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1 Leadership Vessélina Tossan, EDC 2008-2009. 2 Leader(ship) development from Scott Snook On an individual paper, write down: Name 1) What is this text.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Leadership Vessélina Tossan, EDC 2008-2009. 2 Leader(ship) development from Scott Snook On an individual paper, write down: Name 1) What is this text."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Leadership Vessélina Tossan, EDC 2008-2009

2 2 Leader(ship) development from Scott Snook On an individual paper, write down: Name 1) What is this text about in maximum 10 lines? 2) What are your carreer plans? 3) Do you have a learning goal orientation or a performance orientation (see p.18)? 4) What was the most important developmental experience in your life during last year including last summer? Why?

3 3 Content 1.Defining leadership 2.Personality and behavior 3.Other definitions of leadership, leadership and management 4. The essence of leadership:trait and skill approach 5.Leadership and power 6. Behaviorial theories 7. Situational approaches 8.Transformational leadership 9. James March and leadership 10. Leadership and motivation 11. Leadership and communication 12. Leadership and influence 13. Leading change

4 4 Fieldwork write-up: choice of 1 subject. paper to be submitted at the last session. 1) Relying on a situation you experienced (at school, at a job or another case)where a person had on you a form of leadership or occupied an autority position you depended of, analyse, thanks to the concepts of the course, the impact of this person on you, the reasons of his(her) positive or negative influence and the consequences on you and your action. 2) You choose 2 persons managing a service or a company and you interview them on different aspects of their job: leadership, satisfactions, problems. You can also choose a leader and a follower speaking about the way his (her) relationship with the leader(followers) goes (they can be independent one from eachother). The transcription of the interview has to be followed by a comment using the concepts of the course to analyse and comment what has been said.

5 5 1. Defining Leadership - a personality perspective: a combination of special traits that individuals possess and that induce others to accomplish tasks - a behavior perspective: the things leaders do to bring about change in a group -power relationship that exists between leaders and followers - a transformational process that moves followers to accomplish more that what is usually expected of them - a skills perpective: knowledge and skills that make effective leadeship possible

6 6 Defining leadership In our textbook: Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal Influence=how the leader affects followers In groups: small task groups, a community group, an entire organization Attention to goals: in contexts where individuals are moving toward a goal

7 7 Trait versus process leadership Trait definition of leadreship Leader Height Intelligence Extraversion Self-confidence Followers Process definition of leadership Leader (interaction) Followers

8 8 2. Personality and behavior

9 9 2.1.What is personnality? A set of individual factors more or less stable that make an individuals behaviors constant in the long run and diffrent from behaviors that other people may show in similar situations (Child, Personnality in culture, 1968)

10 10 2.2.Diffrent movements explaining personality and behavior Biology: innate factors Psychanalysis: personal history Sociology: cultural context, social environment Cognitive psycholoy : learning Personnality Behavior Behaviorism: situation

11 11 Big principles of psychanalysis o A therapy and a theory of the mind o Discovered the unconscious o Personnality is a complex psychic system whose energy emanates from two instincts: the instinct of life and the instinct of death o Freud(1896), Jung, Lacan o Our personality is directly affected by the forgotten, repressed events of our childhood o Unveiling the unconscious allows to understand our sufferings and behaviors

12 12 Principles of behaviorism Cares about behaviors that can be observed and measured, not about mental states The base of human behaviors is conditionning (learning by association of a stimulus and an answer) Ivan Pavlov, John B.Watson, Thorndike, Skinner (stimulus, answer, consequence)

13 13 Principles of cognitive psychology In behavorist tradition; sees psychic facts as devices of information processing. George Miller, Jerome Bruner BehaviorismCognitive psychology MethodsObservs behaviorsObservs behaviors and asks the person TheoryThinking is an automatic mechanismSelection, interpretation, strategy of problem solving

14 14 2.3. Is personality innate or aquired?

