Presentation on theme: "Das Perfekt Patterns in the Present-Perfect Tense From Schaums Outline of German Grammar Second Edition by Elke F. Gschossmann-Hendershot (McGraw-Hil,"— Presentation transcript:
Das Perfekt Patterns in the Present-Perfect Tense From Schaums Outline of German Grammar Second Edition by Elke F. Gschossmann-Hendershot (McGraw-Hil, Inc., 1983)
Review of Weak Verbs O Regular Weak – O Conjugate haben or sein and then place the past participle at the end of the sentence. O Past Participle = ge + the third person singular form of the verb. O NOTE: There are sometimes exceptions to these rules.
Some Exceptions O Weak verbs that end in –ieren do NOT get a ge- at the beginning of the past participle. InfinitivePast Participle studierenstudiert probierenprobiert telefonierentelefoniert
More Exceptions O Verbs with the following prefixes do NOT take an additional ge- prefix in the past participle either. O Notice these are prefixes of inseparable verbs. be- emp- ent- ge- ver- zer-
Not always a t ending O If the stem of a regular weak verb ends in t, d, and sometimes an n, then you add an –et to the past participle. InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle arbeitento workgearbeitet redento talkgeredet regnento raingeregnet öffnento opengeöffnet
haben OR sein O The helping verb is usually haben. O Intransitive Verbs (verbs that do not take a direct object) use sein. O Such verbs usually denote a change of location or condition. O CAUTION: Some verbs can be used either transitively (which includes a direct object, thus using haben as the auxiliary verb), or intransitively (as described above).
Examples of Intransitive Verbs InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle begegnento meetist begegnet kletternto climbist geklettert reisento travelist gereist rennento runist gerannt wandernto wander/hikeist gewandert In this presentation and in many textbook tables, an intransitive verb is denoted by the verb ist in front of the past participle.
IR-regular Weak Verbs O Similar to regular weak verbs. O However, there is a change in the past stem. O NOTE: There are sometimes exceptions to these rules.
Strong Verbs O The past participle of strong verbs is prefixed by ge- (except if the verb already begins with an inseparable prefix) and ends in –en. O Some are regular strong verbs (no stem change). O Others are irregular strong verbs (stem changes).
Regular Strong Verbs InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle backento bakegebacken essento eatgegessen fahrento drive, go(ist) gefahren fallento fall(ist) gefallen fangento catchgefangen fressento eat: what animals do gefressen gebento givegegeben Notice the extra g in the past participle of essen.
Regular Strong Verbs InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle grabento dig haltento hold kommento come lassento let laufento run lesento read messento measure schlafento sleep Guess the past participle of these regular strong verbs.
Regular Strong Verbs InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle schlagento hit sehento see tragento carry, wear tretento step vergessento forget wachsento grow waschento wash Guess the past participle of these regular strong verbs.
Irregular Strong Verbs O Many strong verbs change their stem vowels in the past participle. O They may be grouped with similar vowel changes in order to help you learn them faster.
Changes from ei to ie InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle bleibento stay leihento loan scheinento shine, to seem schreibento write schreiento scream schweigento be silent steigento climb
Changes from ei to i InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle beißento bite leidento suffer reitento ride schneidento cut
Changes from ie to o InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle biegento bend fliegento fly fliehento flee fließento flow frierento freeze riechento smell schließento shut, lock verlierento lose wiegento weigh ziehento pull
Changes from au to o InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle saufento drink: what animals do
Changes from i to u InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle bindento bind findento find singento sing sinkento sink springento jump stinkento stink trinkento drink
Changes from i to o InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle beginnento begin gewinnento win schwimmento swim
Changes from i to e InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle bittento ask sitzento sit
Changes from e to o InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle brechento break empfehlento recommend hebento lift helfento help nehmento take sprechento speak stehlento steal sterbento die treffento meet werfento throw
Changes from e to a InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle gehento go stehento stand
Changes from u to a InfinitiveMeaningPast Participle tunto do
Verbs with Separable Prefixes PrefixMeaning aboff, down anat, on aufup, open ausout eininto, in fortaway heimhome hertoward speaker hinaway from speaker O If the prefix of a verb is separable, then the ge goes between the prefix and the stem in the past participle. PrefixMeaning mitwith, along nachafter niederdown vorbefore wegaway zuto, close zurückback zusammentogether
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