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Language Contact presented by Michael L. Friesner August 6, 2007 Thank you to Gillian Sankoff for sending me her PPT slides (among other things).

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Presentation on theme: "Language Contact presented by Michael L. Friesner August 6, 2007 Thank you to Gillian Sankoff for sending me her PPT slides (among other things)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language Contact presented by Michael L. Friesner August 6, 2007 Thank you to Gillian Sankoff for sending me her PPT slides (among other things).

2 Two Main Types of Language Contact Agent: Nonnative speakers affecting a language they come to speak Agent: Nonnative speakers affecting a language they come to speak language shift language shift interference (or sometimes imposition) interference (or sometimes imposition) L2 effects L2 effects Agent: Native speakers adopting nonnative features Agent: Native speakers adopting nonnative features language contact through maintenance language contact through maintenance borrowing borrowing influence on L1 influence on L1 (Third type: Extreme Contact = Formation of Contact Languagespidgins and creoles) (Third type: Extreme Contact = Formation of Contact Languagespidgins and creoles)

3 The Data Im Using to Demonstrate : A Sociolinguistic Study of Northeast Philadelphia (Friesner, Dinkin, and Wallenberg) : A Sociolinguistic Study of Northeast Philadelphia (Friesner, Dinkin, and Wallenberg) Speakers = native Russian and English speakers in Northeast Philadelphia Speakers = native Russian and English speakers in Northeast Philadelphia : The Outcomes of Borrowing in Montréal (Friesner) : The Outcomes of Borrowing in Montréal (Friesner) Speakers = native French and Spanish speakers in Montréal (mostly in French) Speakers = native French and Spanish speakers in Montréal (mostly in French) 1993: The L2 Corpus of Anglo-Montrealers (Sankoff et al.) 1993: The L2 Corpus of Anglo-Montrealers (Sankoff et al.) Speakers = bilingual native English and French speakers in Montréal (in both languages) Speakers = bilingual native English and French speakers in Montréal (in both languages)

4 Reasons for Languages to Be in Contact war/conquest war/conquest colonialism colonialism slavery slavery forced migration forced migration but also... voluntary migration voluntary migration intermarriage intermarriage trade trade often (always?) results in social inequality between language groups...

5 Influence of Contact on Society Stable bilingualism (usually a lot of borrowing, esp. into less dominant language) Stable bilingualism (usually a lot of borrowing, esp. into less dominant language) India, Québec, Belgium, large parts of Africa India, Québec, Belgium, large parts of Africa Language shift Language shift immigrant communities, communities that end up in a different country because of conquest/border changes immigrant communities, communities that end up in a different country because of conquest/border changes

6 Influence on Language Interference (L2 effects) Interference (L2 effects) most frequently affects structure: syntax, phonology (accent), word choices (interlingual identifications) most frequently affects structure: syntax, phonology (accent), word choices (interlingual identifications) may only be features of nonnative speakers, but in high contact situations may be incorporated into the language as a whole (e.g., Irish pronunciation and structures in Irish English) may only be features of nonnative speakers, but in high contact situations may be incorporated into the language as a whole (e.g., Irish pronunciation and structures in Irish English) bilingual communities also often code-switch bilingual communities also often code-switch Borrowing (influence on L1) Borrowing (influence on L1) most frequently affects lexicon most frequently affects lexicon some words may only be used by those who master both languages, while others may be used by the community as a whole some words may only be used by those who master both languages, while others may be used by the community as a whole especially used to express concepts that were introduced through cultural contact (tons of these in English: taco, lo mein, matzah ball, spaghetti) especially used to express concepts that were introduced through cultural contact (tons of these in English: taco, lo mein, matzah ball, spaghetti)

7 Interference: Vincent, Age 24 (1993) What is Vincent saying? I work(ed) uh three summer(s) in uh Bitumar -- asphált prodúcts

8 Interference: Marina, Age 25 (2004) (Did you fight with anyone here?) aOf course, my neighbor from upstairs. bHe hates my guts. cHe called cops* on me three times. (Is that the same one with the-- uh-- trash, or a different-- ?) dUh-huh! He hates me. Oh he hates me! (So, when else di- when else did he call the cops on you?) fUm-- he called once gand he said that I was throwing the-- uh-- the cooking, um-- what is it called, the cooking, um-- (oil, or the-- ? no--) ______ * Examples of lexical or structural infelicities are in red

9 Interference: Marina, Age 25 (2004) hThe plita, uh-- (the- the oven???) Yeah. Like that oven, look at it. iThe whole oven. The whole thing! j--that I was throwin it out of the window, kactually, I threw it out-- threw it out of the window! lYou know what was my question? mNot that I didnt do it. nYou know what was the first thing I said? oHow did I picked it up? {laugh} pI mean, its the size of me, the damn thing! qI mean, it takes some moron to come up with something like that.

