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Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The Psychology of Service: Interacting with Customers and Clients Part I Dieter Zapf Valencia 12th March 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The Psychology of Service: Interacting with Customers and Clients Part I Dieter Zapf Valencia 12th March 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The Psychology of Service: Interacting with Customers and Clients Part I Dieter Zapf Valencia 12th March 2008

2 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 2 Content 1.What is service? 2.Emotional labour – emotion work 3.Emotional job requirements 4.Antecedents of Emotion Work and Emotional Job Requirements 5.Emotional Job Requirements and Well-being at Work

3 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 3 Increased Importance of Service Work (Source: Statistisches Bundesamt, 1999)

4 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 4 1.What is Service?

5 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 5 What is Service? A problem of a customer is solved or a need is satisfied Not production of a product, but adding something to a product or changing a product The process is in parts intangible Normally, there is no mutual obligation between the partners of the service interaction There is a social interaction between a service provider and a customer or client either face-to-face or mediated by electronic media such as telephone The interaction itself is part of service delivery. Therefore it has to satisfy certain requirements Corsten (1997); Nerdinger (1994)

6 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 6 Human Service Work The customers/clients themselves are the subject-matter of service performance This includes a direct impact on Cognitive/intellectual, emotional or Physical aspects of a person. Examples: Physicians, nurses, teachers, social workers, hairdressers Coincidence of production and consumption with regard to time and location: the uno-actu-principle The client has to co-operate to make the service successful: Co-Production

7 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 7 2. Emotional Labour Emotion Work

8 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 8

9 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 9

10 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 10

11 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 11

12 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 12 Smiling and humour is good for our well-being

13 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 13 Smiling and humour is good for our well-being However: being EXPECTED to smile all day is a different story!

14 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 14 Emotion Work / Emotional Labour Occurs in interactions with customers or clients Organisations expect that employees behave in a certain way in these interactions This implies to display certain emotions based on so-called display rules The friendly smile becomes a job requirement!

15 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 15 First study of sociologist Arlie Russel Hochschild (1983): Flight Attendants of Delta Airlines Business man: Lets have a smile. Flight attendant: Okay. Ill tell you what, first you smile and then Ill smile, okay? Business man: smiles Flight attendant: Good. Now hold that for 15 hours. walks away Emotion Work / Emotional Labour

16 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 16 Defined as the paid work which requires the regulation of ones own emotions to display an organisationally desired emotion in mimics, gestures and voice, independent of whether or not this corresponds to the inner feelings (after Hochschild, 1983) Emotion Work / Emotional Labour

17 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 17 Framework Models of Rafaeli & Sutton (1987) Morris & Feldman (1996) Grandey (2000) Emotion Work / Emotional Labour

18 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 18 Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Planning, Monitoring, Feedback Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Performance Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors)

19 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 19 Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Planning, Monitoring, Feedback Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Performance Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) Ante- cedents Con- sequences Work Process Cognitive/ Motivational/ emotional regulation Job Require- ments Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations

20 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 20 3. Emotional Job Requirements

21 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 21 Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Planning, Monitoring, Feedback Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Performance Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) Emotional Demands Requirements Behaviour Requirement Approach of Hackman (1970) Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations

22 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 22 Job Demands in the History of Work Psychology Physical Demands Cognitive Demands Emotional Demands Muscles Work, Environmental factors (noise, heat, etc.) Activation of cognitive resources; action control: goal setting, planning, execution, feedback processing Activation of emotional resources; perception, appraisal, display and control of emotions In Service Occupations:

23 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 23 Dimensions of Emotion Work - Emotional Requirements Requirement to display positive emotions Item example: Does it occur in your job that you have to express pleasant emotions towards clients? (very often – very rarely/never) Requirement to display negative emotions Item example: Does it occur in your job that you have to express unpleasant emotions towards clients? (very often – very rarely/never) Requirement to display neutrality Item example:How often do you yourself have to come across as being neutral and impartial when dealing with clients? (very often – very rarely/never) Requirement to display sympathy emotions Item example:Please mark how often you are required to display them when working with clients - sympathy (very often – very rarely/never) Requirement to be sensitive to emotions of others Item example: Is it important in your job to know, how clients feel? (very often – very rarely/never) Instrument: Frankfurt Emotion Work Scales FEWS 4.2 Zapf, Werner, Holz, Fischbach & Dormann (submitted)