15 15 Innate compound of personality In 1962, Shields compares 44 couples of monozygotic twins brought up separetely with monozygotic twins brought up together and with heterozygous twins brought up together: very slight differences in intelligence and personality of monozygotic twins whenever brought up together or separately big diffrences between heterozygous twins all brought up together

16 16 But also role of the environment… A survey of INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) on 35 children of very disadvantaged sections of the population adopted by very wealthy families and compared their academic success to that of their 39 brothers and sisters: 1 serious academic failure among the wealthy, 13 among the disadvantaged

17 17 The concept of habitus (P.Bourdieu) Systems of internalized moods that indicate to the individual ways of beeing and behaving in social situations (ways of walking, of speaking)

18 18 Interest and limits of these theories Interest: importance of genetic and social determinisms of behaviors Limits: do not allow to seize the work of re- writing that everybody can do to transform the way that history and society act in him

19 19 2.4.Personality trait definition: constant and stable caracteristic of the behavior of an individual (S.Robbins) reason of interest: to foresee appropriateness between individuals and theit job Two surveys emerge: -The MBTI (Myers-Bristol typologic indicator) - Big Five model

20 20 The MBTI: the most used tool of the world Set in the 40 s by K.Briggs and I. Myers from C.G. Jungs work on psychological types (1921) Questionnaire of average a hundred questions about what people feel and do in various situations


22 22 MBTI 4 leading dimensions in personality: EI : communicative/ quiet SN: practical, prefering order, routine/ global vision TF: logical/ personal values, emotions JP: seeking to control,structure/ flexibles, spontaneous 16 pesonality types de Ex: INTJ: visionnaire, original, conducts his own idas and projects with a big dynamism; critical, independent ESTJ: organising, realiste, determined, talented for business 13 businessmen founders of Apple, FedEx, Microsoft, Sony: NT

23 23 « The Big Five » or « Five Factor Model » of personality Openness : interest for new things, new experiences Conscientiousness: reliability, perseverance, organisation Extraversion (outgoing): capacity to be in relationship with others Agreeableness: concern for cooperation and social harmony « Neuroticism » (emotional stability): ability to resist pressure and stress ; a person with low emotional stability is nervous, anxious, depresses, doesnt feel safe Major links between these factors and performance at work.

24 24 Empirical validation of Big Five links with performance at work A vast survey among 5 categories: professional people (engineers, architects, accountants and lawyers), policemen, managers, salespeople, employees linking traits to performance, earning Conscientiousness present in the 5 categories Extraversion: important for managers and salespeople. Openness important when you have to train people Emotional stability has no link with performance: nervosity may improve performances, by depressed attitude is bad for every profession

25 25 3. Other leadership definitions Leadership is what brings to an organisation its vision et its aptitude of translating this vision into reality (W. Bennis) Leadership is the art of bringing persons to voluntarily accomplish a task(H.B. Karp)

26 26 3. Other leadership definitions: 3.1.Leadership and management The overriding function of management is to provide order and consistency to organizations, whereas the primary function of leadership is to produce change and movement (Kotter, 1990) Define mission Formulate strategy Implement srategy Leaders role Lead change Managers role : Manage complexity

27 27 Leadership and management Managers differ from leaders (Bennis, Zaleznik, Kets de Vries) – managers « know what they must do » – leaders « know what must be done » leaders influence, guide, orient. They have a vision and a charisma that allow to motivate.

28 28 Du management au leadership MANAGEMENTLEADERSHIP Chef dorchestre et metteur en scène Architecte et bâtisseur Comment et quand?Quoi et pourquoi? Maître dœuvre au quotidien Maître douvrage de lavenir Système et procéduresVision et influence Cherche à atteindre un objectif Chercher à mobiliser une communauté Philippe Gabilliet

29 29 3.2. Max Weber (1864-1920): 3 kinds of leader/follower relations Asks how a leader can "legitimately" give a command and have actions carried out? Classified claims to the "legitimacy" in the exercise of authority Identified three kinds of leader/follower relations – traditional, bureaucratic and charismatic Believe they occur in combination, and Also argues that "there may be gradual transitions between these types"

30 30 Max Weber's three ideal types of leaders Three Frames 1. Bureaucratic (Transactional) Bureaucracy is "the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge; the rational legal hierarchical power, the Bureaucratic Leader 3. Charismatic Hero (Transformer) An individual personality set apart from ordinary people and endowed with supernatural, superhuman powers and heroic charismatic leadership qualities; part hero part superman/superwoman 2. Traditional (Feudal/Prince) Traditional an arbitrary exercise of power bound to loyalty, favoritism, and politics; the princely leader

