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GSLT, September 15th 20041 French prepositional compounds Cecilia Hemming Department of Languages, University College of Skövde Swedish National Graduate.

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Presentation on theme: "GSLT, September 15th 20041 French prepositional compounds Cecilia Hemming Department of Languages, University College of Skövde Swedish National Graduate."— Presentation transcript:

1 GSLT, September 15th 20041 French prepositional compounds Cecilia Hemming Department of Languages, University College of Skövde Swedish National Graduate School of Language Technology

2 GSLT, September 15th 20042 Outline Introduction Intuition – ideas Method Language specific term patterns Language independent concepts Problems Further work

3 GSLT, September 15th 20043 Introduction Neologisms in technical domains New technology and products – new terminology Term = linguistic sign = signifiant et signifié (Saussure) Term production patterns ISO 1087 Vocabulary of Terminology Term: Designation of a defined concept in a special language by a linguistic expression. Concept: A unit of thought constituted through abstraction on the basis of properties common to a set of objects.

4 GSLT, September 15th 20044 Production Patterns Language specific production patterns morphosyntax for French terms Noun AdjNoun Noun Noun Prep NounNoun Prep Det Noun Noun à Verb(inf)Verb-Noun... Swedish noun+noun -> French noun prep noun/verb Swedish noun2 (compl) +noun1 (head) -> French noun1 prep noun2 oljepump # pompe à huile (oil pump) bränsleledning # conduite de carburant (fuel pipe)

5 GSLT, September 15th 20045 Production Patterns Semantics of the terms concepts plåt # tôle (plate) [ material] ventil # robinet (valve) [ part] … relationships plåtskiva # disque de tôle (plate disc) [ made-of] bromsventil # robinet de frein (brake valve) [ part-of] …

6 GSLT, September 15th 20046 Intuition – Idea 1 In MT and MAHT Knowledge reuse in: Dictionnaires Terminology Databases Translation Memories Lacking information of a certain term? syntactic and semantic analyses of equivalent terms in different languages plausible translation suggestions (in accordance with the TL production patterns)

7 GSLT, September 15th 20047 Intuition – Idea 2 (Wüster) Another way of defining Concept (independent of term) a unit of different characteristics common to a certain number of people Structure knowledge in special domains by pointing to differences and similarities between concepts connected to the terms within that domain [parts of brake system] bromspedal # pédale de frein [operation device] bromsrör # tuyau de frein [leading brake fluid] Disagreement: language independent concept grouping in general language (all concepts not present in all L) Concepts in technical designation: truly language independent

8 GSLT, September 15th 20048 Limitations Limitation 1: To begin with: terms denoting concrete objects Limitation 2: French patterns: noun + preposition + noun* noun + preposition + verb with à and de *In patterns, treat complex complements as a unit bakhjulsbroms # frein de roue arrière (rear wheel brake)

9 GSLT, September 15th 20049 Method Extraction of term patterns Swedish-French parallel text corpus Scania95 (manuals) 3500 terms with a noun + preposition + noun/verb-pattern Semantic classification (concepts / relations) both Swedish and French terms material, part, container… / made-of, part-of, contains…

10 GSLT, September 15th 200410 Concepts Compound nominal semantics HEAD concept + COMPLEMENT concept bränsletank # réservoir à carburant (fuel tank) [liquid] [container] Semantic relation Relation between head and complement HEAD[container] contains COMPL[liquid] réservoir à carburant

11 GSLT, September 15th 200411 Method Compare patterns of the two languages morphosyntax: noun2+noun1 -> noun1 à noun2 compl head head compl semantics: (complement expresses) Swe[location of HEAD] -> Fre[location of HEAD] …?? Swe[form of HEAD] -> Fre[form of HEAD] …?? bakfjäderbult # etoquiau de ressort arrière (rear spring bolt) kronmutter # écrou à créneaux (turret nut) bil-/säkerhets-bälte # ceinture de sécurité (safety belt) Find regularities and differences in patterns

12 GSLT, September 15th 200412 Method Tag terms semantically semiautomatically/for hand concepts and relations between head and complement complement expresses: Part(s) for which HEAD is intended: batterilåda # coffre à batteries (battery box) kolvringstång # pince à segments (piston ring pliers) Form of HEAD: bladfjäder # ressort à lame (plate spring) haknyckel # clé à ergot (hook spanner) …

13 GSLT, September 15th 200413 Method 2 ML-technics Learn transfer rules from positive examples (??) Swe compl(Material)head(Item)[made-of] -> Fre head(Item)-de-compl(Material)[made-of] plåtremsa # bande de tôle (strip plate) Swe compl(Form)head(Item)[feature] -> Fre head(Item)-à-compl(Form)[feature] flänsmutter # écrou à embase (flanged nut) teadious tagging – writing rules directly instead??