24 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 24 Emotional Dissonance The requirement of the organisation to display emotions in interactions with customers, clients, students, etc. in mimics, gestures and voice which are not felt in that particular moment. The dissonance between displayed and felt emotions (Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987) Item examples How often does it occur in your job that one has to display positive emotions while feeling indifferent? How often does it occur in your job that one has to display positive emotions which do not correspond to what is felt in this situation? Instrument: Frankfurt Emotion Work Scales FEWS 4.2 Zapf, Werner, Holz, Fischbach & Dormann (submitted)

25 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 25 Emotion Work Control Autonomy with regard to display rules end emotional requirements Item examplesHow often can you decide for yourself on as to which emotions to display towards the client? ?Person A has strict instructions from the company on how to deal with his/her own feelings and those of the clients. Person B has hardly any instructions from the company on how to deal with either his/her own feelings nor those of the clients Which one of these two jobs is most similar to yours? Instrument: Frankfurt Emotion Work Scales FEWS 4.2 Zapf, Werner, Holz, Fischbach & Dormann (submitted)

26 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 26 Emotion Work in Service Branches

27 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 27 Emotion Work in Different Service Branches

28 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 28 Emotion Work in Different Service Branches

29 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 29 Emotion Work – Desired Emotions Several times/hour Several times/day Once/day Once/week seldom/never

30 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 30 4. Antecedents of Emotion Work and Emotional Job Requirements

31 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 31 Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Planning, Monitoring, Feedback Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Performance Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Social Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) Antecedents of Emotion Work Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations

32 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 32 Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Planning, Monitoring, Feedback Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Performance Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) Emotional Demands Requirements Behaviour Requirement Approach of Hackman (1970) Antecedents of Emotion Work ? Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations

33 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 33 Relation between Antecedents and Emotion Work : Cross-sectional Study Positive emotions Sympathy emotions Negative emotions Sensitivity requirement Emotional dissonance Step 1ββββ β total Time.32 **.18 **.14 **.20 **.28 ** Display rules.19 **.15 **-.07 **.11 **.08 ** Mean duration.01.14 **.16 **.17 **-.12 ** Task complex.02.23 **.28 **.15 ** F65.33 **60.24 **60.39 **80.59 **40.45 ** R2R2 15.914.9 18.910.5 Step 2 Negative quality of interaction.13 **.26 **.40 **.22 **.45 ** F27.20 **106.41**288.15 **80.62 **382.29 ** ΔR2ΔR2 1.66.114.74.519.4 R2R2 17.521.129.623.329.8 Field study: 6 service organisations; N=1391 Zapf, Werner, Holz, Fischbach & Dormann (submitted)

34 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 34 Experimental Simulation of a Call Centre Situation Experimental Group: be friendly! Control Group:be authentic!

35 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 35 The Effect of Display Rules on Emotional Dissonance: Experimental Study Experiment 2: Call centre agent in a recruitment agency for students; N=18 Fischbach & Zapf (2005) Quality of interaction Interaction time Duration Held constant Complexity

36 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 36 5. Emotional Job Requirements and Well-being at Work

37 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 37 Secondary Task Interaction- oriented Sub-Goals Requirement to express positive, negative or sympathy emotions Sensitivity Requirements Emotional Dissonance Redefinition Internal Task Redefined Goals Primary Task Cognitive Regulation Requirements E.g.Complexity Cognitive Action Regulation Goal Specification, Planning, Monitoring, Feedback Emotion regulation Automated Emotion regulation surface acting deep acting Emotional deviance Object-oriented Sub-Goals Secondary task parallel to primary task Automatisation Occupational Identity Socialisation Personality Emotional Competencies Performance Well-being Service Organisation Work Task Organisational Goals Customer Orientation Display rules External Tasks Regulation of Work Behaviour Consequences Customers Frequency, Duration, Quality of Service Interactions Regulation problems (job stressors) Emotional Demands Requirements Behaviour Requirement Approach of Hackman (1970) ? Framework Model of Service Work in Organisations