10 Interference: Marina, Age 25 (2004) rLike, how much can you hate me to come up with something stupid like that? (But, it was-- there was no basis for-- where did he get that idea?) sHe was just-- hes a very lonely man. tHes uh-- hes a-- he likes-- [note: CODE SWITCH to Russian, a language spoken by interviewer M.F., to describe the neighbor in very unflattering terms] uHes about fifty-five or sixty. vHes very lonely. wHe lives in a very, very small space. xAnd, you know, he uses drugs, yhe doesnt work, zhe says all the time that his back hurts, aaand he lives on the welfare and stuff--

11 Borrowing What constitutes a borrowing What constitutes a borrowing e.g., are expressions like Hasta la vista and déjà vu part of the English language, or not? e.g., are expressions like Hasta la vista and déjà vu part of the English language, or not? How do words change pronunciation when they are borrowed into another language?Clara How do words change pronunciation when they are borrowed into another language?Clara Phonological adaptation (Spanish r -> English r)Clara Phonological adaptation (Spanish r -> English r)Clara Phonetic adaptation (Spanish r -> English d/t)Clodda/Clotta Phonetic adaptation (Spanish r -> English d/t)Clodda/Clotta Importation of nonnative segments (Spanish r -> Spanish r (in English)) (pronounced as in Spanish) Importation of nonnative segments (Spanish r -> Spanish r (in English)) (pronounced as in Spanish) What factors affect pronunciation & use of loanwords? What factors affect pronunciation & use of loanwords? language internal factors (difficulty of the sound, distance between the two languages, type of word) language internal factors (difficulty of the sound, distance between the two languages, type of word) external factors (degree of bilingualism of individual and community, style, age, social class, attitudes) external factors (degree of bilingualism of individual and community, style, age, social class, attitudes) orthography(=spelling) orthography(=spelling)

12 Loanwords in French Variables in adaptation: Variables in adaptation: /r/ (posterior [R], retroflex [r], (or apical)) /r/ (posterior [R], retroflex [r], (or apical)) /h/ (present or absent in loanword) /h/ (present or absent in loanword) hip-hop / raphhr Michèle, 22, grad student, int. Eng.ØØR Nathalie, 32, adv. deg., int. Eng., teacherhhr Murielle, 24, grad student, int. Eng.hhR Nathan, 34, univ., low Eng., job placerØØr Mélanie, 24, comm. coll., low Eng., baker hØr

13 Variable: Gender Assignment (ex. = sandwich) Un club-sandwich, puis un sandwich au smoked meat, ça, cest vraiment différent... (Michèle, 22, univ. +, grad student, int. Eng.) A club sandwich and a smoked meat sandwich, those are really different... Euh- club-sandwich, cest- um- cest un sandwich, trois étages, au poulet- euh- tomates, laitue- euh- puis cest à peu près ça... (Daniel, 24, univ. +, grad. student, fluent Eng.) A club sandwich is a sandwich with three levels, with chicken, tomatoes, lettuce, and thats about it... La sandwich au smoked meat, cest typiquement montréalais, ça, le smoked meat, euh- cest un- disons, cest une sandwich juste avec deux tranches de pain... (François, 29, adv. deg., engineer, fluent Eng.) A smoked meat sandwich is typical of Montreal, smoked meat, and its- um- a sandwich with just two slices of bread. Et une sandwich au smoked meat, cest une sandwich avec de la viande fumée, donc cest totalement différent, cest- euh- cest une sandwich ordinaire mais avec de la viande fumée à lintérieur. (Nicolas, 24, Grade 11, bartender, int. Eng.) A smoked meat sandwich is a sandwich with smoked meat, so its totally different, its an ordinary sandwich but with smoked meat inside.