31 31 Rational Grounds (the bureaucrat) Rest on a belief in the 'legality' of patterns of normative rules and the right of those in authority to issue commands (legal authority) The leader subject to strict and systematic discipline and control in the conduct of the office Claims to obedience based on rational values and rules and established by agreement (or imposition) The office holder restricted to impersonal official obligations and commands Clearly defined hierarchy Officials, not persons exercise authority Each office defined by sphere of competence Person does not owe obedience to the individual, but to the impersonal order Rules regulate the conduct of an office (either technical rules or norms) Complete separation of property belonging to the personal and to the organization

32 32 Examples The Catholic Church, Hospitals, Religious orders, Profit-making business, Large-scale capitalistic enterprise, Modern army, The modern state, Trade unions, and Charitable organizations

33 33 Traditional Grounds (the Prince) Rest on an established belief in the sanctity of traditions and the legitimacy of the status of those exercising authority (traditional authority) Legitimacy and power to control handed down from the past Power exercised in quite arbitrary ways Office held by virtue of traditional status and by recruiting favourites or by patrimony Obligations not by office but personal loyalty to the chief Functions are defined in terms of competition among the interest of those seeking favours, income, and other advantages Irrational division of official functions (established by rights or fees) Promotion by the arbitrary grace of the chief (no technical training of skill required) Commands legitimized by traditions Obligations of obedience on the basis of personal loyalty (kinship, or dependents) Exercise of authority is only limited by resistance; or, but pointing to a failure to act according to the traditions

34 34 Examples Ruling families, Feudal kingdoms in China, Egypt and Africa, Family business, Roman and other nobilities, Clans and, Armies of the colonies

35 35 Charismatic Grounds (the Hero) Rest on devotion to the specific and exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and Of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained Obeyed by virtue of personal trust, heroism or exemplary qualities Charisma regarded as of divine origin, the person is treated as a leader Hero worship Set apart from ordinary people and endowed with supernatural and superhuman powers and abilities Charismatic leaders choose members not for technical training, but on the basis of social privilege and the charismatic qualities of disciples People are not promoted - only called or summoned on the basis of their charismatic qualification No established administrative organs, no system of formal rules, no abstract legal principle Leader preaches, creates, or demands new obligations Radically opposed to both traditional and particularly bureaucratic authority The biggest challenge - the charismatic administrative staff to transition to a bureaucratic and rational administration

36 36 Webers Model None of the three ideal types occurs in "pure" form; transitions and combinations can be observed Can be a combination of bureaucratic, traditional, and charismatic leadership The ideal (pure) types transmute one into the other

37 37 3.3. Are you born a leader or can you become one? Research on leadership as of the 30s goes in 2 directons: Explore the essence of leadership: what are the intrinsic qualities of the leader? Explore the behavior of effective leaders : can you become a leader and how?

38 38 4. The essence of leadership: trait and skills approaches Phenomenons of leadership in small informal groups, in groups of children, historic leaders Max Weber first gives a name to this quality that seem to have some influencial men: as of 1916, il makes charisma one of the 3 fundamental types of authority relationship Assigned leaders/ emergent leaders

39 39 4.1. What personality traits has the leader? No consensus. A group leader has several traits that distinguish him from the other members of the group but these traits change according to the group.

40 40 Studies of leadership traits and characteristics Stogdill (1948)Mann (1959) Stogdill (1974)Lord, DeVader and Alliger (1986) Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) Intelligence Alertness Insight Responsibility Initiative Persistence Self-confidence Sociability Intelligence Masculinity Adjustment Dominance Extraversion Conservatism Achievement Persistence Insight Initiative Self-confidence Responsibility Cooperativeness Tolerance Influence Sociability Intelligence Masculinity Dominance Drive Motivation Integrity Confidence Cognitive ability Task knowledge

41 41 Major leadership traits intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity sociability (Peter G. Northouse, Leadership theory and practice, 4th edition, Sage, 2007)

42 42 4.2. Emotional intelligence: Definitions The ability to perceive and express emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and reason with emotions, and to effectively manage emotions within oneself and in relationships with others (Mayer, Salovey,&Caruso, 2000) A set of personal and social competencies Self-awareness, confidence, self regulation, conscientiousness and motivation Empathy and social skills such as communication and conflict management (Goleman, 1995)

43 43 4.3.Strenghts and criticisms of trait approach Intuitevely appealing Backed by reasearch Personality and assessment procedures Not a definitive list of leadership traits Doesnt take situations into account Subjectivity How to teach new traits?