38 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 38 Burnout Burnout ( Maslach Burnout Inventory) Emotional Exhaustion the feeling of being burnt out and frustrated; working with people is perceived as very effortful Depersonalization the tendency to treat clients like objects; becoming indifferent and apathetic with regard to clients Personal Accomplishment the feeling of having energy to do things and of being able to meet ones aspirations Emotional Labour

39 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 39 Negative Effects of Emotion Work

40 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 40 Positive Effects of Emotion Requirements Affiliation needs are met Recognition, status Experience of successful interaction, feelings of self efficacy Positive reaction in return Facial feedback hypothesis: Display of positive emotions induces positive feelings

41 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 41 Relations between Emotion Work and Burnout Service Sample (Kindergarden, Hotels, Banks, Call Center, Social workers (N=1032) Italic and in parentheses: representative sample (N=405) from: Zapf & Holz (2006, EJWOP)

42 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 42 Relations between Emotion Work and Burnout Service Sample (Kindergarden, Hotels, Banks, Call Center, Social workers (N=1032) Italic and in parentheses: representative sample (N=405) from: Zapf & Holz (2006, EJWOP)

43 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 43 Why is Emotional Dissonance Interesting? Although hypothesised, emotional demands did not play a role in empirical studies in the prediction of burnout for a long time (see., e.g., Lee & Ashforth, 1996; Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998) Quantitative indicators describing interactions with customers (no. of customers, frequency of service interaction; time working with customers or clients) tended to show no correlation with burnout (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998; Zapf, 2002) Qualitative indicators such as verbal customer aggression predict burnout are strong predictors (Dormann & Zapf, 2004), but are of relevance only for a minority (<20%; i.e., many report not to be exposed to customer aggression) In contrast, emotional dissonance is a sensitive qualitative indicator to describe service interactions

44 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 44 The Status of Emotional Dissonance Is Emotional Dissonance a Stressor or a Stress Reaction? A characteristic of the situation/ environment that has an impact on the individual An individual reaction elicited by a stressor and as such a characteristic of the individual

45 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 45 The Status of Emotional Dissonance Emotional Dissonance as job requirement (Hackman, 1971) 4-dimensional model of Morris & Feldman (1996) Pugliesi (1999): self-focused emotional labour Abraham (1998): Difference scores Schaubroeck & Jones (2000): requirement to suppress negative emotional efference Zapf et al., (1999): regulation problem Emotional Dissonance as psychological/behavioural strategy Brotheridge & Lee (2003) and Brotheridge & Grandey (2002): surface acting and deep acting

46 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 46 The Status of Variables in the Stress Process SituationAppraisal Coping/ Behaviour Outcome Reappraisal How often in your job do you have to display emotions that do not agree with your true feelings? How much do you feel hampered by having to express emotions you dont feel? I feel exhausted because I have to express emotions which I dont feel How often do you express emotions which you do not feel at that moment?

47 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 47 How can the Status of Emotional Dissonance as a Job Requirement be Justified Emotion theory: Inter-individual differences stronger for regulation, but less for the experience of emotion Emotional dissonance can be induced in experiments Emotional Dissonance depends on The frequency of interactions Existence and Monitoring of display rules Autonomy with regard to display rules Quality of service interaction (conflicts, negative customer behaviour)

48 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 48 What we know so far about Emotional Dissonance and Burnout... In cross-sectional studies, emotional dissonance is associated with emotional exhaustion (around.30) and depersonalisation (around.30) (Zapf, 2002, HRMR) But there is a lack of longitudinal field studies which allow the investigation of cause and effect

49 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 49 Hypotheses: Causal and Reversed Effects According to Hochschild (1983): Causal Effects Reverse Effects: Employees under strain are less able to show the required positive emotions. Thus strain increases emotional dissonance Emotion work Requirem. Emotional Dissonance Strain Emotional Dissonance Emotion work Requirem.

