Presentation on theme: "Using the imperfect and preterite together"— Presentation transcript:
1Using the imperfect and preterite together Grammar 1The preterite tenseThe imperfect tenseUsing the imperfect andpreterite togetherThe imperfect continuousThe perfect tenseClick on arrows to move to the required section. On the last slide of each section, you will find a purple menu button in the bottom left hand corner which will return you to this slide.The pluperfect tenseCommands
2The preterite tense 1The PRETERITE tense is used to talk about completed actions inthe past. It is used:1. in telling stories and for non descriptive events.2. for actions that were completed in the past. (FINISHED events)3. for actions in the past which happened only once. (SINGLE events)for actions that were repeated but finished in the past. (REPEATED events)for actions that were part of a chain of events. (CHAIN events)for actions that took place over a specific period of time.It can be used with the following expressions of time: ayer, anteayer, la semana pasada, el mes/año pasado, el otro día, hace dos días/semanas/meses, el domingo, en 1950, en Navidad…Examples:Viví cinco años en Madrid. I lived in Madrid for five years.Él cenó, vio la tele y se acostó. He had dinner, watched TV and went to bed.Ayer te llamé por teléfono. I rang you yesterday.
3The preterite tense 2 There are two sets of regular endings to learn: 2. -ER/ -IRAs with other tenses you have to:1. take the infinitive.2. take off the infinitive ending.3. add the endings for the tense.-AR endings-ER / -IR endingsNotice the ‘we’ending in –ARand –IR verbsis the same asin the presenttense.-é-aste-ó-amos-asteis-aron-í-iste-ió-imos-isteis-ieronMore detailed conjugations and exercises follow.
4The preterite tense 3 Regular -AR verbs hablar = to speak / talk habl éI spoke, I did speak.You spoke, you did speak.asteHe /she/ it spoke, did speak.óamosWe spoke, we did speak.asteisYou spoke, you did speak.aronThey spoke, they did speak.Endings appear one by one on mouseclick.
5The preterite tense 4 Regular -AR verbs Choose 3 of the verbs below and write them out in full:aceptar = to accept cantar = to sing llenar = to fillamar = to love charlar = to chat llorar = to cryarreglar = to fix dibujar = to draw mirar = to look atayudar = to help entrar = to go in saltar = to jumpbajar = to go down ganar = to win viajar = to travelbailar = to dance lavar = to wash
7The preterite tense 6 Regular -ER verbs comer = to eat com í I ate, I did eat.isteYou ate, you did eat.ióHe / she / it ate, did eat.imosWe ate, we did eat.isteisYou ate, you did eat.Endings appear one by one on mouseclick.ieronThey ate, they did eat.
8Practise saying or writing out these other verbs. The preterite tense 7Regular -ER verbsPractise saying or writing out these other verbs.beber = to drinkmeter = to putcorrer = to runvender = to sellcoser = to sew
10The preterite tense 9 Regular -IR verbs ABRIR= to open I opened, I did open.abríisteYou opened, you did open.ióHe / she / it opened, did open.imosWe opened, we did open.isteisYou opened, you did open.Endings appear one by one on mouseclick.ieronThey opened, they did open.
11Practise saying or writing out these other verbs. The preterite tense 10Regular -IR verbsPractise saying or writing out these other verbs.Like ABRIRbatir = to beat escribir = to writecubrir = to cover permitir = to allowrecibir = to receive
13The preterite tense 12 Stem changing verbs The first group of irregular verbs are only slightly irregular as they show stem changes* in the first person singular only. There are three types:1. Verbs which end in –GAR change to GUÉ2. Verbs which end in –CAR change to QUÉ3. Verbs which end in –ZAR change to CÉjugar = to playjugué I playedjugaste you playedjugó he/she/it playedjugamos we playedjugasteis you playedjugaron they playedexplicar = to explainexpliqué I explainedexplicaste you explainedexplicó he/she/it explainedexplicamos we explainedexplicasteis you explainedexplicaron they explainedcruzar = to crosscrucé I crossedcruzaste you crossedcruzó he/she/it crossedcruzamos we crossedcruzasteis you crossedcruzaron they crossed*The stem changes occur in order to preserve the sound of the infinitive.
