2Regla GramaticalA reflexive verb is a verb that ends in “SE” in its infinitiveWhen a reflexive verb is used in a sentence, the reflexive pronoun corresponds to the subject of the conjugated verb in the sentenceSome verbs are ALWAYS reflexive (quejarse)Others are sometimes reflexive and sometimes non-reflexive, depending upon context (levantar VS. levantarse)
3PlacementWhen the reflexive verb is conjugated, the reflexive pronoun corresponds to the form of that verb, and is in front of the conjugated form of the verb.Reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, se) can ONLY be ATTACHED to:Infinitive verbsThe present participlePositive commands
4Un ejemplo: Levantarse ME levantOTE levantASSE levantANOS LevantAMOSSE levantAN
5A REFLEXIVE VERBA reflexive verb must have an accompanying reflexive pronoun in all forms of all tensesThe reflexive pronoun that corresponds to the subject of the sentence goes IN FRONT OF the conjugated verbIf the reflexive verb does not have to be conjugated (because it is not the main verb of the sentence/is after a preposition), the reflexive pronoun remains attached to the infinitive, but may have to change in order to agree with the subject of the sentence.
6Siempre ME DUCHO y ME DESAYUNO por la mañana Siempre ME DUCHO y ME DESAYUNO por la mañana. = I always take a shower and eat breakfast in the morning.Este domingo, voy a ducharme y desayunarme por la tarde. = This Sunday, I am going to take a shower and eat breakfast in the aternoon.Ejemplos
7Reflexivo o no? NON - REFLEXIVE REFLEXIVE La Sra. Ortiz lava su coche. Yo levanto pesas 3 veces a la semana.Mi amigo despierta a sus hermanos.Yo miro la tele.El Sr. Ortiz se lava las manos.Yo me levanto a las cinco.Sus hermanos se despiertan.Yo me miro en el espejo.Reflexivo o no?
8USO #1: Action reflects back upon subject Indicates that the subject is performing the action ON or FOR him/herself.Nos lavamos antes de cenar. = We wash (ourselves) before eating.Juan se mira en el espejo. = Juan is looking/looks at himself in the mirror.Me=myself; Te=yourself, etc.With verbs relating to personal care, use the definite article (rather than the possessive adjective) with parts of the body and clothing.Te cepillas LOS dientes. = You brush/are brushing YOUR teeth.Me quito LOS zapatos. = I take off MY shoes.USO #1: Action reflects back upon subject
9USO #2: Change in physical, mental, social condition Reflexive verbs are often used to express a change in:Physical, mental or social conditionCorresponds to English verbs: to get _________; to be getting _________; to become __________; to be growing ______________.Nos levantamos = We are GETTING up.Mi madre se pone furiosa = My mom is GETTING angry.Alicia se casa = Alicia is GETTING married.Quiero hacerme abogada = I want to BECOME a lawyer.USO #2: Change in physical, mental, social condition
10USO #3: Idiomatically Reflexive verbs are often used IDIOMATICALLY. Some verbs are always reflexive (verbs on p.53) although they correspond to English non-reflexive verbs.In this case, the verb is reflexive idiomatically.Juan SE QUEJA de todo. = Juan COMPLAINS about everything.Quejarse is ALWAYS reflexive (idiomatic)USO #3: Idiomatically
11Reflexive verbs are often used to express RECIPROCAL action. Reciprocal action = each other or one anotherYou can manipulate se and nos to mean each other/one anotherJuan y Elena se adoran. = Juan & Elena adore each other.Mis amigos y yo vamos a escribirnos durante las vacaciones de verano. = My friends and I are going to write each other/to one another during summer vacation.USO #4: Reciprocally