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Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011 Bilingualism, a new stage in the construction of the European identity: Makedon-Armân.

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Presentation on theme: "Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011 Bilingualism, a new stage in the construction of the European identity: Makedon-Armân."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011 Bilingualism, a new stage in the construction of the European identity: Makedon-Armân bilingualism – an exemplar model in the Balkan States Nicolas Caracota Association des Francais Armâns (AFA)

2 Europe – National States – National Minorities National States in Europe National States in Europe National States with National Minorities National States with National Minorities National States with National Languages and Minority or Regional Languages National States with National Languages and Minority or Regional Languages Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

3 Charter of FCNM Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

4 Minorities and National Minorities What is a national minority ? What is a national minority ? Is a purely ethnic, religious or linguistic minority a national minority ? Is a purely ethnic, religious or linguistic minority a national minority ? FCNM contains no definition of national minorities FCNM contains no definition of national minorities What minorities may receive protection under FCNM ? What minorities may receive protection under FCNM ? FCNM and ECRML – only a passiv minority protection ? FCNM and ECRML – only a passiv minority protection ? Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

5 Minorities and National Minorities National minority: National minority: The term "national minority " refers to a group of people in a state that: The term "national minority " refers to a group of people in a state that: a. resident in the territory of that State and are citizens; b. maintain longstanding, firm and lasting ties with that State; c. display distinctive ethnic, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics; d. are sufficiently representative, although smaller in number than the rest of the population of this state or a region of that State; e. are motivated by a concern to preserve together that which constitutes their common identity, including their culture, traditions, religion or language. a. resident in the territory of that State and are citizens; b. maintain longstanding, firm and lasting ties with that State; c. display distinctive ethnic, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics; d. are sufficiently representative, although smaller in number than the rest of the population of this state or a region of that State; e. are motivated by a concern to preserve together that which constitutes their common identity, including their culture, traditions, religion or language. Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

6 Minorities or Regional Peoples ? Acceptance of the term minority in southeast european countries Acceptance of the term minority in southeast european countries Could the term regional people substitute the term minority ? Could the term regional people substitute the term minority ? For many minorities the term minority leads often to confusion, exclusion or even discrimination For many minorities the term minority leads often to confusion, exclusion or even discrimination Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

7 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

8 Regional or Minority Languages Regional Peoples: indigenous groups who speak a language different to that of the majority of the population of the state Regional Peoples: indigenous groups who speak a language different to that of the majority of the population of the state Regional Languages: languages traditionally used by part of the population of a state that are not dialects of official languages of the state Regional Languages: languages traditionally used by part of the population of a state that are not dialects of official languages of the state Article 22 of the European Charter of Fundamental Rights Article 22 of the European Charter of Fundamental Rights Many as 40 million citizens of the EU regularly use a regional or minority language Many as 40 million citizens of the EU regularly use a regional or minority language Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

9 Charter of Autochthone Peoples and Ethnic Minorities of Europe Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

10 Languages of Enlarged European Union Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

11 Conclusions Europe: Culturally Diversified Communities, multilingually communities, also multiculturally Europe: Culturally Diversified Communities, multilingually communities, also multiculturally All mentioned autochthonous peoples and national minorities who speak a regional language are bilingual peoples All mentioned autochthonous peoples and national minorities who speak a regional language are bilingual peoples Bilingualism is more than speaking two languages: bilingualism opens the door to other cultures Bilingualism is more than speaking two languages: bilingualism opens the door to other cultures European multilingualism and multiculturalism can not get an unity without bilingualism European multilingualism and multiculturalism can not get an unity without bilingualism Bilingualism: the first step to the new european identity Bilingualism: the first step to the new european identity Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

12 An Example of Bilingualism in Europe Makedon-Armân Bilingualism – an exemplar model in the Balkan states Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

