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How Sahara Contribute to Sustainable Energy Production? La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable Electrical Engineering Laboratory.

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Presentation on theme: "How Sahara Contribute to Sustainable Energy Production? La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable Electrical Engineering Laboratory."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Sahara Contribute to Sustainable Energy Production? La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable Electrical Engineering Laboratory of Oran (LGEO) Faculty of Electrical Engineering University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO-MB) S. Flazi, A.Boudghene Stambouli and Z. Khiat 1 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO La contribution du Sahara dans la production d'une énergie durable

2 مخبر الهندسة الكهربائية بوهران Electrical Engineering Laboratory of Oran (LGEO, USTO-MB) 2 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

3 جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا بوهران محمد بوضياف University of Sciences and Technology of Oran « Mohamed BOUDIAF » 3 13000 Students 800 Lecturers and researchers 30 Research laboratories Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

4 1. Sahara Irradiation compared to World Energies 4 Table 1: Annual irradiation at world deserts grouped by region World region deserts Area (km²) Annual irradiation (kWh/m 2 ) Total annual irradiation Share of total (%) (PWh)(Mtoe) Africa North africa (sahara)8 600 0002 30019 7801 701 08048,79 South africa (2)*1 040 0002 3132 406206 9165,94 Total africa (3)*9 640 0002 30122 1861 907 99654,73 Asia Middle east (6)*3 052 4002 1376 524561 05216,09 Central asia (5)*2 420 0001 6614 019345 6349,91 Total asia (11)*5 472 4001 92710 543906 68626,01 Australia Total australia (10)*1 388 7432 2463 119268 2567,69 America North america (5)*1 664 0002 1883 641313 1268,98 South america (2)*813 0001 2891 04890 1542,59 Total america (7)*2 477 0001 8934 689403 28011,57 Total world deserts (31)*18 978 1432 13640 5373 486 218100 * Deserts number Primary energy consumption in the world at 2011 is 12275 Mtoe /y. Sahara annual irradiation is 1701000 Mtoe, nearly 140 times bigger Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

5 Unfortunately, it is impossible to use the total area of the Sahara for VLS-PV Because the Sahara offers contrasting landscapes: Erg (sand dunes), oasis, reg (pile of rocks and stones), rivers, mountains and Steppes. The erg: Sand dunes The reg: Pebbles and gravel mountains The wadis: dry beds of rivers and streams The oasis Steppe Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

6 2. Suitable Sahara area for VLS-PV: (Very Large Scale PhotoVoltaic) system SAHARA / North Africa (NA) Area (km²) Sand dune area (km²) Oasis area (km²) Mountain area (km²) 18% Human and Energy area (km²) 8 600 0001 720 000200 0001 548 0005 132 000 The reg: Pebbles and gravel Steppe Reference ENERGY FROM THE DESERT Gravel desert area (km²) Steppe area (km²) Human and Energy area (km²) 4 492 500838 4005 330 900 5 132 000 5 330 900 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

7 3. Sahara solar net energy potential using VLS-PV systems PV capacity (TW) Annual generation (PWh) Annual generation (EJ) Annual generation (Mtoe) Annual generation to gross annual irradiation % 3595782 082 49 740 2,92 2574141 489 35 564 2,09 171276992 23 710 1,39 Without buffer plant and without roads Without buffer plant but with roads With buffer plant and withroads world primary energy supply in 2030 is estimated to 15000 Mtoe. Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

8 5 132 000 km2 or 23 700 Mtoe/y 4. What can we do by this area or this energy? 2 Exportation 3 Sahara cultivation & Repopulated Clean energy production for: 1 sustainable development of Sahara countries 21900 Mtoe /Y = 92%Or 420 Milions Hab. 1 Hectar /Habitant 5 Mtoe /H/Y 23 700 Mtoe/y = 100 % 1800 Mtpe /y = 8% energy needs 2030, (5toe/capita) Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

9 Exportation and Sahara repopulation Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

10 DescriptionMap showing major Dune seas (ergs) and Mountain ranges of the Sahara. Red dashed line shows approximate limit of the Sahara. National borders in grey. Dune seas in yellow. Derived from Blank map Image:Africa_topography_map_with_borders.png. Data taken from http://www.sahara-overland.com image of Michlein Map and Geology.com's [http://geology.com/records/sahara-desert-map.shtml Image:Africa_topography_map_with_borders.pnghttp://www.sahara-overland.comhttp://geology.com/records/sahara-desert-map.shtml 5. Silicon (Si) potential of the Sahara Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

11 Sand dune area S: is approximately 20% of Sahara area, that means S=1 720 000 (km²) Volume of the sand reserves V: We proposed the following formula to calculate V V= S. hmin + S/3.(hmax – hmin)= S/3.(2.hmin+ hmax) Taking hmax average= 100 m, hmin average= 50 m; V = 1720x10^3x10^6(100+100)/3 V = 115x10^12 m3 h max h min 5.1. Sahara sand reserve 11 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

12 Weight of the sand reserves W (ton): While 1m3 sand is aproximatly1850 kg, the total weight will be: W= 1850xV= 212x10^12 tons. 5.1. Sahara sand reserves 12 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

13 5.2. Sahara Silicon (Si) potentials Taking an average rate of Silica in the sand (SiO2 / Sand) = 70% the rate of Silicon (Si) in Silica = 28/60 We therefore obtained the rate of Silicon in the sand = 70*28/60= 32% If the extraction efficiency of Silicon =30% The Si extracting rate will be = 30%x32%= 10% That means that 1 ton of Si needs 10 tons of Sand Si reserve will be then equal to 212x10^11 tons. 13 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

14 5.2. Sahara Silicon (Si) potentials If 1MW PV needs 10 tons of Si, which means that we can produce 212x10^10 MWPV or 212x10^4 TWPV of PV cells. This quantity is approximately 10 000 Times Sahara capacity as demonstrated in slide 11. 14 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

15 6. PV energy powered reference village in the Sahara for ecological and social stability A sustainable society in the Sahara inhabit comfortably the Sahara = Production of clean sustainable energy to: cultivate bio + Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

16 1 The transfer of appropriate technologies to the Sahara To realize or to achieve these objectives we have to do: 2 The domiciliation of these Technologies (Apply, test, choosing the most suitable upgrade.... etc) 3 Training of the local community and new habitants to use these technologies and to adapted with Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

17 These technologies are actually multidisciplinary, they primarily concern the following applications: Housing and Planning; Housing and Planning; Water: pumping, desalination and treatment; Water: pumping, desalination and treatment; etc Bio fixing, bio washing …etc Organic agriculture: irrigation techniques and plants; Organic agriculture: irrigation techniques and plants; Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

18 Currently, these technologies and their applications are being developed in : A laboratories, A research centers, A manufactures, An agencies, etc.. 1 Separately with respect to each other 3 Separately, sometimes, from the destination sites 2 Separately from the users Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

19 A reference village to combine the applications and to link the development centers We propose to combine the applications for the villages in a reference village, in experimental village, in a mother oasis. This reference village is linked to development centers by development engineers, researchers and trainers. Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

20 A reference village to combine the applications and to link the development centers Laboratory X Research centers X University X Manufacture X Laboratory Y Research centers Y University Y Manufacture Y Agency X Agency YAnother XAnother Y Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO

21 Thank you for your attendance and your attention 21 Salon International des Energies Renouvelables, des Energies propres et du Développement Durable 28 & 30 Octobre 2013 / ORAN-CCO


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