2 Overview What is Biotechnology? Definitions of Biotechnology Timeline of BiotechnologyTechniques used in BiotechnologyWho's Who in Biotechnology
3 What is biotechnology?Biotechnology = bios (life) + logos (study of or essence)Literally ‘the study of tools from living things’CLASSIC: The word "biotechnology" was first used in 1917 to describe processes using living organisms to make a product or run a process, such as industrial fermentations.LAYMAN: Biotechnology began when humans began to plant their own crops, domesticate animals, ferment juice into wine, make cheese, and leaven bread.
4 What is biotechnology?GENENTECH: Biotechnology is the process of harnessing 'nature's own' biochemical tools to make possible new products and processes and provide solutions to society's ills (G. Kirk Raab, Former President and CEO of Genentech)WEBSTER’S: The aspect of technology concerned with the application of living organisms to meet the needs and ends of man.WALL STREET: Biotechnology is the application of genetic engineering and DNA technology to produce therapeutic and medical diagnostic products and processes. Biotech companies have one thing in common - the use of genetic engineering and manipulation of organisms at a molecular level.
5 What is biotechnology?Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organismsAny technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
6 What is biotechnology?Biotechnology is a multidisciplinarian in nature, involving input fromEngineeringComputer ScienceCell and Molecular BiologyMicrobiologyGeneticsPhysiologyBiochemistryImmunologyVirologyRecombinant DNA Technology Genetic manipulation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, plants and animals, often for the development of specific products
7 What are the stages of biotechnology? Ancient Biotechnologyearly history as related to food and shelter, including domesticationClassical Biotechnologybuilt on ancient biotechnologyfermentation promoted food productionmedicineModern Biotechnologymanipulates genetic information in organismgenetic engineering
8 Ancient biotechnology History of domestication and agriculturePaleolithic society – Hunter-gatherers Nomadic lifestyle due to migratory animals and edible plant distribution (wild wheat and barley) (~2 x 106 yrs.)Followed by domestication of plants and animals (artificial selection) People settled, sedentary lifestyles evolved (~10,000 yrs. ago)Cultivation of wheat, barley and rye (seed collections)Sheep and goats milk, cheese, button and meatGrinding stones for food preparationNew technology Origins of Biotechnology Agrarian SocietiesHistory of domestication and agriculture History of domestication and agriculture History of domestication and agriculture
9 Ancient biotechnology Fermented foods and beveragesLong history of fermented foods since people began to settle (9000 BC) (fervere –to boil)Often discovered by accident!Improved flavor and textureDeliberate contamination with bacteria or fungi (molds)Examples:BreadYogurtSour creamCheeseWineBeerSauerkraut
10 Fermentation is perhaps the most ancient biotechnological discovery. Over 10,000 years ago mankind was producing wine, beer, vinegar and bread using microorganisms, primarily yeast.Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or acid.Yogurt was produced by lactic acid bacteria in milk and molds were used to produce cheese.These processes are still in use today for the production of modern foods. However, the cultures that are used have been purified and often genetically refined to maintain the most desirable traits and highest quality of product
11 Ancient biotechnology Fermented foods and beveragesDough not baked immediately would undergo spontaneous fermentation would rise Eureka!!Uncooked fermented dough could be used to ferment a new batch no longer reliant on “chance fermentation”1866 – Louis Pasteur published his findings on the direct link between yeast and sugars CO2 + ethanol (anaerobic process)1915 – Production of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae
12 Classical biotechnology Industry today exploits early discoveries of the fermentation process for production of huge numbers of productsDifferent types of beerVinegarGlycerolAcetoneButanolLactic acidCitric acidAntibiotics – WWII (Bioreactor developed for large scale production, e.g. penicilin made by fermentation of penicillium)Today many different antibiotics are produced by microorganismsCephalosporins, bacitracin, neomycin, tetracycline……..)