14 Borrowing by social class and Level of English (examples with proper names, comparing English and French pronunciations) Harper will choose this man ~ Harper revoit son cabinet (Harper reexamines his cabinet) (Harper reexamines his cabinet) Minister Rona Ambrose ~ La ministre Rona Ambrose (=) Mireille, 47, Grade 8, bar employee, very little English Nicolas, 24, Grade 11, bartender, intermediate English Chantal, 24, univ. +, medical student, low int. English Daniel, 24, univ. +, graduate student, fluent English

15 Borrowing = community norms (also orthography) Ben, il fait des ceviches, des- euh- des paellas. (Laura, 24, child of Uruguayan immigrants) Well, he makes ceviches, and- uh- paellas....entre unos tres puen- tres punto doce- dos millones de Montreale(n)ses... (Laura in Spanish reading passage)...among the approximately 3.2 million Montrealers... Ben, les paellas sont- sont bonnes. (Domingo, 25, Mexican, immigrated at age 21) Well, the paellas are- are good.

16 The pronunciation of borrowings is subject to style shifting (examples from Domingo) LIST STYLE (most formal): Uh- burrito, enchilada et fajitas. READING STYLE: On aime sy réchauffer en dégustant des fajitas, un molé typiquement mexicain, des enchiladas tierra blanca, des burritos ou même des crevettes sautées à la tequila. People like warming up there while tasting fajitas, a typically Mexican mole, enchiladas tierra blanca, burritos, or even tequila-sauteed shrimp. SPEAKING STYLE: Mais, cest quoi, la différence? Uh- les burritos et la fa- les fajitas, cest pas de la bouffe mexicaine, cest de la bouffe du sud des É- des États-Unis... But, whats the difference? Uh- burritos and fajitas are not Mexican food, theyre food from the southern United States... Je pense que la différence entre le burrito puis la enchilada, cest quil y a pas de sauce sur les burritos. I think that the difference between a burrito and an enchilada is that theres no sauce on burritos.

17 There may be variation according to age in both loanword pronunciation and which loanwords are used (e.g., hovercraft) Murielle, age 24 - Javais jamais vu le mot hovercraft. Ive never seen the word hovercraft before. Murielle, age 24 - Javais jamais vu le mot hovercraft. Ive never seen the word hovercraft before. Nathalie, age 32 - Hovercraft, je connais pas. Hovercraft, I dont know it. Nathalie, age 32 - Hovercraft, je connais pas. Hovercraft, I dont know it. Sébastien, age 37 - Hovercraft- cest la première fois que je vois ce mot-là. Hovercraft- this is the first time Ive seen this word. Sébastien, age 37 - Hovercraft- cest la première fois que je vois ce mot-là. Hovercraft- this is the first time Ive seen this word. Alice, age 53 - Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, cest la même chose- même, même, même, même chose. Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, its the same thing- the same exact thing. Alice, age 53 - Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, cest la même chose- même, même, même, même chose. Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, its the same thing- the same exact thing. Maryse, age 58 - Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, pour moi cest la même chose. Au début quand jen ai entendu parler de laéroglisseur, on lappelait lhovercraft, mais voilà. Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, for me its the same thing. Early on when I heard talk about the aéroglisseur, they called it a hovercraft, but there you go. Maryse, age 58 - Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, pour moi cest la même chose. Au début quand jen ai entendu parler de laéroglisseur, on lappelait lhovercraft, mais voilà. Hovercraft - aéroglisseur, for me its the same thing. Early on when I heard talk about the aéroglisseur, they called it a hovercraft, but there you go.

18 Language attitudes may affect pronunciation and can be gleaned from interviews Daniel, age 24 Cest assez facile davoir une job si tu parles juste français; cest assez tough davoir une job si tu parles juste anglais. Uh- cest ça, cest toujours un atout de parler en anglais, euh- mais cest pas- cest pas- cest pas si nécessaire que ça quand même. Its pretty easy to get a job if you speak only French; its pretty tough to get a job if you speak only English. Uh- thats right, its always an asset to speak in English, but its not all that necessary anyway. Comments on which language is necessary for a job by two bilingual speakers: Philippe, age 26 Je trouve que ça devient de plus en plus dur de parler français à Montréal... I find that its becoming harder and harder to speak French in Montreal... Quelquun qui parle pas un mot danglais trouvera jamais une job. Someone who doesnt speak a word of English will never find a job.

19 So, in English... Some cases of variation in adaptation patterns: /x/: Chanukah / Bach / Loch Ness /x/: Chanukah / Bach / Loch Ness bruschetta (/sk/ vs. //) bruschetta (/sk/ vs. //) stress differences (U.S. garáge vs. Brit. gárage) stress differences (U.S. garáge vs. Brit. gárage)


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