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Using the imperfect and preterite together

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1 Using the imperfect and preterite together
Grammar 1 The preterite tense The imperfect tense Using the imperfect and preterite together The imperfect continuous The perfect tense Click on arrows to move to the required section. On the last slide of each section, you will find a purple menu button in the bottom left hand corner which will return you to this slide. The pluperfect tense Commands

2 The preterite tense 1 The PRETERITE tense is used to talk about completed actions in the past. It is used: 1. in telling stories and for non descriptive events. 2. for actions that were completed in the past. (FINISHED events) 3. for actions in the past which happened only once. (SINGLE events) for actions that were repeated but finished in the past. (REPEATED events) for actions that were part of a chain of events. (CHAIN events) for actions that took place over a specific period of time. It can be used with the following expressions of time: ayer, anteayer, la semana pasada, el mes/año pasado, el otro día, hace dos días/semanas/meses, el domingo, en 1950, en Navidad… Examples: Viví cinco años en Madrid. I lived in Madrid for five years. Él cenó, vio la tele y se acostó. He had dinner, watched TV and went to bed. Ayer te llamé por teléfono. I rang you yesterday.

3 The preterite tense 2 There are two sets of regular endings to learn:
2. -ER/ -IR As with other tenses you have to: 1. take the infinitive. 2. take off the infinitive ending. 3. add the endings for the tense. -AR endings -ER / -IR endings Notice the ‘we’ ending in –AR and –IR verbs is the same as in the present tense. -aste -amos -asteis -aron -iste -ió -imos -isteis -ieron More detailed conjugations and exercises follow.

4 The preterite tense 3 Regular -AR verbs hablar = to speak / talk habl
é I spoke, I did speak. You spoke, you did speak. aste He /she/ it spoke, did speak. ó amos We spoke, we did speak. asteis You spoke, you did speak. aron They spoke, they did speak. Endings appear one by one on mouseclick.

5 The preterite tense 4 Regular -AR verbs
Choose 3 of the verbs below and write them out in full: aceptar = to accept cantar = to sing llenar = to fill amar = to love charlar = to chat llorar = to cry arreglar = to fix dibujar = to draw mirar = to look at ayudar = to help entrar = to go in saltar = to jump bajar = to go down ganar = to win viajar = to travel bailar = to dance lavar = to wash

6 The preterite tense 5

7 The preterite tense 6 Regular -ER verbs comer = to eat com í
I ate, I did eat. iste You ate, you did eat. He / she / it ate, did eat. imos We ate, we did eat. isteis You ate, you did eat. Endings appear one by one on mouseclick. ieron They ate, they did eat.

8 Practise saying or writing out these other verbs.
The preterite tense 7 Regular -ER verbs Practise saying or writing out these other verbs. beber = to drink meter = to put correr = to run vender = to sell coser = to sew

9 The preterite tense 8

10 The preterite tense 9 Regular -IR verbs ABRIR= to open
I opened, I did open. abr í iste You opened, you did open. He / she / it opened, did open. imos We opened, we did open. isteis You opened, you did open. Endings appear one by one on mouseclick. ieron They opened, they did open.

11 Practise saying or writing out these other verbs.
The preterite tense 10 Regular -IR verbs Practise saying or writing out these other verbs. Like ABRIR batir = to beat escribir = to write cubrir = to cover permitir = to allow recibir = to receive

12 The preterite tense 11

13 The preterite tense 12 Stem changing verbs
The first group of irregular verbs are only slightly irregular as they show stem changes* in the first person singular only. There are three types: 1. Verbs which end in –GAR change to GUÉ 2. Verbs which end in –CAR change to QUÉ 3. Verbs which end in –ZAR change to CÉ jugar = to play jugué I played jugaste you played jugó he/she/it played jugamos we played jugasteis you played jugaron they played explicar = to explain expliqué I explained explicaste you explained explicó he/she/it explained explicamos we explained explicasteis you explained explicaron they explained cruzar = to cross crucé I crossed cruzaste you crossed cruzó he/she/it crossed cruzamos we crossed cruzasteis you crossed cruzaron they crossed *The stem changes occur in order to preserve the sound of the infinitive.

