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Language use and identification Centralization of vowels in Marthas Vineyard.

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Presentation on theme: "Language use and identification Centralization of vowels in Marthas Vineyard."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language use and identification Centralization of vowels in Marthas Vineyard

2 Language use and identification Centralization of vowels in Marthas Vineyard [ ] [ ] and [ ] [ ] –while, pie, night –out, house, trout

3 Language use and identification Centralization of vowels in Marthas Vineyard [ ] [ ] and [ ] [ ] Ageayaw 75-2522 61-753537 46-606244 31-458188 14-303746

4 Geographical distribution of centralization ayaw Down-island3533 Up-island6166

5 Degree of centralization and orientation towards Marthas Vineyard PersonsOrientationayaw 40Positive6362 19Neutral3242 6Negative0908

6 Register variation Complexity of the speakers competence –Tas pas vu le flic ? –Navez-vous vu le policier ? Lexical choices (policier / flic) Syntactic choices –subject pronoun / verb inversion –omission of ne Phonological choices: Tu as vs. Tas Social deixis: tu vs. vous

7 Register variation Complexity of the speakers competence –You seen the cop? –Have you seen the policeman? Lexical choices (policeman / cop) Syntactic choices –omission of perfect aux have Phonological choices –you : [j ] vs [ju:]

8 Register variation Complexity of the speakers competence –Have you seen the policeman? –Might you perhaps have seen the policeman Addition of modal elements might, perhaps

9 Register variation Complexity of the speakers competence –She dont talk to them boys no more. –She doesnt talk to those boys any more. Morphological choices –dont vs doesnt (as 3 rd pers sg auxiliary) –them vs those (as plural demonstrative) Syntactic choices –double negation

10 Diachronic variation: English Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum; Si þin nama gehalgod to becume þin rice gewurþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofonum. urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele soþlice

11 Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum; Father our thou that art in heavens Si þin nama gehalgod be thy name hallowed to becume þin rice come thy kingdom gewurþe ðin willa be-done thy will on eorðan swa swa on heofonum. on earth as in heavens urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg our daily bread give us today and forgyf us ure gyltas and forgive us our sins swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum as we forgive those-who-have-sinned-against-us and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge and not lead thou us into temptation ac alys us of yfele soþlice but deliver us from evil. truly

12 This version of the Lord's Prayer is from Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 140 [WSCp], a translation of the Gospels written in Bath in the first half of the 11th century; edited by Liuzza (1994). Read by Cathy Ball (Department of Linguistics, Georgetown University) for Edward Vanetten's Sunday School class.Cathy BallEdward Vanetten http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/oe/patern oster-oe.html

13 Diachronic variation: English Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum, si þin nama gehalgod. To becume þin rice. Old English, circa 1000 (West Saxon Gospels) Oure fadir that art in heuenes halewid be thi name, thi kyngdoom come to, Middle English, circa 1400 (Wyclif Bible) Our father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Early Modern English, circa 1600 (King James Bible) Our Father, who is in heaven, may your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come into being. Contemporary English

14 Diachronic variation: English Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum Our Father, who is in heaven Syntactic changes –Position of genitive pronoun ure (=our) Morphological changes –Conjugation of be –Case: heofonum is the dative plural of heofon –Second person pronoun þu (þ = th)

15 Diachronic variation: English Semantic change –on > in Phonetic change –Fæder [fæd r] –ure [ur ] Spelling system –æ þ ð

16 Diachronic variation: French Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne: Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne. N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne; (Chanson de Roland, environ 1090) Phonological change: Carles/Charles, castel/château ; reis / roi ; nostre / notre, altaigne/hautaine Pronunciation of final s

17 Diachronic variation: French Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne: Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne. N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne; (Chanson de Roland, environ 1090) Morphological change: Carles, reis, magnes : -s = subject case

18 Diachronic variation: French Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne: Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne. N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne; (Chanson de Roland, environ 1090) Syntactic change: *Charles sept ans a été en Espagne *Jusquà la mer (il) conquit la terre haute

19 Diachronic variation: French Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne: Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne. N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne; (Chanson de Roland, environ 1090) Lexical change (word replacement): magne > grand; tresque > jusque; remanoir > rester

20 Diachronic variation: French Carles li reis, nostre emper[er]e magnes Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne: Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne. N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne; (Chanson de Roland, environ 1090) Lexical semantic change: altaigne = hautain, only the metaphorical sense remains

21 Phonological change LatinFrançaisItalien cantum > chantcanto campum > champ campo carrum > charcarro carum > chercaro caballum > chevalcavallo

22 Phonological change casus > cas (emprunt médiéval au latin) campania > campagne (emprunt au provençal ou au picard ou aux deux)

23 Phonological change Latin FrançaisItalien tēlamtoiletela tēctumtoittetto sēramsoirsera rēgemroire

24 Morphological change: analogy LatinOld Fr (1200)French amoaimjaime amasaimestu aimes amataimetil aime amamusaimonsnous aimons amatisaimezvous aimez amantaimentils aiment

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28 Conclusion Why the interest in variation? –Not all variation is possible. Possible variation tells us about the structure of linguistic knowledge –Avoid simplistic analyses: double negation is illogical meaning and syntax of modal auxiliaries in English confusion of diachronic and synchronic explanations

29 Conclusion Central object of linguistic inquiry: the individual speakers competence But –Complexity of that competence (multiple systems for one speaker) –Inter-speaker variation


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