44 44 4.4.Management skills necessary at various levels of an organization, Katz 1955 TECHNICAL HUMANCONCEPTUAL TECHNICAL HUMANCONCEPTUAL TECHNICALHUMANCONCEPTUAL TOP Management MIDDLE Management SUPERVISORY Management

45 45 4.5.The essence of leadership by Warren Bennis (HEC MBA Program conference 2004) 1) Absorption of uncertainty 2) Social and contextual intelligence (globale education, treatment of a big variety of informations, understanding of cultures, networks) 3) Knowing how to analyse his own defects and rendering his weaknesses irrelevant

46 46 5. Leadership and Power 5.1 Definitions Power of A on B = ability of A to get from B a behavior desired by A that B wouldnt have adopted by himself Power is a relationship (Crozier et Friedberg, Lacteur et le système, Paris, Le Seuil, 1977) 2 means to obtain from someone to do what we would like him to do: Power Influence or manipulation (way to deceive)

47 47 5.2. Bases of power according to French and Raven Coercive power:derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others Referent power: based on followers identification and liking for the leader (ex a schoolteacher adored by her pupils) Expert power: based on followersperceptions of the leaders competence. Legitimate power:associated with having status or formal job authority. Reward power: derived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others (French and Raven, 1959)

48 48 2 additional theoretic approaches Power as mastering dependence (Emerson, Blau) Power as mastering uncertainty (Crozier, Friedberg)

49 49 5.3.Power as masterening dependence of other people We can get what we desire from a person if she depends on us to get what she desires. The more dependent a person is, the more she obeys. B is dependent on A if A controls ressources that B needs. The more important Bs need is, the more important As power is. The more B can satisfy its need at other sources, the more As power is weakened. As power on B is function of the felt (and not necessary real) need by B, the perceived need by B of substitute ressources, and of the real coercion capacity of B on A.

50 50 5.4.Power as mastering uncertainty People in an organization may control different uncertainty zones : Mastering a special skill Mastering the link between the organization and a relevant part of its environment Mastering communication and information. Mastering appliance of rules and arbitration between several procedures. On the other way, the whole organization appears as an interaction of uncertainties: Every action always depends on an action of another person The power of everyone is then proportional to his capacity of leaving uncertainty on whether he is going to do or not the action expected from him. The power is then proportional to the autonomy towards rules : the more an individual is free to act or not like the others needs him to do, the more his action is unforeseeable, the more power he has on them. Consequently, the more an individual has the capacity to reduce or increase uncertainty which means either to master uncertainty relevant zones in the organization, either to maintain the uncertainty regarding the actual doing of what is expected from him, the more power he has.

51 51 5.5. The need for power Mc Clelland Need for achievement Need for belonging Need for power Freud Le pouvoir renforce le Moi, dans sa lutte contre le Cà, (les pulsions sexuelles) Adler Le pouvoir est une réponse à lexistence dun sentiment dinfériorité, au travers dun phénomène dit de « surcompensation » La recherche du pouvoir serait une forme de « formation réactionnelle » visant à compenser les sentiments dinfériorité cachés Il serait une «défensive compulsive » contre langoisse et la dépréciation de soi

52 52 5.6. La logique de lhonneur (Philippe dIribarne) Philippe dIribarne: le passé monarchique éclaire les rapports hiérarchiques qui existent en France, contrairement aux deux autres pays étudiés, les États-unis et les Pays-Bas. A une condition toutefois: Cette obéissance doit sinscrire dans un rapport à « plus noble que soi » « Celui qui obéit peut alors être animé dune déférence envers celui qui commande, dun respect qui conduit à se soumettre, en conservant une âme libre. Il obéit alors moins à la contrainte quà lamour, ce type de soumission sadresse à quelquun qui nest pas seulement perçu comme disposant de plus de pouvoir que soi, mais comme revêtu dune dignité ayant quelque chose de sacré. Obéir conduit alors à sélever soi- même » (La logique de lhonneur, 1993)

53 53 6. Behaviorial theories - Test If I was the supervisorI would strongly tend to I would tend to I would not tend to I strongly would not tend to 1. Strictly control my team so that they do a better work 2. Set the goals and objectives of my employees and get their support to my plans 3. Set control mechanisms to make sure that my employees do the work 4. Encourage my employees to set their own goals and objectives 5. Make sure that the work of my employees is planned for them

54 54 6. Behaviorial theories - Test If I was the supervisorI would strongly tend to I would tend to I would not tend to I strongly would not tend to 6. Determine every day with my employees whether they need help 7. Intervene as soon as reports show a slackening in work 8. Urge my employees to abide by execution plans if necessary 9. Organize frequent meetings to stay aware of what is going on 10. Allow my employees to take important decisions.