14 The preterite tense 13 Stem changing verbs
The following verbs work in the same way. Can you write out three of them in full? apagar = to put out acercarse = to approach cazar = to hunt cargar = to load atacar = to attack empezar = to begin descargar = to unload buscar = to look for organizar = to organize entregar = to hand over secar = to dry rezar = to pray llegar = to arrive pescar = to fish utilizar = to use navegar = to sail chocar contra = to crash into pagar = to pay sacar = to take out regar= to water marcar = to score a goal, tocar= to touch dial a number

15 The preterite tense 14 Stem changing verbs
For verbs ending in -aer, -eer, -oír and -oer changes occur in the 3rd person forms (singular & plural): -ió changes to -yo; -ieron changes to -yeron. For verbs ending in -uir changes occur in the same way. Verb st person 3rd person 3rd person singular singular plural caer* = to fall caí cayó cayeron creer* = to believe creí creyó creyeron leer* = to read leí leyó leyeron oír* = to hear oí oyó oyeron roer* = to nibble roí royó royeron destruir = to destroy destruí destruyó destruyeron construir = to build construí construyó construyeron huir = to run away huí huyó huyeron *Note that verbs like creer, caer, leer, oír, poseer, proveer, roer need an accent in the second person singular – creíste, caíste, leíste, oíste, poseíste, proveíste, roíste.

16 The preterite tense 15 Stem change verbs
-ar and -er verbs that change their stem in the present tense do not change in the preterite. Present Preterite cierro cerré cierras cerraste cierra cerró cerramos cerramos cerráis cerrasteis cierran cerraron

17 The preterite tense 16 Stem change verbs
-ir verbs that change their stem in the present do change in the preterite. 1. o > u – the first change is o > u and it occurs in the third person forms (singular & plural). DORMIR dormí durmió durmieron MORIR morí murió murieron *For dormir and morir the changing stem in the present tense is o>ue (in the first, second, third person singular and third person plural). o>ue PRESENT o>u PRETERITE

18 The preterite tense 17 The second stem change group in -ir verbs.
2. e > i Changes also occur in the third person forms (singular & plural). PEDIR pedí pidió pidieron PREFERIR preferí prefirió prefirieron En el restaurante Paco pidió tortilla de jamón. Paco asked for ham omelette in the restaurant. Mis amigos pidieron una paella enorme. My friends ordered an enormous paella. *For pedir the changing stem in the present tense is e>i (in the first, second, third person singular and third person plural). For preferir the changing stem in the present tense is e>ie (in the first, second, third person singular and third person plural). PEDIR e>i PRESENT e>i PRETERITE PREFERIR e>i PRESENT e>ie PRETERITE

19 The preterite tense 18 What would the third person singular and plural be for each of the verbs below? despedirse de = to say goodbye to divertirse = to enjoy oneself hervir = to boil pedir = to ask for preferir = to prefer rendirse = to surrender repetir = to repeat seguir = to follow sentir = to feel, to be sorry servir = to serve vestirse = to get dressed se despidió se despidieron se divirtió se divirtieron hirvió hirvieron pidió pidieron prefirió prefirieron rindió rindieron repitió repitieron siguió siguieron sintió sintieron sirvió sirvieron se vistió se vistieron Answers appear one by one on mouseclick.

20 The preterite tense 19 The last group of irregular verbs in the preterite tense is easy once you have learnt the first person singular! PONER = to put There are no accents on these verbs. Just learn the first person and then put the endings on the new stem. The endings are almost the same as for regular -er and -ir verbs. Can you spot the differences? puse I put pusiste You put puso He / she / it put pusimos We put pusisteis You put pusieron They put

21 The preterite tense 20 Verbs which follow the same pattern as poner:
Verb stem st person andar - to walk anduv anduve estar - to be estuv estuve obtener - to obtain obtuv obtuve tener - to have tuv tuve hacer - to do hic hice poder - to be able pud pude saber - to know sup supe suponer - to suppose supus supuse venir - to come vin vine querer - to love/want quis quise conducir - to drive conduj conduje traer - to bring traj traje producir - to produce produj produje decir* - to say dij dije Endings -e -iste -o -imos -isteis -ieron Note: hacer has a different stem in the 3rd person singular – hizo Note that the endings of the first and third persons singular do not need an accent. *For verbs with a stem ending in j take -eron as the third person plural ending and not -ieron. Decir – dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron. Traer – traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron. (also atraer, contraer, distraer...). Conducir – conduje, condujiste, condujo, condujimos, condujisteis, condujeron. (producir and all the compounds ending in -ducir: repoducir... ).