14The preterite tense 13 Stem changing verbs The following verbs work in the same way. Can you write out three of them in full?apagar = to put out acercarse = to approachcazar = to hunt cargar = to loadatacar = to attack empezar = to begindescargar = to unload buscar = to look fororganizar = to organize entregar = to hand oversecar = to dry rezar = to prayllegar = to arrive pescar = to fishutilizar = to use navegar = to sailchocar contra = to crash into pagar = to paysacar = to take out regar= to watermarcar = to score a goal, tocar= to touchdial a number
15The preterite tense 14 Stem changing verbs For verbs ending in -aer, -eer, -oír and -oer changes occur in the 3rd person forms (singular & plural): -ió changes to -yo;-ieron changes to -yeron.For verbs ending in -uir changes occur in the same way.Verb st person 3rd person 3rd personsingular singular pluralcaer* = to fall caí cayó cayeroncreer* = to believe creí creyó creyeronleer* = to read leí leyó leyeronoír* = to hear oí oyó oyeronroer* = to nibble roí royó royerondestruir = to destroy destruí destruyó destruyeronconstruir = to build construí construyó construyeronhuir = to run away huí huyó huyeron*Note that verbs like creer, caer, leer, oír, poseer, proveer, roer need an accent in the second person singular – creíste, caíste, leíste, oíste, poseíste, proveíste, roíste.
16The preterite tense 15 Stem change verbs -ar and -er verbs that change their stem in the present tensedo not change in the preterite.Present Preteritecierro cerrécierras cerrastecierra cerrócerramos cerramoscerráis cerrasteiscierran cerraron
17The preterite tense 16 Stem change verbs -ir verbs that change their stem in the present do change in thepreterite.1. o > u – the first change is o > u and it occurs in the third personforms (singular & plural).DORMIRdormídurmiódurmieronMORIRmorímuriómurieron*For dormir and morir the changing stem in the present tense is o>ue (in the first, second, third person singular and third person plural).o>ue PRESENTo>u PRETERITE
18The preterite tense 17 The second stem change group in -ir verbs. 2. e > iChanges also occur in the third person forms (singular & plural).PEDIRpedípidiópidieronPREFERIRpreferíprefirióprefirieronEn el restaurante Paco pidió tortilla de jamón.Paco asked for ham omelette in the restaurant.Mis amigos pidieron una paella enorme.My friends ordered an enormous paella.*For pedir the changing stem in the present tense is e>i (in the first, second, third person singular and third person plural).For preferir the changing stem in the present tense is e>ie (in the first, second, third person singular and third person plural).PEDIRe>i PRESENTe>i PRETERITEPREFERIRe>i PRESENTe>ie PRETERITE
19The preterite tense 18What would the third person singular and plural be for each of the verbs below?despedirse de = to say goodbye todivertirse = to enjoy oneselfhervir = to boilpedir = to ask forpreferir = to preferrendirse = to surrenderrepetir = to repeatseguir = to followsentir = to feel, to be sorryservir = to servevestirse = to get dressedse despidió se despidieronse divirtió se divirtieronhirvió hirvieronpidió pidieronprefirió prefirieronrindió rindieronrepitió repitieronsiguió siguieronsintió sintieronsirvió sirvieronse vistió se vistieronAnswers appear one by one on mouseclick.
20The preterite tense 19The last group of irregular verbs in the preterite tense is easy once you have learnt the first person singular!PONER = to putThere are no accents on these verbs. Just learn the first person and then put the endings on the new stem. The endings are almost the same as for regular -er and -ir verbs. Can you spot the differences?puseI putpusisteYou putpusoHe / she / it putpusimosWe putpusisteisYou putpusieronThey put
21The preterite tense 20 Verbs which follow the same pattern as poner: Verb stem st personandar - to walk anduv anduveestar - to be estuv estuveobtener - to obtain obtuv obtuvetener - to have tuv tuvehacer - to do hic hicepoder - to be able pud pudesaber - to know sup supesuponer - to suppose supus supusevenir - to come vin vinequerer - to love/want quis quiseconducir - to drive conduj condujetraer - to bring traj trajeproducir - to produce produj produjedecir* - to say dij dijeEndings-e-iste-o-imos-isteis-ieronNote:hacer has a different stem in the 3rd person singular – hizoNote that the endings of the first and third persons singular do not need an accent.*For verbs with a stem ending in j take -eron as the third person plural ending and not -ieron.Decir – dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron.Traer – traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron. (also atraer, contraer, distraer...).Conducir – conduje, condujiste, condujo, condujimos, condujisteis, condujeron. (producir and all the compounds ending in -ducir: repoducir... ).