13 Armân / Makedon-Armân people short history roots originate from Ancient Macedonia roots originate from Ancient Macedonia origins in the two cultures that make up the cultural foundation of the whole of Europe – the Hellenic and the Latin origins in the two cultures that make up the cultural foundation of the whole of Europe – the Hellenic and the Latin live nowadays : Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, FYROM (R. of Macedonia), Serbia and Romania(diaspora) live nowadays : Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, FYROM (R. of Macedonia), Serbia and Romania(diaspora) 1913, Macedonia was divided up among Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania 1913, Macedonia was divided up among Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania Armân/Makedon-Armân people is a special European problem in the field of minority issues in the Balkan Armân/Makedon-Armân people is a special European problem in the field of minority issues in the Balkan The only autochthon people in Balkan which never established their own national state The only autochthon people in Balkan which never established their own national state The only people in Balkan without a kin-state (a stateless nation) The only people in Balkan without a kin-state (a stateless nation)

14 Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

15 Ethnonyms Armân / Makedon-Armân – own name Armân / Makedon-Armân – own name Known also as : Vlahi, Vlasi, Koutso-Vlahi, Elino-Vlahi, Macedo-Vlahi, Macedoneni (Macedoromãni, Mazedo-Romanen), Makedoni, Aromãni (Aromanians, Aromunen, Aroumains), Tsintsari, Cioban, Rrmeni, etc. Known also as : Vlahi, Vlasi, Koutso-Vlahi, Elino-Vlahi, Macedo-Vlahi, Macedoneni (Macedoromãni, Mazedo-Romanen), Makedoni, Aromãni (Aromanians, Aromunen, Aroumains), Tsintsari, Cioban, Rrmeni, etc.

16 Status of Makedon-Armâns in Balkan States Greece: vlachophone greeks Greece: vlachophone greeks Albania: linguistic and ethno-cultural minority Albania: linguistic and ethno-cultural minority R. of Macedonia: part of regional people R. of Macedonia: part of regional people Bulgaria: linguistic and ethno-cultural minority Bulgaria: linguistic and ethno-cultural minority Romania: romanians speaking a dialect of romanian language Romania: romanians speaking a dialect of romanian language Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

17 Documents on historical & educational bilingualism Cultural movement of Moschopolis (18th C.) : Th.A.Kavallioti - Protopiria, Vienna, 1770 – Dictionary of three Balkan languages (Greek-Vlach- Albanian) Cultural movement of Moschopolis (18th C.) : Th.A.Kavallioti - Protopiria, Vienna, 1770 – Dictionary of three Balkan languages (Greek-Vlach- Albanian) Daniil Moscopoleanu - Lexicon Tetraylosson, 1794, Venice – Dictionary of four Balkan languages (Greek/Romaiika-Vlach-Albanian-Bulgarian) Daniil Moscopoleanu - Lexicon Tetraylosson, 1794, Venice – Dictionary of four Balkan languages (Greek/Romaiika-Vlach-Albanian-Bulgarian) Mihail G.Boiagi - Yramatiki Makedonovlahiki, Vienna 1813, the first academic grammar of Armân language (Armân-Greek-German) Mihail G.Boiagi - Yramatiki Makedonovlahiki, Vienna 1813, the first academic grammar of Armân language (Armân-Greek-German) Rich classical & modern literature – 1850 until nowadays Rich classical & modern literature – 1850 until nowadays

18 Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011 Armân / Makedon-Armân : Bilingualism / Multilingualism bilingualism Macedonian/Tracian/Greek-Latin – Provincia Macedonia (168 BC – 600 AC) bilingualism Macedonian/Tracian/Greek-Latin – Provincia Macedonia (168 BC – 600 AC) bilingualism Greek-Latin (Byzantium) bilingualism Greek-Latin (Byzantium) biligualism Armân-Neogreek / Armân-Albanian biligualism Armân-Neogreek / Armân-Albanian biligualism Armân-Slavic (beginning with 6th C.) biligualism Armân-Slavic (beginning with 6th C.) modern multilingualism : 1. Armân – 2. official language (Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Serbian, Slavic-macedonian) – 3. modern language (English, French, German, etc.) modern multilingualism : 1. Armân – 2. official language (Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Serbian, Slavic-macedonian) – 3. modern language (English, French, German, etc.)