14 GSLT, September 15th 200414 Semantics (Riegel, Pellat & Rioul) DE [origin], [material], [cause], [container], [Part of], [constitution] A [destination], [characteristic], [localization] Brøndal, Cervoni, Järborg, Spang-Hansen…

15 GSLT, September 15th 200415 Conceptgroups noun de noun (1500 in the Scania corpus) De (1500 terms of 3500 n-prep-n in the Scania corpus) 1. Substance, liquid, gas, material for which HEAD is intended (COMPL[content] HEAD [exteriority]) alkoholinjektor # injecteur d'alcool, avgasledning # tuyau d'échappement (exhaust pipe) bränslekammare # chambre de combustible (fuel chamber) 2. Substance, matter, materal of HEAD (COMPL[material] HEAD[noun] aluminiumlegering # alliage d'aluminium (Al alligation) 3. Complements for which HEAD is a unit (COMPL[constitution] HEAD[unit]) brickfjäderpaket # pile de rondelles élastiques (coaster board packet) 4. Object for which HEAD is intended 5. Location for which HEAD is intended (COMPL[location] HEAD[noun]) bakhjulsnav # moyeu de roue arrière (rear hub) 6. The function of HEAD (COMPL[function] HEAD[noun]) anslutningskabel # câble de connexion (connection cable) 7. Activity for which HEAD is intended (COMPL[activity] HEAD[ channel for] avtappningskran # robinet de vidange (drain cock) avlastningsskruv # vis de desserrage (unloading screw) 8. The form or construction of HEAD bladmått # jauge d'épaisseur (thickness gauge)

16 GSLT, September 15th 200416 Conceptgroups noun à noun/verb (200 in the Scania corpus) A (200 terms of 3500 n-prep-n in the corpus) 1. Substance, liquid, material for which HEAD is intended [HEAD container] alkoholbehållare # réservoir à alcool 2. Object(s)/part(s) for which HEAD is intended [HEAD for object] kolvringstång # pince à segments (p r pliers) 3. Purpose of HEAD [HEAD purpose] glödstift # bougie à incandescence (heater plug) kapskiva # meule à tronçonner (slitting wheel) plomberingstång # pince à plomber (lead sealing pliers) 4. HEADs range of application [HEAD application] brandsläckare # extincteur à incendie (fire-extinguisher) 5. Form or construction of HEAD [HEAD construction] flatstiftkontakt # connecteur à languettes (flat pin connector) tolvkantshylsa # douille à 12 pans (..socket) 6. How HEAD functions [HEAD functioning] sugmotor # moteur à aspiration naturelle (aspirating engine) hamrande mutterdragare # boulonneuse à chocs (...nut runner) 7. By which mean HEAD is controlled [HEAD controlled by] handgas # accélérateur à main (hand accelerator) 8. How HEAD is controlled [HEAD controll manner] slagverktyg # outil à frapper (striking tool)

17 GSLT, September 15th 200417 Interesting Problems How to choose preposition: avgasrör # tuyau d'échappement bränslerör # tube à carburant (exhaust-/fuel pipe) bränslekammare # chambre de combustible bränsletank # réservoir à carburant (fuel- chamber/tank)

18 GSLT, September 15th 200418 Suggestions 1 Kaffekopp# tasse à café [ container (for coffee) ] Kaffekopp# tasse de café [ channel (conveys coffee) ] alkoholbehållare # réservoir à alcool [container] alkoholinjektor # injecteur d'alcool [channel]

19 GSLT, September 15th 200419 Choose preposition avgasrör # tuyauterie d'échappement avgasrör # conduite d'échappement avgasrör # tubulure d'échappement bränslerör # tuyau dalimentation (exhaust-/fuel pipe) bränslerör # tube à carburant bränslekran # robinet de carburant (fuel cock)

20 GSLT, September 15th 200420 Suggestions 2 bränslerör # tuyau dalimentation [exteriority] bränslerör # tube à carburant [destination] tuyau/tuyauterie/conduite/tubulure (HEAD[exteriority]) échappement/alimentation (deverbal noun COMPL[purpose]) tube [destination] carburant (substance, liquid, material [content])

21 GSLT, September 15th 200421 More Problems, different concepts How HEAD functions [HEAD functioning] slagverktyg (striking tool) slag------verktyg Swe compl(Functioning)head(Item) Fre head(Y)-à-functioningVerb(X) outil------------ à ---------- frapper slagverktyg # outil à frapper (outil à frapper)

22 GSLT, September 15th 200422 different concepts skjutmått (sliding caliper) skjut------mått Swe functioning(X)head(Y) Fre head(Y)-à-functioningVerb(X) pied------------ à ---------- pousser skjutmått # pied à pousser/faire glisser?? (pied à coulisse!!) gliding device

23 GSLT, September 15th 200423 Further work Extracting a wild web corpus from different technical domains (Oz, Perl scripts and E. Duras Lexware) Compare the results from the Scania corpus Implement translation suggestion code

24 GSLT, September 15th 200424 I would appreciate comments and suggestions

25 GSLT, September 15th 200425 Thank You for listening!


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