22Some very important verbs! The preterite tense 21Some very important verbs!hacer = to do / makehice I did / I madehiciste You did / you madehizo He/she/it did / madehicimos We did / we madehicisteis You did / you madehicieron They did / they madeestar = to beestuve I wasestuviste You wereestuvo He/she/it wasestuvimos We wereestuvisteis You wereestuvieron They wereser = to be ir = to goI was fui I wentYou were fuiste You wentHe/she/it was fue He/she/ it wentWe were fuimos We wentYou were fuisteis You wentThey were fueron They wentNotice ser and ir share the same forms
23The preterite tense 22 estar, ir, hacer and ser Practise using the preterite of estar, ir, hacer and ser by writing out these sentences in Spanish.Yesterday I went to the cinema.It was a fantastic film.Before I went to the cinema I did my homework.He was a great soldier and a wonderful father.My grandfather went to Australia in 1960.They went to the hairdresser’s.The boys made their beds for the first time!It was a great day and the weather was very good.Answers follow on the next slide.
24The preterite tense 23 estar, ir, hacer and ser 1. Ayer fui al cine. 2. Fue una película fenomenal.3. Antes de ir al cine hice los deberes.4. Fue un gran soldado y un padre maravilloso.5. Mi abuelo se fue a Australia en mil novecientos sesenta (1960).6. Fueron a la peluquería.7. ¡Por primera vez los chicos hicieron sus camas!8. Fue un día fantástico e hizo muy buen tiempo.The answers to the previous exercise.menu
25The imperfect tense 1The imperfect tense is used to talk about the past. Whereas the preterite describes a single completed action in the past, the imperfect tense...describes something that happened frequently or regularly in the past.is used for descriptions in the past, such as describing what the weather was like or giving your opinion of something you did (characteristics of people, things or conditions).tells us what something used to be like.describes something that went on for a long period of time.is used for telling the time.is used for telling one’s age.
26The imperfect tense 2This tense is used in the following different ways:1. To describe actions, people or things in the past.2. To describe an action that started in the past and was going on or continued in the past.3. To describe actions that used to be done frequently in the past.To describe thing(s) which were going on in the past before another event started.For telling the time.For telling one’s age.The imperfect tense translates any of the following English clue words or phrases:I was eating We were talking.I used to eat She was an interesting teacher.
27The imperfect tense 3 Main uses of the imperfect 1. General descriptions in the past.Example: La casa era enorme.The house was enormous.Describing what the weather was like.Example: De vez en cuando hacía sol.From time to time it was sunny.Giving your opinion of something you did.Example: Comí pollo, estaba muy rico.I ate chicken, it was delicious.
28The imperfect tense 42. Saying what something used to be or would be like.Examples:– Cuando era joven, comía muchos caramelos.When I was young, I used to eat lots of sweets.– Cuando visitábamos a nuestros parientes nos daban regalos y revistas.When we used to visit our relatives they would give us presents and magazines.Both of these examples describe things and events that were repeated in the past.
29The imperfect tense 53. Describing something that happened frequently or regularly in the past.Examples:– Cuando tenía 10 diez años, hacía natación dos veces por semana.When I was 10 years old, I went swimming twice a week.– Durante mis vacaciones del verano pasado me levantaba temprano, desayunaba e iba a la playa.During my holidays last summer I used to get up early, have breakfast and go to the beach.
30The imperfect tense 64. Describing something that went on for a long period of time.Examples:– Cuando era joven, vivía en el campo y teníamos dos gatos.When I was young, I lived in the country and we had two cats.– Cuando íbamos al campo podía nadar en el río y dar un paseo.When we went to the country I could swim in the river and go for a walk.
31The imperfect tense 7 5. For telling the time. Example: – Eran las dos de la mañana.It was two o’clock in the morning.6. For telling one’s age.– El niño tenía tres años.The boy was three years old.
32The imperfect tense 8 7. Was…doing and were…doing If you want to translate was or were doing something, you must use the imperfect tense. These are the clue phrases that help you identify the tense and mean you must use the imperfect tense.Examples:– Hacía los deberes cuando mi madre regresó a la casa.I was doing my homework when my mother came home.– Jugábamos al fútbol cuando empezó a llover.We were playing football when it started to rain.
