river basins in Mongolia
13 The total catchment area is 49840 km2. Average height is 1300m a.s.l.
14 The Tuul River originates close to Hagiin Har Nuur in Khentii Mountains and flows westerly through Ulaanbaatar. Its flow direction is generally from north-east to south-west although it changes its direction several times. The Tuul River and afterwards drains to the Selenge River, which in turn feeds onto Lake Baigal
15 The geology around the area consists mainly of Carboniferous sediments, which are intruded by Jurassic to Triassic granitoids rocks and locally covered by Cretaceous sediments and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits
16 Climate is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with a hot, dry summer and cold winter. Annual precipitation in the area varies from mm to mm, depending on the altitude of the observation stations.Legend: Break line- humidity (%), Solid line-temperature (Co), Column- precipitation (mm)
17 Daily mean discharge data has collected at the Ulaanbaatar station from 1946 to 1991, with values ranging from 0 m3/s (winter time) to 627 m3/s (during flooding).Average annual discharge at Ulaanbaatar station is 26.57m3/s and average specific discharge is calculated at 4.22m3/s. The maximum daily mean discharge recorded is 338.0m3/s, but the minimum discharge recorded during the rainy season was only 6.84m3/s
18 The width of the river in the city area is m, but dry seasons falls to 5-18 m. River depth during droughts is about m, average velocity is m/sec and maximum velocity reaches 4 m/sec.The potential of the groundwater resources is estimated at cubic meters per day. The city’s current water consumption is estimated at cubic meters per day, and it is expected to approach the limit in the near future. The water consumption forecast estimates an increase to cubic meters per day by 2020.