55 55 Leadership attitudes: The X-Y scale HYPOTHESES OF X THEORY 1. The average individual has an innate aversion for work and does everything to avoid it 2. Because of that, the most part of people have to be forced, controled, directed and threatened of punishement in order to deploy the necessary efforts for organizational objectives. 3. The average individual prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibilities, has a relatively low ambition and aspires before all to safety.

56 56 Leadership attitudes: The X-Y scale HYPOTHESES OF Y THEORY 1. Physical and mental effort in work is as natural as game and rest. 2. External control and threat of sanction are not the only means to get an effort directed towards organizational objectives. An individual can direct and control himself to reach objectives he is responsible for. 3. Commitment towards objectives is function of rewards associated to their achievement. 4. The average individual learns, in certain conditions, not only to accept but also to seek responsibilities. 5. Capacities of imagination, ingenuity and creativity to solve organizational problems are largely distributed among population. 6. In the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potential of the individual is only partially employed.

57 57 Test (following) If I was the supervisorI would strongly tend to I would tend to I would not tend to I strongly would not tend to 1. Strictly control my team so that they do a better work 2. Set the goals and objectives of my employees and get their support to my plans 3. Set control mechanisms to make sure that my employees do the work 4. Encourage my employees to set their own goals and objectives 5. Make sure that the work of my employees is planned for them 1414114141 2323223232 3232332323 4141441414

58 58 Test(following) If I was the supervisorI would strongly tend to I would tend to I would not tend to I strongly would not tend to 6. Determine every day with my employees whether they need help 7. Intervene as soon as reports show a slackening in work 8. Urge my employees to abide by execution plans if necessary 9. Organize frequent meetings to stay aware of what is going on 10. Allow my employees to take important decisions. 4141441414 3232332323 2323223232 1414114141

59 59 6-Behaviorial theories 2 dimensions: Dimension concern for people Dimension concern for results Lewin, Lipitt et White (1927) Ohio State Studies (1950-1960) University of Michigan studies (1950-1960)

60 60 6.1. The orientation on concern for people Mc Gregor s « X et Y » theory historically important in the evolution of management According to Mc Gregor every human being tries to behave according to the hypotheses of Y theory. But types of directions that he undergoes not always let him the possibility: so laziness and indifference you can see could be explained not by human nature but by the fact that management hasnt succeeded in creating an atmosphere of trust or the necessary conditions to integrate everybody well in the company.

61 61 6.1. The orientation on concern for people Likerts experiment in an insurance company in 1967 (« Management, aspects humains et organisationnels » p.381) Likert observed that some sections had better results than others in spite of similar work conditions, similar employees experience and corporate policy. He established a correlation between these results and the more democratic leadership style in these sections. Thus the ideal organization he recommends is one in which mangers seek to get and use the ideas and opinions of their employees.

62 62 6.2 The orientation on both dimensions SocialIntégrateur Compromis Autocrate Degré dintérêt porté aux impératifs de la production Laisser-faire Degré dintérêt porté aux problèmes humains élevéfaible élevé Blake and Mouton (1969) leadership grid : the best known model of managerial behavior. on which leaders position themselves according to their answer to a questionnaire (p.74- poly n°2 p.5)

63 63 Blake and Mouton In addition to the 5 major styles described in the leadership grid, Blake and his colleagues have identified 2 other styles that incorporate multiple aspects of the grid: Paternalism/maternalism: refers to the leader who uses both 1,9 and 9,1 but doesnt integrate the two. The benevolent dictator who acts graciously but does so for the purpose of goal accomplishment. Opportunism: a leader who uses any combination of the basic 5 styles for the purpose of personal advancement.