50 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 50 Instruments Frankfurt Emotion Work Scales (FEWS 4.0, Zapf et al., 1999; 2005) The Requirement to Display Positive Emotions refer to the requirement to show pleasant emotions (e.g. "In your job how often does it occur that you have to display pleasant emotions towards your clients?"). The Requirement to Display Negative Emotions This scale asks for the necessity of displaying and dealing with unpleasant emotions (example item: "How often does it occur in your job that you have to display unpleasant emotions towards your clients?"). Sensitivity Requirements This scale examines whether empathy or knowledge about clients' current feelings are required by the job (e.g. "Does your job require paying attention to the feelings of your clients?"). Emotional Dissonance refers to the display of unfelt emotions and to the suppression of felt but organizationally undesired emotions (e g. "How often does it occur in your job that one has to display positive emotions which do not correspond to what is felt in this situation?)

51 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 51 Maslach Burnout Inventory MBI, German version, Büssing & Perrar, 1992 Emotional Exhaustion the feeling of being burnt out and frustrated; working with people is perceived as very effortful Depersonalization the tendency to treat clients like objects; becoming indifferent and apathetic with regard to clients Personal Accomplishment the feeling of having energy to do things and of being able to meet ones aspirations Instruments

52 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 52 Sample Municipal youth and social welfare office of one of Germanys large cities; (N=151): administrative staff, social workers (paper work) Hospital (N=54): Nurses, Physicians, administrative staff Total sample: N=205 Men age: 42 years at time 1 Women: 68%, Men: 32% Sample for LISREL analyses due to listwise deletion: N=188

53 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 53 Correlation between Emotion Work and Burnout

54 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 54 Measurement Model E Dis 1 E Exh 1 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 ED11ED12ED21ED22ED31ED32 EE11EE12EE21EE22EE31EE32

55 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 55 Effects of Positive Emotions and Emotional Dissonance on Burnout Pos E 1 E Dis 1 E Exh 1 P Acc 1 Pos E 2 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 P Acc 2 Pos E 3 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 P Acc 3 Baseline Model Time 1Time 2Time 3

56 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 56 Pos E 1 E Dis 1 E Exh 1 P Acc 1 Pos E 2 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 P Acc 2 Pos E 3 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 P Acc 3 Conceptual Model Time 1Time 2Time 3 Effects of Positive Emotions and Emotional Dissonance on Burnout

57 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 57 Pos E 1 E Dis 1 E Exh 1 P Acc 1 Pos E 2 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 P Acc 2 Pos E 3 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 P Acc 3 Time 1Time 2Time 3 Reversed Causation Model 1: Exh E Dis Effects of Positive Emotions and Emotional Dissonance on Burnout

58 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 58 Pos E 1 E Dis 1 E Exh 1 P Acc 1 Pos E 2 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 P Acc 2 Pos E 3 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 P Acc 3 Reversed Causation Model 2: All Effects Reversed Time 1Time 2Time 3 Effects of Positive Emotions and Emotional Dissonance on Burnout

59 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 59 Model Comparison Model 2 (d.f.=203) AIC AIC= 2 + 2t t: no. of estimated parameters Baseline (d.f.=212)341,60517,60 Conceptual264,05458,05 Exhaustion causes dissonance276,45470,45 All Effects reversed281,27475,27 2 (d.f.=9, p<.05) = 16,92

60 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 60 Effects of Positive Emotions and Emotional Dissonance on Burnout Pos E 1 E Dis 1 E Exh 1 P Acc 1 Pos E 2 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 P Acc 2 Pos E 3 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 P Acc 3.30.36.62 n.s. -.14 -.42.88.91.80.77.61.60.59.63.14.23 -.28.14.25 -.15. 27 Time 1Time 2Time 3 GFI =.89 ok AGFI =.84 ok NFI =.92 NNFI =.97 CFI =.98 RMSEA =.040 SRMR =.076 -.12 Zapf, Holz, Dollard & Werner (submitted) Results from a 3-wave Longitudinal Study