22 Some very important verbs!
The preterite tense 21 Some very important verbs! hacer = to do / make hice I did / I made hiciste You did / you made hizo He/she/it did / made hicimos We did / we made hicisteis You did / you made hicieron They did / they made estar = to be estuve I was estuviste You were estuvo He/she/it was estuvimos We were estuvisteis You were estuvieron They were ser = to be ir = to go I was fui I went You were fuiste You went He/she/it was fue He/she/ it went We were fuimos We went You were fuisteis You went They were fueron They went Notice ser and ir share the same forms

23 The preterite tense 22 estar, ir, hacer and ser
Practise using the preterite of estar, ir, hacer and ser by writing out these sentences in Spanish. Yesterday I went to the cinema. It was a fantastic film. Before I went to the cinema I did my homework. He was a great soldier and a wonderful father. My grandfather went to Australia in 1960. They went to the hairdresser’s. The boys made their beds for the first time! It was a great day and the weather was very good. Answers follow on the next slide.

24 The preterite tense 23 estar, ir, hacer and ser 1. Ayer fui al cine.
2. Fue una película fenomenal. 3. Antes de ir al cine hice los deberes. 4. Fue un gran soldado y un padre maravilloso. 5. Mi abuelo se fue a Australia en mil novecientos sesenta (1960). 6. Fueron a la peluquería. 7. ¡Por primera vez los chicos hicieron sus camas! 8. Fue un día fantástico e hizo muy buen tiempo. The answers to the previous exercise. menu

25 The imperfect tense 1 The imperfect tense is used to talk about the past. Whereas the preterite describes a single completed action in the past, the imperfect tense... describes something that happened frequently or regularly in the past. is used for descriptions in the past, such as describing what the weather was like or giving your opinion of something you did (characteristics of people, things or conditions). tells us what something used to be like. describes something that went on for a long period of time. is used for telling the time. is used for telling one’s age.

26 The imperfect tense 2 This tense is used in the following different ways: 1. To describe actions, people or things in the past. 2. To describe an action that started in the past and was going on or continued in the past. 3. To describe actions that used to be done frequently in the past. To describe thing(s) which were going on in the past before another event started. For telling the time. For telling one’s age. The imperfect tense translates any of the following English clue words or phrases: I was eating We were talking. I used to eat She was an interesting teacher.

27 The imperfect tense 3 Main uses of the imperfect
1. General descriptions in the past. Example: La casa era enorme. The house was enormous. Describing what the weather was like. Example: De vez en cuando hacía sol. From time to time it was sunny. Giving your opinion of something you did. Example: Comí pollo, estaba muy rico. I ate chicken, it was delicious.

28 The imperfect tense 4 2. Saying what something used to be or would be like. Examples: – Cuando era joven, comía muchos caramelos. When I was young, I used to eat lots of sweets. – Cuando visitábamos a nuestros parientes nos daban regalos y revistas. When we used to visit our relatives they would give us presents and magazines. Both of these examples describe things and events that were repeated in the past.

29 The imperfect tense 5 3. Describing something that happened frequently or regularly in the past. Examples: – Cuando tenía 10 diez años, hacía natación dos veces por semana. When I was 10 years old, I went swimming twice a week. – Durante mis vacaciones del verano pasado me levantaba temprano, desayunaba e iba a la playa. During my holidays last summer I used to get up early, have breakfast and go to the beach.

30 The imperfect tense 6 4. Describing something that went on for a long period of time. Examples: – Cuando era joven, vivía en el campo y teníamos dos gatos. When I was young, I lived in the country and we had two cats. – Cuando íbamos al campo podía nadar en el río y dar un paseo. When we went to the country I could swim in the river and go for a walk.

31 The imperfect tense 7 5. For telling the time. Example:
– Eran las dos de la mañana. It was two o’clock in the morning. 6. For telling one’s age. – El niño tenía tres años. The boy was three years old.

32 The imperfect tense 8 7. Was…doing and were…doing
If you want to translate was or were doing something, you must use the imperfect tense. These are the clue phrases that help you identify the tense and mean you must use the imperfect tense. Examples: – Hacía los deberes cuando mi madre regresó a la casa. I was doing my homework when my mother came home. – Jugábamos al fútbol cuando empezó a llover. We were playing football when it started to rain.