64 64 Blake and Mouton For next session read poly 2 p.3 : « Le style dans laction » p.398 in « Management aspects humains et organisationnels » Geneen the autority- compliance leader and Matsushita, the team manager

65 65 Test « Style questionnaire » poly 3 p.9 Designed to measure 2 major types of leadership behaviors : task and relationship. First sum the responses on the odd- numbered items. This is your task score. Second sum the responses on the even- number items.This is your relationship score. Scoring interpretation 45-50 very high range 30-34 moderately low range 40-44 high range 25-39 low range 35-39 moderately high range 10-24 very low range

66 66 6.3. Limits of these studies Static approach Certain situations may require different leadership styles Doesnt say how to become a good leader

67 67 7. Situational approach Different situations demand different kinds of leadership=> to be an effective leader requires that a person adapts his or her style to the demands of different situations Historical situations (p.375 M a.h.o) A given situation, most often a crisis, makes the leader to emerge K.Marx, C.Gibb(1963), Bogardus (1963) « Le leadership est toujours relatif à une situation et ceci de deux points de vue 1) le leadership fleurit seulement dans une situation problématique; 2) la nature du rôle du leader est déterminée par les besoins du groupe et ses buts » (Gibb) Big leaders have been men of some situations never of all! De Gaulle Martin Luther King Gandhi Pétain « Sortez-le de ces situations types et il est relativement impuissant » (Bogadus) In a given type of situation, the leader seems to have a capacity of analysis that other people dont have which makes his strenght and efficiency. In objectively similar situations this experience can be tranfered (organise help, coach a football team, make a battle plan, take a company out of a difficult situation)…but less evident in non similar situations.

68 68 7.1. Fiedler contigency theory(1972). Methodology of research: Leaderss style is measured through a questionnaire where each leader describes his Least preferred coworker. The best result for the leader who evaluates in the most positive terms=> centered on personal relations Situations can be characterized in: Leader-member relations: good or bad Task structure: the degree to which the requirements of a task are clear and spelled out or not (ex: cleaning the milkshake machine at McDo=structured/ fundraising for a local volunteer organization=non structured) Position power: the amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish followers: strong or weak Favorable, moderately favorable and unfavorable situations (P.385 M a h o) Correlations between a group efficiency, leader s style and situations Conclusions:Very favorable situations or very unfavorable ones ask for a task oriented leadership (better performance) while leaders in an intermediate situation get a better result with a relationship oriented leadership

69 69 Strenghts and criticisms of contingency theory Supported by empirical research Predictive Difficult for respondents to understand how their description of another person reflect their own leadership style Confusion between the less liked and less prefered co-worker

70 70 7.2. Hersey et Blanchard (1977) situational approach: 4 « leadership styles » based upon development levels of followers Development level is the degree to which subordinates have the competence and commitment to accomplish a given task Leadership styles consist of the behavior patterns of persons who attempt to influence others: Directing Coaching (entraîner) Supporting (épauler) Delegating

71 71 Hersey and Blanchard leadership styles Directing S1: establishing goals and methods of evaluation,one-way communication focused on goal achievement Coaching S2 giving encouragement and soliciting subordinate input, extension of directing (the leader makes final decision on the what and how) Supporting S3: help group members feel comfortable, two- way communication, asking for input, praising, listening, sharing information about oneself, giving feedback; gives subordinates control of day-to-day decisions but remains available to facilitate problem solving. Delegating S4:lessens his involvement in planning, control in details and goal clarification ; lets subordinates take responsibility for getting the job done the way they see fit.

72 72 Hersey and Blanchard situational approach Employees move forward and backward along the development continuum. Leaders have to determine where subordinates are and match their style New employees very excited but lack understanding of job requirements: D1 Low commitment and some competence: D2 Variable commitment and high competence:D3 Workers with proven abilities and great devotion: D4 Subordinates may move from one development level to another over a short period (a day, a week) or over longer periods=> leaders have to demonstrate a high degree of flexibility Test poly 2 p.15

73 73 Réponses au test M1 : directif M2 : persuasif (coaching) M3 : participatif (supportive) M4 : délégatif

74 74

75 75

76 76 Strenghts and criticisms of Hersey and Blanchard approach Frequently used for training leaders within organizations Applied across work, school, family Prescriptive: a competent subordianate who lacks confidence=>? Few research to justify assumptions Doesnt account for characteristics like education, experience, age, gender A study of 2002 showed that level of education and job experience are inversely related to directive leadership and not related to supportive leadership (employees with more education and work experience desire less structure). Female employees express preference for supportive leadership, male employees have a stronger desire for directive leadership

77 77 8. Transformational leadership An exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them. A process that incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership. Burns(1978): leadership is different from power because it is inseparable from followersneeds He distinguishes between transactional and transformational types of leadership

78 78 8.1.Burns theory Transactional leadership: exchange dimension, ex: politicians who win votes promising no taxes, managers who promote employees who surpass their goals Transformational leadership: raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower(ex: Gandhi). A manager who attempts to change his companys corporate values to reflect a more human standard of fairness and justice.

