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How Sahara Contribute to Sustainable Energy Production? La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable Electrical Engineering Laboratory.

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Presentation on theme: "How Sahara Contribute to Sustainable Energy Production? La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable Electrical Engineering Laboratory."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Sahara Contribute to Sustainable Energy Production? La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable Electrical Engineering Laboratory of Oran (LGEO) Faculty of Electrical Engineering University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO-MB) S. Flazi, A.Boudghene Stambouli and Z. Khiat 1 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable

2 مخبر الهندسة الكهربائية بوهران Electrical Engineering Laboratory of Oran (LGEO, USTO-MB) 2 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

3 جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا بوهران محمد بوضياف University of Sciences and Technology of Oran « Mohamed BOUDIAF » Students 800 Lecturers and researchers 30 Research laboratories Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

4 1. Sahara Irradiation compared to World Energies 4 Table 1: Annual irradiation at world deserts grouped by region World region deserts Area (km²) Annual irradiation (kWh/m 2 ) Total annual irradiation Share of total (%) (PWh)(Mtoe) Africa North africa (sahara) ,79 South africa (2)* ,94 Total africa (3)* ,73 Asia Middle east (6)* ,09 Central asia (5)* ,91 Total asia (11)* ,01 Australia Total australia (10)* ,69 America North america (5)* ,98 South america (2)* ,59 Total america (7)* ,57 Total world deserts (31)* * Deserts number Primary energy consumption in the world at 2011 is Mtoe /y. Sahara annual irradiation is Mtoe, nearly 140 times bigger Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

5 Unfortunately, it is impossible to use the total area of the Sahara for VLS-PV Because the Sahara offers contrasting landscapes: Erg (sand dunes), oasis, reg (pile of rocks and stones), rivers, mountains and Steppes. The erg: Sand dunes The reg: Pebbles and gravel mountains The wadis: dry beds of rivers and streams The oasis Steppe Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

6 2. Suitable Sahara area for VLS-PV: (Very Large Scale PhotoVoltaic) system SAHARA / North Africa (NA) Area (km²) Sand dune area (km²) Oasis area (km²) Mountain area (km²) 18% Human and Energy area (km²) The reg: Pebbles and gravel Steppe Reference ENERGY FROM THE DESERT Gravel desert area (km²) Steppe area (km²) Human and Energy area (km²) Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

7 3. Sahara solar net energy potential using VLS-PV systems PV capacity (TW) Annual generation (PWh) Annual generation (EJ) Annual generation (Mtoe) Annual generation to gross annual irradiation % , , ,39 Without buffer plant and without roads Without buffer plant but with roads With buffer plant and withroads world primary energy supply in 2030 is estimated to Mtoe. Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

8 km2 or Mtoe/y 4. What can we do by this area or this energy? 2 Exportation 3 Sahara cultivation & Repopulated Clean energy production for: 1 sustainable development of Sahara countries Mtoe /Y = 92%Or 420 Milions Hab. 1 Hectar /Habitant 5 Mtoe /H/Y Mtoe/y = 100 % 1800 Mtpe /y = 8% energy needs 2030, (5toe/capita) Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

9 Exportation and Sahara repopulation Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

10 DescriptionMap showing major Dune seas (ergs) and Mountain ranges of the Sahara. Red dashed line shows approximate limit of the Sahara. National borders in grey. Dune seas in yellow. Derived from Blank map Image:Africa_topography_map_with_borders.png. Data taken from image of Michlein Map and Geology.com's [http://geology.com/records/sahara-desert-map.shtml Image:Africa_topography_map_with_borders.pnghttp://www.sahara-overland.comhttp://geology.com/records/sahara-desert-map.shtml 5. Silicon (Si) potential of the Sahara Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

11 Sand dune area S: is approximately 20% of Sahara area, that means S= (km²) Volume of the sand reserves V: We proposed the following formula to calculate V V= S. hmin + S/3.(hmax – hmin)= S/3.(2.hmin+ hmax) Taking hmax average= 100 m, hmin average= 50 m; V = 1720x10^3x10^6( )/3 V = 115x10^12 m3 h max h min 5.1. Sahara sand reserve 11 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

12 Weight of the sand reserves W (ton): While 1m3 sand is aproximatly1850 kg, the total weight will be: W= 1850xV= 212x10^12 tons Sahara sand reserves 12 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

13 5.2. Sahara Silicon (Si) potentials Taking an average rate of Silica in the sand (SiO2 / Sand) = 70% the rate of Silicon (Si) in Silica = 28/60 We therefore obtained the rate of Silicon in the sand = 70*28/60= 32% If the extraction efficiency of Silicon =30% The Si extracting rate will be = 30%x32%= 10% That means that 1 ton of Si needs 10 tons of Sand Si reserve will be then equal to 212x10^11 tons. 13 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

14 5.2. Sahara Silicon (Si) potentials If 1MW PV needs 10 tons of Si, which means that we can produce 212x10^10 MWPV or 212x10^4 TWPV of PV cells. This quantity is approximately Times Sahara capacity as demonstrated in slide Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

15 6. PV energy powered reference village in the Sahara for ecological and social stability A sustainable society in the Sahara inhabit comfortably the Sahara = Production of clean sustainable energy to: cultivate bio + Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

16 1 The transfer of appropriate technologies to the Sahara To realize or to achieve these objectives we have to do: 2 The domiciliation of these Technologies (Apply, test, choosing the most suitable upgrade.... etc) 3 Training of the local community and new habitants to use these technologies and to adapted with Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

17 These technologies are actually multidisciplinary, they primarily concern the following applications: Housing and Planning; Housing and Planning; Water: pumping, desalination and treatment; Water: pumping, desalination and treatment; etc Bio fixing, bio washing …etc Organic agriculture: irrigation techniques and plants; Organic agriculture: irrigation techniques and plants; Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

18 Currently, these technologies and their applications are being developed in : A laboratories, A research centers, A manufactures, An agencies, etc.. 1 Separately with respect to each other 3 Separately, sometimes, from the destination sites 2 Separately from the users Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

19 A reference village to combine the applications and to link the development centers We propose to combine the applications for the villages in a reference village, in experimental village, in a mother oasis. This reference village is linked to development centers by development engineers, researchers and trainers. Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

20 A reference village to combine the applications and to link the development centers Laboratory X Research centers X University X Manufacture X Laboratory Y Research centers Y University Y Manufacture Y Agency X Agency YAnother XAnother Y Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

21 Thank you for your attendance and your attention 21 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO


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