19 European Personalities with Makedon-Armân Roots Mihail G. Boiagi, philologist, grammarian, author of first Makedon- Armân (Aromanian) grammar Mihail G. Boiagi, philologist, grammarian, author of first Makedon- Armân (Aromanian) grammar Emanoil Gojdu, lawyer and politician in the Austrian Empire Emanoil Gojdu, lawyer and politician in the Austrian Empire Dumba family, famous philanthropists and Austrian Imperial bankers Dumba family, famous philanthropists and Austrian Imperial bankers Athenagoras, Patriarch of Constantinople Athenagoras, Patriarch of Constantinople Nikola Dumba, great benefactor of Vienna, sponsor of all the great composers of his times who lived in Vienna Nikola Dumba, great benefactor of Vienna, sponsor of all the great composers of his times who lived in Vienna Manakis brothers (Yanaki and Milton Manakia), photographers and filmmakers, pioneers of film and photography in the Balkans Manakis brothers (Yanaki and Milton Manakia), photographers and filmmakers, pioneers of film and photography in the Balkans Sotirios Bulgaris, founder of the BULGARI JEWELRY house Sotirios Bulgaris, founder of the BULGARI JEWELRY house Georg Simon Sina (Baron Sina), famous philanthropist and Austrian Imperial banker Georg Simon Sina (Baron Sina), famous philanthropist and Austrian Imperial banker Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

20 Karl-Markus Gauss about Makedon-Armâns "Is there already a new European ? (...) Are there already people, receptive to everything that exists in the world, not based roughly on their national possessions, not evil, but love to think and speak two languages or more which do not attach a shabby way their actions and aspirations for a single state, but still many for whom the boundaries are not an obsession but a means to excel daily, which has always engaged in trade and circulation between the east and west, north and south, which enrich their identity in contact with different cultures ? Yes, they exist and they are called Armâns. Pioneers of a free Europe, where borders are permeable not only for goods but also for men, Armâns seem to be better equipped for a new Europe. What we need to learn, they already know! Karl- Markus Gauß, Jahrgang 1954, lebt als Autor und Literaturkritiker in Salzburg. Seit 1991 Herausgeber der Zeitschrift " Literatur und Kritik " Österreichischer Staatspreis für Kulturpublizistik, 1997 Europäischer Essaypreis "Charles Veillon". Karl- Markus Gauß, Jahrgang 1954, lebt als Autor und Literaturkritiker in Salzburg. Seit 1991 Herausgeber der Zeitschrift " Literatur und Kritik " Österreichischer Staatspreis für Kulturpublizistik, 1997 Europäischer Essaypreis "Charles Veillon". Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

21 Karl-Markus Gauss about Makedon-Armâns Karl-Markus Gauss about Makedon-Armâns «Existe-t-il déjà le nouveau Européen? (...) Existent déjà ces gens, réceptifs à tout ce qui existe dans le monde, ne reposent pas rudement sur leurs possessions nationales, qui nont pas du mal, mais l'amour de penser et de parler deux langues ou plus, qui nattachent pas dans une façon minable leurs actions et leurs aspirations à un seul Etat, mais toujours à plusieurs, pour lesquels les frontières ne sont pas l'obsession, mais un moyen quotidien de se surpasser, qui depuis toujours pratiquent le commerce et la circulation entre l'est et l'ouest, au nord et au sud, qui enrichissent leur identité au contact avec des cultures différentes ? Oui, ils existent et ils sappellent les Armâns. Pionniers d'une Europe libre, dont les frontières sont perméables non seulement pour les marchandises mais aussi pour les hommes, les Armâns semblent être les mieux armés pour une nouvelle Europe. Ce que nous devons apprendre, ils le savent déjà! » Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

22 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!


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