33The imperfect tense 9There are a number of useful words that can indicate theuse of the imperfect.a menudo por aquel entoncesalgunas veces siemprecada día/ semana/ mes/ año todos los días/ meses/ añoscon frecuencia todos las semanasde vez en cuando varias vecesfrecuentementemuchas veces
34The imperfect tense 10 Regular verbs The imperfect tense is quite easy to form and has very few irregular parts. There are only two sets of endings to learn and only three irregular verbs.Formation of the imperfect tenseTake the following steps:1. Take the infinitive of the verb you wish to use.2. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR.3. Add the endings.-AR endings: -aba -abas -aba -ábamos -abais -aban.-ER / -IR endings: -ía -ías -ía -íamos -íais -ían.
35The imperfect tense 11All regular -AR verbs are formed in the following way.HABLAR= to speak / talkhablabaI talked, I was talking, I used to talk.abasYou talked, you were talking, you used to talk.abaHe / she / it talked, was talking, used to talk.ábamosWe talked, we were talking, we used to talk.Endings appear one by one on mouseclick.abaisYou talked, you were talking, you used to talk.abanThey talked, they were talking, they used to talk
36The imperfect tense 12All regular -ER and -IR verbs are formed in the following way.COMER = to eatcomíaI ate, I was eating, I used to eat.íasYou ate, you were eating, you used to eat.íaHe / she / it ate, was eating, used to eat.íamosWe ate, we were eating, we used to eat.Endings appear one by one on mouseclick.íaisYou ate, you were eating, you used to eat.íanThey ate, they were eating, they used to eat.
37The imperfect tense 13 ABRIR= to open abr ía I opened, was opening, I used to open.íasYou opened, were opening, you used to open.íaHe / she/ it / opened, was opening, used to open.íamosWe opened, we were opening, we used to open.íaisYou opened, you were opening, you used to open.íanThey opened, they were opening, they used to open.
38The imperfect tense 14The good news about the imperfect tense is that all of the verbs except three are regular. The three irregular verbs are SER, IR and VER.IR = to goiba I went, used to go.ibas you went, used to go.iba he / she / it went, used to go.íbamos we went, used to go.ibais you went, used to go.iban they went, used to go.SER = to beera I was, used to be.eras you were, used to be.era he / she / it was, used to be.éramos we were, used to be.erais you were, used to be.eran they were, used to be.VER = to seeveía I saw, used to see.veías you saw, used to see.veía he / she / it saw, used to see.veíamos we saw, used to see.veíais you saw, used to see.veían they saw, used to see.leer = to read also does this.leía I read, used to readEach of the three verbs appear one at a time on mouseclick, written out in full.
39The imperfect tense 15 To summarize: The imperfect tense is used for descriptions in the past and the meaning of the imperfect tense can change according to context and use.(Yo) Iba a Madrid Could mean:1. I went to Madrid Repeated action.2. I was going to Madrid. Action begun in pastand probably going to be interrupted by another event.3. I used to go to Madrid. Frequent action4. I would go to Madrid Frequent action
41Using the imperfect and preterite together These two past tenses are often used together especially for stories or narratives in the past. Look at these examples and try to use the tenses in a similar way.– Cuando miré por la ventana llovía.When I looked out of the window it was raining.– Leía cuando el teléfono sonó.I was reading when the telephone rang.In each of these sentences:the verb in the preterite describes a single, completed action.(2) the verb in the imperfect describes an action which was already going on and which was interrupted by another action.menu
42The imperfect continuous 1 The same kind of verb construction can be used with the imperfect tense to describe continuous actions in the past.This time the English phrase you are describing is‘was doing something’ e.g. estaba comiendo – I was eatingTo form the imperfect continuous in Spanish you need two parts:(1) The imperfect tense of the verb ESTAR.(2) The present participle of the verb you are emphasising.To form the present participle*:(1) Take the infinitive of the verb. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR.(2) Add -iando for -AR verbs or -iendo for -ER and -IR verbs.Note that stem-changing verbs have a stem change e.g. pedir – pidiendo; dormir – durmiendo; servir – sirviendo. Some verbs have irregular present participles e.g. leer – leyendo; vestir – vistiendoNotice that you still use the present participle.