33 The imperfect tense 9 There are a number of useful words that can indicate the use of the imperfect. a menudo por aquel entonces algunas veces siempre cada día/ semana/ mes/ año todos los días/ meses/ años con frecuencia todos las semanas de vez en cuando varias veces frecuentemente muchas veces

34 The imperfect tense 10 Regular verbs
The imperfect tense is quite easy to form and has very few irregular parts. There are only two sets of endings to learn and only three irregular verbs. Formation of the imperfect tense Take the following steps: 1. Take the infinitive of the verb you wish to use. 2. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR. 3. Add the endings. -AR endings: -aba -abas -aba -ábamos -abais -aban. -ER / -IR endings: -ía -ías -ía -íamos -íais -ían.

35 The imperfect tense 11 All regular -AR verbs are formed in the following way. HABLAR= to speak / talk habl aba I talked, I was talking, I used to talk. abas You talked, you were talking, you used to talk. aba He / she / it talked, was talking, used to talk. ábamos We talked, we were talking, we used to talk. Endings appear one by one on mouseclick. abais You talked, you were talking, you used to talk. aban They talked, they were talking, they used to talk

36 The imperfect tense 12 All regular -ER and -IR verbs are formed in the following way. COMER = to eat com ía I ate, I was eating, I used to eat. ías You ate, you were eating, you used to eat. ía He / she / it ate, was eating, used to eat. íamos We ate, we were eating, we used to eat. Endings appear one by one on mouseclick. íais You ate, you were eating, you used to eat. ían They ate, they were eating, they used to eat.

37 The imperfect tense 13 ABRIR= to open abr ía
I opened, was opening, I used to open. ías You opened, were opening, you used to open. ía He / she/ it / opened, was opening, used to open. íamos We opened, we were opening, we used to open. íais You opened, you were opening, you used to open. ían They opened, they were opening, they used to open.

38 The imperfect tense 14 The good news about the imperfect tense is that all of the verbs except three are regular. The three irregular verbs are SER, IR and VER. IR = to go iba I went, used to go. ibas you went, used to go. iba he / she / it went, used to go. íbamos we went, used to go. ibais you went, used to go. iban they went, used to go. SER = to be era I was, used to be. eras you were, used to be. era he / she / it was, used to be. éramos we were, used to be. erais you were, used to be. eran they were, used to be. VER = to see veía I saw, used to see. veías you saw, used to see. veía he / she / it saw, used to see. veíamos we saw, used to see. veíais you saw, used to see. veían they saw, used to see. leer = to read also does this. leía I read, used to read Each of the three verbs appear one at a time on mouseclick, written out in full.

39 The imperfect tense 15 To summarize:
The imperfect tense is used for descriptions in the past and the meaning of the imperfect tense can change according to context and use. (Yo) Iba a Madrid Could mean: 1. I went to Madrid Repeated action. 2. I was going to Madrid. Action begun in past and probably going to be interrupted by another event. 3. I used to go to Madrid. Frequent action 4. I would go to Madrid Frequent action

40 The imperfect tense 16 menu

41 Using the imperfect and preterite together
These two past tenses are often used together especially for stories or narratives in the past. Look at these examples and try to use the tenses in a similar way. – Cuando miré por la ventana llovía. When I looked out of the window it was raining. – Leía cuando el teléfono sonó. I was reading when the telephone rang. In each of these sentences: the verb in the preterite describes a single, completed action. (2) the verb in the imperfect describes an action which was already going on and which was interrupted by another action. menu

42 The imperfect continuous 1
The same kind of verb construction can be used with the imperfect tense to describe continuous actions in the past. This time the English phrase you are describing is ‘was doing something’ e.g. estaba comiendo – I was eating To form the imperfect continuous in Spanish you need two parts: (1) The imperfect tense of the verb ESTAR. (2) The present participle of the verb you are emphasising. To form the present participle*: (1) Take the infinitive of the verb. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR. (2) Add -iando for -AR verbs or -iendo for -ER and -IR verbs. Note that stem-changing verbs have a stem change e.g. pedir – pidiendo; dormir – durmiendo; servir – sirviendo. Some verbs have irregular present participles e.g. leer – leyendo; vestir – vistiendo Notice that you still use the present participle.