79 79 Hierarchy (Burns) coercive with a strong will to power moral means to lead the moral ends of leadership.

80 80 Two Moral Leaders Sub-Types Transactional Leaders lead with modal values (the means over ends) Modal values include: Honesty Responsibility Fairness Honouring one's commitments Transformational Leaders lead with transcendent values (the ends over means) Transcendent values include: Liberty Justice Equality Collective Well Being

81 81 8.2.Bass (1985) accused Burns Of three atrocities 1. Did not pay attention to followers' needs and wants, 2. Restricted transformational leadership to moral ends, and 3. Set up a single continuum running from transactional to transformational leadership types

82 82 Bass Argued that transformational leadership universally applicable Regardless of culture, transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or organization Followers motivated to expend greater effort than would usually be expected

83 83 Bass Most leaders do both (transformation and transaction) in different amounts; Transformational and transactional leadership are likely to be displayed by the same individual in different amounts and intensities Transactional leader contribute confidence and desire by clarifying required performance and how needs would be satisfied as a result Transformational leader induces additional effort by further sharply increasing subordinate confidence and by elevating the value of outcomes for the subordinate

84 84 Bass Transformational leadership hierarchically superior to transactional leadership - able to expand the subordinate's needs with a focus on more transcendental interests Transactional leader appeals to lower order needs, while the transformational appeals to higher order ones What the transactional leader accomplishes, the transformational leader is able to "heighten" and "elevate" the value of outcomes "The transactional leaders works within the organizational culture as it exists; the transformational leader changes the organizational culture

85 85 Comparison of Burns and Bass Models of Transformational & and Transactional Leaders BURNS Transactional Leader approaches followers with an eye to exchanging one thing for another BASS Transactional Leader pursues a cost benefit, economic exchange to meet subordinates current material and psychic needs in return for "contracted" services rendered by the subordinate"

86 86 Comparison of Burns and Bass Models of Transformational & and Transactional Leaders BURNS Transformational Leader "recognizes and exploits an existing need or demand of a potential follower... (and) looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower" BASS Transformational Leader The leader who recognizes the transactional needs in potential followers "but tends to go further, seeking to arouse and satisfy higher needs, to engage the full person of the follower... to a higher level of need according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs" Also use their authority and power to radically reshape through coercive means the social and physical environment, thus destroying the old way of life and making way for a new one

87 87 8.3. Bennis and Nanus (1985) A study of ninety top leaders Leader traits include: logical thinking, persistence, empowerment, and self-control Rediscovered transformational (leaders) as being different from transactional (managers)

88 88 4 strategies in transforming organisations (Bennis and Nanus, 1985) Clear vision of the future state of their organizations. Vision is simple, beneficial, energy creating. Enpowers followers and makes them into change agents because they feel they are a significant dimension of a worthwhile entreprise. Communicate a direction that transforms their organizations values and norms. Create trust in their organizations by making their own positions clearly known and then standing by them. Creative deployment of self through positive self regard. Leaders know their strenghts and weaknesses and emphasize their strenghts rather than dwelling on their weaknesses.

89 89 Bennis, Nanus, 1985 p 391

90 90 8.4. Kouzes and Posner (2002) Interviewed more than 1 300 middle and senior-level managers and asked them to describe their « personal best »experiences as leaders 5 practices of exemplary leadership: Model the way Inspire a shared vision Challenge the process Enable others to act Encourage the heart => The Leadership Practices Inventory: a 360 degree leadership assessment tool, widely used in leadership training and development.