43The imperfect continuous 2 How to form the imperfect continuous tense.COMER = to eatEstaba comiendoI was eatingEstabas comiendoYou were eatingEstaba comiendoHe / she / it was eatingWe were eatingEstábamos comiendoYou were eatingEstabais comiendoThey were eatingEstaban comiendoNow practise saying and writing out these verbs:ABRIR HABLAR
44The imperfect continuous 3 ¿Sabes cambiar estos verbos del presente al imperfecto progresivo?Juan y Ana estaban bebiendo café con leche en la cafetería.Anita estaba poniendo la mesa para ayudar a su madre.Nosotros estábamos leyendo revistas en la clase de ciencias.Los camareros estaban sirviendo a muchos clientes.El gato estaba durmiendo en el jardín.Los niños estaban jugando al fútbol en el parque.María estaba vistiéndose en su dormitorio.Mi madre estaba viendo su telenovela preferida en la tele.Yo estaba aprendiendo el español en el instituto.Vosotras estabais cantando en el coro.El cliente estaba pidiendo la cuenta.Juan y Ana beben café con leche en la cafetería.Anita pone la mesa para ayudar a su madre.Nosotros leemos revistas en la clase de ciencias.Los camareros sirven a muchos clientes.El gato duerme en el jardín.Los niños juegan al fútbol en el parque.María se viste en su dormitorio.Mi madre ve su telenovela preferida en la tele.Yo aprendo el español en el instituto.Vosotros cantáis en el coro.El cliente pide la cuenta.menu
45The perfect tense 1The perfect tense describes what you have done or what has happened.Example:¿Qué ha pasado? – What has happened?To form the perfect tense in Spanish you need two parts:(1) The present tense of HABER.(2) The past participle of the verb.To form the past participle:(1) Take the infinitive of the verb. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR.(2) Add -ado for -AR verbs or -IDO for -ER and -IR verbs.
46Now practise saying and writing out these verbs: The perfect tense 2How to form the perfect tense.HABER = to have; COMER = to eatHe comidoI have eatenHas comioYou have eatenHa comidoHe / she / it has eatenWe have eatenHemos comidoYou have eatenHabeis comidoThey have eatenHan comidoNow practise saying and writing out these verbs:TOMAR BEBER VIVIR
47The perfect tense 3 Some verbs have irregular participles: Verb participleabrir - to open abiertocubrir - to cover cubiertodecir - to say dichoescribir - to write escritohacer - to do hechomorir - to die muertoponer - to put puestoromper - to break rotover - to see vistovolver - to return vuelto
48The perfect tense 4¿Sabes cambiar estos verbos del presente al perfecto?Pablo y Carlota han comido café con leche en la cafetería.Manuel ha puesto la mesa.Nosotros hemos jugado al fútbol.Los chicos han escrito cartas a las chicas.Mi padre ha dormido en el jardín.Yo he ido el español en el instituto.Vosotras habeis bebido zumo de naranja.Juan ha visto a María en el cine.Pablo y Carlota comen patatas fritas en la cafetería.Manuel pone la mesa.Nosotros jugamos al fútbol.Los chicos escriben cartas a las chicas.Mi padre duerme en el jardín.Yo voy al banco.Vosotros bebéis zumo de naranja.Juan ve a María en el cine.menu
49The pluperfect tense 1The pluperfect tense describes what you had done or what had happened before something else happened. Example:Yo había salido cuando el hombre vino.– I had gone out with the man came.To form the perfect tense in Spanish you need two parts:(1) The imperfect tense of HABER.(2) The past participle of the verb.11To form the past participle:(1) Take the infinitive of the verb. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR.(2) Add -ado for -AR verbs or -IDO for -ER and -IR verbs.