43 The imperfect continuous 2
How to form the imperfect continuous tense. COMER = to eat Estaba comiendo I was eating Estabas comiendo You were eating Estaba comiendo He / she / it was eating We were eating Estábamos comiendo You were eating Estabais comiendo They were eating Estaban comiendo Now practise saying and writing out these verbs: ABRIR HABLAR

44 The imperfect continuous 3
¿Sabes cambiar estos verbos del presente al imperfecto progresivo? Juan y Ana estaban bebiendo café con leche en la cafetería. Anita estaba poniendo la mesa para ayudar a su madre. Nosotros estábamos leyendo revistas en la clase de ciencias. Los camareros estaban sirviendo a muchos clientes. El gato estaba durmiendo en el jardín. Los niños estaban jugando al fútbol en el parque. María estaba vistiéndose en su dormitorio. Mi madre estaba viendo su telenovela preferida en la tele. Yo estaba aprendiendo el español en el instituto. Vosotras estabais cantando en el coro. El cliente estaba pidiendo la cuenta. Juan y Ana beben café con leche en la cafetería. Anita pone la mesa para ayudar a su madre. Nosotros leemos revistas en la clase de ciencias. Los camareros sirven a muchos clientes. El gato duerme en el jardín. Los niños juegan al fútbol en el parque. María se viste en su dormitorio. Mi madre ve su telenovela preferida en la tele. Yo aprendo el español en el instituto. Vosotros cantáis en el coro. El cliente pide la cuenta. menu

45 The perfect tense 1 The perfect tense describes what you have done or what has happened. Example: ¿Qué ha pasado? – What has happened? To form the perfect tense in Spanish you need two parts: (1) The present tense of HABER. (2) The past participle of the verb. To form the past participle: (1) Take the infinitive of the verb. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR. (2) Add -ado for -AR verbs or -IDO for -ER and -IR verbs.

46 Now practise saying and writing out these verbs:
The perfect tense 2 How to form the perfect tense. HABER = to have; COMER = to eat He comido I have eaten Has comio You have eaten Ha comido He / she / it has eaten We have eaten Hemos comido You have eaten Habeis comido They have eaten Han comido Now practise saying and writing out these verbs: TOMAR BEBER VIVIR

47 The perfect tense 3 Some verbs have irregular participles:
Verb participle abrir - to open abierto cubrir - to cover cubierto decir - to say dicho escribir - to write escrito hacer - to do hecho morir - to die muerto poner - to put puesto romper - to break roto ver - to see visto volver - to return vuelto

48 The perfect tense 4 ¿Sabes cambiar estos verbos del presente al perfecto? Pablo y Carlota han comido café con leche en la cafetería. Manuel ha puesto la mesa. Nosotros hemos jugado al fútbol. Los chicos han escrito cartas a las chicas. Mi padre ha dormido en el jardín. Yo he ido el español en el instituto. Vosotras habeis bebido zumo de naranja. Juan ha visto a María en el cine. Pablo y Carlota comen patatas fritas en la cafetería. Manuel pone la mesa. Nosotros jugamos al fútbol. Los chicos escriben cartas a las chicas. Mi padre duerme en el jardín. Yo voy al banco. Vosotros bebéis zumo de naranja. Juan ve a María en el cine. menu

49 The pluperfect tense 1 The pluperfect tense describes what you had done or what had happened before something else happened. Example: Yo había salido cuando el hombre vino. – I had gone out with the man came. To form the perfect tense in Spanish you need two parts: (1) The imperfect tense of HABER. (2) The past participle of the verb.11 To form the past participle: (1) Take the infinitive of the verb. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR. (2) Add -ado for -AR verbs or -IDO for -ER and -IR verbs.