61 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 61 Effects of Sensitivity Requirements and Emotional Dissonance on Burnout Sens 1 E Dis 1 E Exh 1 P Acc 1 Sens 2 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 P Acc 2 Sens 3 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 P Acc 3.46.37.51 -.44.83.70.71.72.76.56.58.65.15.14 -.30.19.24 -.17. 23.17 Time 1Time 2Time 3 Zapf, Holz, Dollard & Werner (submitted) Results from a 3-wave Longitudinal Study

62 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 62 Effects of Negative Emotions and Emotional Dissonance on Burnout Neg E 1 E Dis 1 E Exh 1 P Acc 1 Neg E 2 E Dis 2 E Exh 2 P Acc 2 Neg E 3 E Dis 3 E Exh 3 P Acc 3.56 -.08 ns.56 ns -.11 -.39.80.48.71.79.63.61.64.72.07.20 -.29.23 -.17.13 Time 1Time 2Time 3.44.19.29 -.01 ns Chi2 = 241.52, df=202, p=.03 GFI =.90 ok AGFI =.86 ok NFI =.93 NNFI =.98 CFI =.98 RMSEA =.032 SRMR =.059 Zapf, Holz, Dollard & Werner (submitted) Results from a 3-wave Longitudinal Study

63 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 63 Experimental Simulation of a Call Centre Situation Experimental Group: be friendly! Control Group:be authentic!

64 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 64 Method Experimental simulation of a call centre situation Anger induction: A customer complaint in a call centre of German Railway (the customer was a confederate of the experimenters, semi-standardized dialog)

65 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 65 Method Sample: 82 women (19-55 years), mainly psychology students Experiment: Authentic behaviour Friendly behaviour Trait Anger (-)*N = 20 Trait Anger (+)*N = 21 * Median split of the State-Trait-Anger Inventory, German version (STAXI, Schwenkmezger et al., 1992)

66 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 66 Method Instruments: State-Trait Anger Inventory STAXI (German version: Schwenkmezger, Hodapp, 1993) Surface acting, deep acting, venting (adapted from Grandey, 2003) PANAS Negative Affectivity NA scale German version (Krohne et al., 1992) Heart rate Verbal fluency: observer rating (trained observers rated videos of the experiment) (Interrater agreement 83%) Memory test: participants were asked for standardised information provided by the confederate in the experiment (how much information recalled; e.g.: where did the customer want to travel? How much money was she charged?, etc.): % of correct answers

67 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Manipulation Check 2=12.71, p<.01 F (1;78)=23.56, p<.001 F (1;78)=17.81, p<.001 F (1;78)=6.42, p<.01

68 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Changes in State NA rate before and after the experiment Hypothesis 1: Emotion regulation results in a higher level of state-negative affectivity n.s.

69 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 69 The Effect of Display Rules on State Negative Affect (PANAS): Experimental Study Experiment 2: Call centre agent in a recruitment agency for students; N=18 Fischbach & Zapf (2005)

70 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 70 Psychophysiological Correlates of Anger Suppression in the Workplace (Rohrmann, Dinand, Meixner, Bechtoldt, & Zapf, submitted) p =.008 N=80

71 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 71 p =.038 N=80 Psychophysiological Correlates of Anger Suppression in the Workplace (Rohrmann, Dinand, Meixner, Bechtoldt, & Zapf, submitted)

72 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Dieter Zapf 72 Summary: Relations between Emotional Job Requirements and Well-being 1.Relations were demonstrated by - cross-sectional - longitudinal - experimental studies 2.Emotional dissonance had negative effects in all studies 3.The requirement to display positive emotions and sensitivity requirements had positive effects feeling s of accomplishment. (Mixed results for the other variables)


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