50Now practise saying and writing out these verbs: The pluperfect tense 2How to form the pluperfect tense.HABER = to have; COMER = to eatHabía comidoI had eatenHabías comioYou had eatenHabía comidoHe / she / it had eatenWe had eatenHabíamos comidoYou had eatenHabíais comidoThey had eatenHabían comidoNow practise saying and writing out these verbs:TOMAR BEBER VIVIRmenu
51Commands 1 Informal singular – tú Commands or imperatives are used when ordering or telling someone to do something.If you need to tell someone what to do in Spanish, then it is important that you use the correct part of the verb.If you want to give instructions to a friend, someone your age, or to a member of your family, then it is best to use the tú (singular) form of the verb.For all regular verbs, drop the -s from the end of the normal tú form. Even most irregular verbs follow this rule.Infinitive Present tense tú form Imperativehablar - to talk hablas - you talk ¡Habla! - Talk!comer - to eat comes - you eat ¡Come! - Eat!abrir - to open abres - you open ¡Abre! - Open!Note: if the tú form of the present indicative is irregular, that irregularity is carried over to form the formal command singular (tú). E.g. CERRAR – CIERRAS – ¡CIERRA!Also, the subject pronouns (tú and vosotros) are normally omitted with the imperative form.
52Informal plural – vosotros Commands 2Informal plural – vosotrosIf you want to tell a group of people (family, friends, children) to do something, then it is best to use the vosotros (plural) form of the verb.Simply take the infinitive form of the verb (the part that ends in -AR, -ER, or -IR), take off the -r and add theletter -d.Hablar Comer Abrir¡Hablad!¡Comed!¡Abrid!This is the probably the form you will hear your teacher use when he or she addresses the class as a whole:¡Mirad! - Look!
53Formal singular – usted Commands 3Formal singular – ustedIf you want to express respect or to be polite, then it is best to use the usted (singular) form of the verb.For all regular verbs, simply drop the -o ending from the yo form of the present indicative and add the following endings:Hablo Como Abro¡Hable!¡Coma!¡Abra!Note: if the yo form of the present indicative is irregular, that irregularity is carried over to form the formal commands singular and plural (usted and ustedes).Also, the subject pronouns (usted and ustedes) might be omitted. Using them adds a degree of formality or politeness to the command.
54Formal plural – ustedes Commands 4Formal plural – ustedesIf you want to tell a group of people to do something using the polite command, then it is best to use the ustedes (plural) form of the verb.For all regular verbs, simply drop the -o ending from the yo form of the present indicative and add the following endings:Hablo Como Abro¡Hablen!¡Coman!¡Abran!
55Commands 5 ¡No hablas hables!! ¡No comas! comes ¡No abres Negatives commands / Informal singular – túTelling someone not to do something is quite easy too!Take the normal tú ending off the verb.2. Change the verb endings in the following way:Use -ER endings for -AR verbsUse -AR endings for -ER and -IR verbs3. Finally just put the no in front of thecommand wordClick to see how to form negative commands¡Nohablashables!!¡Nocomas!comes¡Noabras!abres
56Commands 6 ¡No habláis habléis! ¡No comáis! coméis ¡No abrís Negatives commands / Informal plural - vosotrosTelling someone not to do something is quite easy too!Take the normal vosotros ending off the verb.2. Change the verb endings in the following way:Use -ER endings for -AR verbsUse -AR endings for -ER and -IR verbs3. Finally just put the no in front of thecommand wordClick to see how to form negative commands¡Nohabláishabléis!¡Nocomáis!coméis¡Noabráis!abrís
57Commands 7 ¡No hable hable!! ¡No coma! coma ¡No abra ¡No hablen Negatives commands / formal singular and plural – usted, ustedesThe negative command forms of usted and ustedes arevery easy to make!You only need to add the no in front of the usted andustedes command word.USTED¡Nohablehable!!¡Nocoma!coma¡Noabra!abraClick to see how to form negative commandsUSTEDES¡Nohablenhablen!!¡Nocoman!coman¡Noabran!abran
58Commands 8 Afirmative command forms Completa el siguiente cuadro con las formas del imperativo afirmativo.VERBOSCruzarOírPerdonarSeguirTomarTorcerTÚcruzaoyeperdonasiguetomatuerceUSTEDcruceoigaperdonesigatometuerzaVERBOSCruzarOírPerdonarSeguirTomarTorcerVOSOTROSUSTEDESAsk pupils to write the correct forms of the verb in the grid.
59Commands 9 Negative command forms Completa el siguiente cuadro con las formas del imperativo negativo.VERBOSCruzarOírPerdonarSeguirTomarTorcerTÚUSTEDVERBOSCruzarOírPerdonarSeguirTomarTorcerVOSOTROSUSTEDESAsk pupils to write the correct forms of the verb in the grid.