50 Now practise saying and writing out these verbs:
The pluperfect tense 2 How to form the pluperfect tense. HABER = to have; COMER = to eat Había comido I had eaten Habías comio You had eaten Había comido He / she / it had eaten We had eaten Habíamos comido You had eaten Habíais comido They had eaten Habían comido Now practise saying and writing out these verbs: TOMAR BEBER VIVIR menu

51 Commands 1 Informal singular – tú
Commands or imperatives are used when ordering or telling someone to do something. If you need to tell someone what to do in Spanish, then it is important that you use the correct part of the verb. If you want to give instructions to a friend, someone your age, or to a member of your family, then it is best to use the tú (singular) form of the verb. For all regular verbs, drop the -s from the end of the normal tú form. Even most irregular verbs follow this rule. Infinitive Present tense tú form Imperative hablar - to talk hablas - you talk ¡Habla! - Talk! comer - to eat comes - you eat ¡Come! - Eat! abrir - to open abres - you open ¡Abre! - Open! Note: if the tú form of the present indicative is irregular, that irregularity is carried over to form the formal command singular (tú). E.g. CERRAR – CIERRAS – ¡CIERRA! Also, the subject pronouns (tú and vosotros) are normally omitted with the imperative form.

52 Informal plural – vosotros
Commands 2 Informal plural – vosotros If you want to tell a group of people (family, friends, children) to do something, then it is best to use the vosotros (plural) form of the verb. Simply take the infinitive form of the verb (the part that ends in -AR, -ER, or -IR), take off the -r and add the letter -d. Hablar Comer Abrir ¡Hablad! ¡Comed! ¡Abrid! This is the probably the form you will hear your teacher use when he or she addresses the class as a whole: ¡Mirad! - Look!

53 Formal singular – usted
Commands 3 Formal singular – usted If you want to express respect or to be polite, then it is best to use the usted (singular) form of the verb. For all regular verbs, simply drop the -o ending from the yo form of the present indicative and add the following endings: Hablo Como Abro ¡Hable! ¡Coma! ¡Abra! Note: if the yo form of the present indicative is irregular, that irregularity is carried over to form the formal commands singular and plural (usted and ustedes). Also, the subject pronouns (usted and ustedes) might be omitted. Using them adds a degree of formality or politeness to the command.

54 Formal plural – ustedes
Commands 4 Formal plural – ustedes If you want to tell a group of people to do something using the polite command, then it is best to use the ustedes (plural) form of the verb. For all regular verbs, simply drop the -o ending from the yo form of the present indicative and add the following endings: Hablo Como Abro ¡Hablen! ¡Coman! ¡Abran!

55 Commands 5 ¡No hablas hables!! ¡No comas! comes ¡No abres
Negatives commands / Informal singular – tú Telling someone not to do something is quite easy too! Take the normal tú ending off the verb. 2. Change the verb endings in the following way: Use -ER endings for -AR verbs Use -AR endings for -ER and -IR verbs 3. Finally just put the no in front of the command word Click to see how to form negative commands ¡No hablas hables!! ¡No comas! comes ¡No abras! abres

56 Commands 6 ¡No habláis habléis! ¡No comáis! coméis ¡No abrís
Negatives commands / Informal plural - vosotros Telling someone not to do something is quite easy too! Take the normal vosotros ending off the verb. 2. Change the verb endings in the following way: Use -ER endings for -AR verbs Use -AR endings for -ER and -IR verbs 3. Finally just put the no in front of the command word Click to see how to form negative commands ¡No habláis habléis! ¡No comáis! coméis ¡No abráis! abrís

57 Commands 7 ¡No hable hable!! ¡No coma! coma ¡No abra ¡No hablen
Negatives commands / formal singular and plural – usted, ustedes The negative command forms of usted and ustedes are very easy to make! You only need to add the no in front of the usted and ustedes command word. USTED ¡No hable hable!! ¡No coma! coma ¡No abra! abra Click to see how to form negative commands USTEDES ¡No hablen hablen!! ¡No coman! coman ¡No abran! abran

58 Commands 8 Afirmative command forms
Completa el siguiente cuadro con las formas del imperativo afirmativo. VERBOS Cruzar Oír Perdonar Seguir Tomar Torcer cruza oye perdona sigue toma tuerce USTED cruce oiga perdone siga tome tuerza VERBOS Cruzar Oír Perdonar Seguir Tomar Torcer VOSOTROS USTEDES Ask pupils to write the correct forms of the verb in the grid.

59 Commands 9 Negative command forms
Completa el siguiente cuadro con las formas del imperativo negativo. VERBOS Cruzar Oír Perdonar Seguir Tomar Torcer USTED VERBOS Cruzar Oír Perdonar Seguir Tomar Torcer VOSOTROS USTEDES Ask pupils to write the correct forms of the verb in the grid.


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