14 Chemical transformations to produce therapeutic products Classical biotechnologyChemical transformations to produce therapeutic productsSubstrate + Microbial Enzyme ProductExamples:Cholesterol Steroids (cortisone, estrogen, progesterone) (hydroxylation reaction -OH group added to cholesterol ring)
16 Microbial synthesis of other commercially valuable products Classical biotechnologyMicrobial synthesis of other commercially valuable productsAmino acids to improve food taste, quality or preservationEnzymes (cellulase, collagenase, diastase, glucose isomerase, invertase, lipase, pectinase, protease)VitaminsPigments
17 Modern biotechnology Cell biology Structure, organization and reproductionBiochemistrySynthesis of organic compoundsCell extracts for fermentation (enzymes versus whole cells)GeneticsResurrection of Gregor Mendel’s findings 1866 1900sTheory of Inheritance (ratios dependent on traits of parents)Theory of Transmission factorsW.H. Sutton – 1902Chromosomes = inheritance factorsT.H. Morgan – Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies)
18 Modern biotechnology Molecular Biology Beadle and Tatum (Neurospora crassa)One gene, one enzyme hypothesisCharles Yanofsky colinearity between mutations in genes and amino acid sequence (E. coli)Genes determine structure of proteinsHershey and Chase – 1952T2 bacteriophage – 32P DNA, not 35S protein is the material that encodes genetic information
19 Modern biotechnology Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins (1953) X-ray crystallography1962 – Nobel Prize awarded to three menChargaff – DNA base ratiosStructural model of DNA developedDNA Revolution – Promise and Controversy!!!Scientific foundation of modern biotechnologybased on knowledge of DNA, its replication, repair and use of enzymes to carry out in vitro splicing DNA fragments
20 Modern biotechnologyBreaking the Genetic Code – Finding the Central DogmaAn “RNA Club” organized by George Gamow (1954) assembled to determine the role of RNA in protein synthesisVernon Ingram’s research on sickle cell anemia (1956) tied together inheritable diseases with protein structureLink made between amino acids and DNARadioactive tagging experiments demonstrate intermediate between DNA and protein = RNARNA movement tracked from nucleus to cytoplasm site of protein synthesis
21 Modern biotechnology DNA RNA Protein Transcription TranslationGenetic code determined for all 20 amino acids by Marshal Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei and Gobind Khorana – Nobel Prize – 19683 base sequence = codon
22 What are the areas of biotechnology? Organismic biotechnologyuses intact organisms and does not alter genetic materialMolecular Biotechnologyalters genetic makeup to achieve specific goalsTransgenic organism: an organism with artificially altered genetic material
23 What are the benefits of biotechnology? MedicinehumanveterinarybiopharmingEnvironmentAgricultureFood productsIndustry and manufacturing
24 What are the applications of biotechnology? Production of new and improved crops/foods, industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals and livestockDiagnostics for detecting genetic diseasesGene therapy (e.g. ADA, CF)Vaccine development (recombinant vaccines)Environmental restorationProtection of endangered speciesConservation biologyBioremediationForensic applicationsFood processing (cheese, beer)
25 Biotechnology Timeline 1750 BC The Sumerians brew beer.500 BC Chinese use moldy soybean curds as an antibiotic to treat boils1590 Janssen invents the microscope1675 Leeuwenhoek discovers cells (bacteria, red blood cells)1830 Proteins are discovered1833 The first enzymes are isolated1855 The Eschirium coli bacterium is discovered
26 Biotechnology Timeline 1859 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species1864 Louis Pasteur shows all living things are produced by other living things1865 The age of genetics begins1902 Walter Sutton coins the term ‘gene’ - proposed that chromosomes carry genes
27 Biotechnology Timeline 1910 Chromosomal theory of inheritance proved1928 Fleming discovers antibiotic properties of certain molds1941 George Beadle and Edward Tatum propose that one gene makes one protein1949 Sickle cell anaemia demonstrated to be molecular disease
28 Biotechnology Timeline 1952 The ‘Waring Blender’ experiment1953 The double helix is unravelled1967 The genetic code is cracked1973 Recombinant DNA technology begins1975 First international conference on recombinant DNA technology
29 Biotechnology Timeline 1975 DNA sequencing discovered1975 Monoclonal antibody technology introduced1978 Genentech Inc. established1978 Genentech use genetic engineering to produce human insulin in E.coli IPO of $891978 Kary Mullis discovers PCR
30 Biotechnology Timeline 1989 The Human Genome Project begins1990 First use of gene therapy1990 First product of recombinant DNA technology introduced into US food chain1993 FDA announces that transgenic food is safe1994 The FLAVRSAVR tomato - first genetically engineered whole food
31 Biotechnology Timeline 1996 First mammal cloned from adult cells1990s First conviction using genetic fingerprinting1996 Development of Affymetrix GeneChip1997 First artificial chromosome
32 History of Biotechnology 1998 Human embryonic stem cells grown1999 Celera announces completion of Drosophilia genome sequence% of Human Genome sequence published on web2001 Human genome project complete
33 ExcerciseChoose 3 scientists who have contributed to the biotechnology revolution and write a paragraph describing their inputDiscover more about the Asilomar conference and decribe its signficance on the use of recombinant DNA technologyDiscover more about what led to the death of the FLAVRSAVR tomato.Follow one ‘linked set of discoveries’ outlining the path from the first experiment to today.
34 ExcerciseCompare and argue both sides of Monsanto vs Greenpeace on the theme of genetically modified foodOutline the IMCLONE story and explain the potential impact on biotechnology industry.Argue both for and against the use of human embryonic stem cells and outline international stance on this research.Outline the story of the race to unravel DNA.
35 Discussion What is the societal impression of biotechnology? What are the negative impacts that biotechnology may have?What are the potential ethical issues associated with biotechnology?Why are biotechnology companies targeted by anti-globalisation protesters?How can the image of biotechnology to the public be improved? Should it be improved?What are the potential dangers of biotechnology?
36 Useful Resources http://www.geocities.com/cwfennhcc/bi200/intro.html The Uses Of Life – A History of Biotechnology (Robert Bud)