91 91 8.5. Strenghts of transformational approach Large body of research Followers gain a more prominent position in the leadership process (their needs are central). It is related to their satisfaction, motivation and performance. Morally uplifting (coercitive use of power is not a model of leadership)

92 92 8.6.Criticisms Wide; difficult to define exactly the parameters Validity of MLQ(factors correlate with each others) Elitist, antidemocratic, gives the impression that the leader is acting independently of followers or putting himself above the followers needs

93 93 9. James March and leadership (2003) James G. March is Professor Emeritus at Stanford University, best known for his research on organizations and decision making. March is highly respected for his broad theoretical perspective which combined theories from psychology and other behavioural sciences. He collaborated with the cognitive psychologist Herbert Simon on several works on organization theory. March is also known for his work on the theory of the firm and on decision making known as the Garbage Can Model.Professor EmeritusStanford Universitypsychology behavioural sciencescognitive psychologistHerbert Simonorganization theory theory of the firmGarbage Can Model Since 1953, he has served on the faculties of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, the University of California, Irvine, and (since 1970) Stanford University. He has been elected to the National Academy of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the, and has been a member of the National Science Board.1953Carnegie Institute of TechnologyUniversity of California1970Stanford UniversityNational Academy of ScienceAmerican Academy of Arts and SciencesNational Science Board

94 94 20 2h sessions on leadership Les participants devaient lire chez eux quatre œuvres littéraires: Othello, Guerre et Paix, Sainte Jeanne (de Bernard Shaw) et Don Quichotte

95 95 Deux remarques de James March « Il est difficile détablir des liens de causalité entre les attributs et les comportements des leaders et les résultats de lorganisation » « Le leadership pose un dilemme à lenseignant: cest important comme le succès, la vertu, lamour mais cela ne senseigne pas facilement »

96 96 Talents particuliers, recettes miracle? March doute du fait que le leadership requière des talents hors du commun et que lhistoire soit, dabord, la conséquence des actions des puissants Mais lexistence de chefs et nos attitudes vis-à-vis deux sont essentiels au fonctionnement de la société et au bien-être des individus Les dirigeants dentreprise lisent des auteurs classiques portant sur lart de la guerre (Clausewitz, Sun Tse, et Napoléon) qui leur fournissent une source de réflexion et de stimulation pour affronter la concurrence, penser une stratégie, formuler une tactique et mobiliser un corps social sur un champ de bataille.

97 97 Quenseignent les œuvres littéraires sur le leadership? Othello: interactions complexes entre vie privée et vie publique du leader lhabileté et la ruse (Iago), linnocence (Desdémone) Sainte Jeanne: le génie contrarie les institutions en place et ne se distingue du fou quà posteriori, lorsquil a provoqué un changement salutaire.

98 98 Quenseignent les œuvres littéraires sur le leadership?(2) Guerre et Paix: les ambiguïtés et lincohérence de lhistoire et linsignifiance des actions humaines Don Quichotte: le rôle de la vision, des rêves, des espérances pour entreprendre des actions denvergure Importance de lhumour, de la dérision, de la joie, de lengagement gratuit et enthousiaste. Les leaders agissent souvent en fonction dune vision, et protègent celle-ci des critiques de leur entourage et des retours dexpérience qui semblent leur donner tort. Ils interprètent à leur manière les échecs rencontrés leur de la mise en oeuvre

99 99 Questions liées au leadership daprès March Limportance de la position sociale est incompatible avec des relations humaines authentiques et sincères. Les motivations personnelles ne sont pas sans effets sur les prises de décision des leaders. Comment concilier sentiments personnels et responsabilités organisationnelles? Les leaders dont dépeints comme dastucieux manipulateurs de ressources et de personnes mais aussi ayant une faculté à appréhender de façon simple. Les leaders ont une capacité visionnaire et osent prendre des risques. Ils peuvent contribuer à transformer les organisations grâce à leur créativité, leur perspicacité et leur volonté. Mais la plupart des idées novatrices menacent la structure organisationnelle. Comment distinguer a priori les grands leaders des fous furieux?

100 100 Questions liées au leadership daprès March (2) Un leadership efficace implique une capacité de vivre dans deux mondes à la fois: celui, incohérent de limagination et des rêves et celui ordonné des plans et de laction pragmatique. Comment concilier ambiguïté et cohérence?

101 101 « Les leaders sont à la fois plombiers et poètes. » La « plomberie » consiste à veiller à lefficacité de lorganisation dans les tâches de tous les jours. Les mots permettent de forger des visions, le langage poétique, par son pouvoir dévocation, nous permet de « dire plus que nous nen savons, denseigner plus que nous ne comprenons ».

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