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Even Better than the Best Building Ever? The ZICER and Elizabeth Fry Low Energy Buildings Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low.

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Presentation on theme: "Even Better than the Best Building Ever? The ZICER and Elizabeth Fry Low Energy Buildings Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low."— Presentation transcript:

1 Even Better than the Best Building Ever? The ZICER and Elizabeth Fry Low Energy Buildings Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences


3 Future Global Warming Rates

4 Government Response Energy White Paper – aspiration for 60% cut in CO 2 emissions by 2050 Will require unprecedented partnership activity in local communities to ensure on track by 2020s (– but no indication of how this will be undertaken) There will be much more local generation, in part from medium to small local/community power plant, fuelled by locally grown biomass, from locally generated waste, and from local wind sources. These will feed local distributed networks, which can sell excess capacity into the grid. - Energy White Paper: February 2003

5 The CRed ambition To engage, enthuse and empower a large, diverse community to debate, plan and execute a programme to reduce carbon emissions by up to 60% by 2025 Can a local community take on the responsibility for starting to confront the challenge of climate change and make a difference? Or will it continue to be - someone/somewhere else? Can we encourage politicians/officials to be bolder on our behalf? exemplar for the world

6 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. 4 million each year for Norfolk On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year.

7 Some facts: A mobile phone charger left on even when not charging up to 25 kg CO 2 a year Standby on television > 60 kg per year Filling up with petrol (~£30 for a full tank) --------- 90 kg of CO 2 (5% of one balloon) How far do you have to drive in a small family car (e.g. 1300 cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour 1.6 miles

8 Effet de serre : East Anglia montre lexemple lundi 15 septembre 2003, par collecte CND R.E.collecte CND R.E. Un groupe de scientifiques de luniversité dEast Anglia, à lEst de lAngleterre, a lancé une campagne pour accélérer la réduction des émissions de dioxyde de carbone de la région. Baptisée CRed (pour Carbon Reduction Project), cette initiative ambitionne daller deux fois plus vite que les prévisions gouvernementales. Le projet a été lancé en réaction au livre blanc sur lénergie publié en février dans lequel le gouvernement sétait fixé comme objectif une diminution de 60% des émissions de ce polluant dici 2050. Les responsables de CRed veulent y parvenir dès 2025. Pour cela, Keith Tovey et ses collègues ont réussi à mobiliser entreprises locales et particuliers pour faire des économies dénergie et installer des panneaux photovoltaïques sur les toits. La prochaine étape consiste à rallier lEglise anglicane à leur cause. Exposées plein sud, les églises ont en effet de larges toitures qui peuvent capter lénergie du soleil. Or, la région dEast Anglia compte plus de 600 chapelles. Si les scientifiques sont conscients du peu dimpact sur le changement climatique de leur action, ils comptent cependant provoquer dautres initiatives. Une délégation japonaise est déjà intéressée par le projet. En France, la commune de Chalon-sur-Saône a déjà mis en place une action similaire pour réaliser en trois ans lengagement de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre pris par lEurope sur dix ans. Pour lire notre article sur linitiative de Chalon-sur-Saône.

9 ecologia e ambiente SULLEFFETTO SERRA LEAST ANGLIA DA LESEMPIO dalla redazione di Bruxelles Bruxelles, 15 settembre - Un gruppo di scienziati delluniversità di East Anglia (Inghilterra) ha lanciato una campagna per accelerare la riduzione delle emissioni di anidride carbonica della regione. Battezzato CRed (Carbon Reduction Project), liniziativa ha lambizione di andare due volte più veloce delle previsioni governative. Il progetto ( è stato lanciato il reazione al Libro Bianco sullenergia pubblicato in febbraio nel quale il governo britannico aveva fissato come obiettivo una diminuzione del 60% delle emissioni di CO2 entro il 2025. Per riuscire nellimpresa, Keith Tovey e i suoi colleghi sono riusciti a mobilitare le aziende locali e i cittadini per avviare programmi di efficienza e risparmio energetico e installare pannelli fotovoltaici. La prossima tappa consiste nel convincere la Chiesa anglicana a dar loro il suo sostegno. Esposte in pieno sud, le chiese hanno infatti grandi tetti che sono ideali per installare impianti che captano energia solare, e nella regione di East Anglia ci sono più di 600 tra chiese e cappelle. Benché gli scienziati siano coscienti dello scarso impatto della loro iniziativa sul cambiamento climatico, contano tuttavia di promuovere altre iniziative. Una delegazione giapponese si è già interessata al progetto. Indice ecologia e ambienteecologia e ambiente

10 Ida-Anglia näitab maailmale eeskuju süsihappegaasierituse piiramisel 27/08/03 07:49:56 Arni Alandi Rühm Suurbritannia Ida-Anglia teadlasi algatas suurejoonelise kampaania tulemaks toime üleilmse kliimasoojenemise ohuga ning häbistamaks ministreid, kes kliimamuutuse ärahoidmiseks liiga vähe ette on võtnud. Teadlased on endale püstitanud aukartustäratava ülesande: vähendada piirkonna süsihappegaasi õhkupaiskamist poole lühema aja jooksul valitsuse määratud graafikust. Esmapilgul võib Credi nime kandev projekt tunduda mittemidagiütleva mõttetusena. Ühendkuningriigi teadlased usuvad, et nii see siiski pole, sest projekti taga seisavad väga väärikad ja tunnustatud teadlased. Ida-Anglia ülikooli keskkonnateaduste õppetooli peetakse parimaks omataoliseks kogu Suurbritannias. Kateedrit juhivad Keith Tovey ja tema kolleegid. Kui keegi nii julge lubaduse täitmisega hakkama saab, siis just Tovey rühm on Dennis Thouless, firma Global Commodities juht, kindel. Thoulessi firma kogub kohalikelt ettevõtteilt kasutatud toiduõli, et seda autokütuseks töödelda. Cred loodi vastusena valitsuse veebruaris välja antud valgele energeetikapaberile. Dokumendis tõotab valitsus vähendada süsihappegaasieritust 2050. aastaks 60 protsendi võrra. Tovey sõnul on valitsuse valgele paberile kirja pandud üsna kenad mõtted ja kogu dokument kõlab hästi. Paraku pole kodanikele antud ühtki juhist, kuidas kirjapandud kauneid mõtteid ellu viia. Et segadust veelgi suurendada, on valge paberi sihtide saavutamiseks üheaegselt käibel mitmeid tegevuskavu. Tagajärjeks on väga suur tähelepanu kasvuhoonegaasiemissioonide vähendamisele samaaegselt igasuguste praktiliste juhiste puudumisega.

11 Main Energy Conservation Projects at UEA Constable Terrace/ Nelson Court Student Residences Elizabeth Fry Building Combined Heat and Power School of Medicine ZICER Building The Future Absorption Chilling

12 Constable Terrace - 1993

13 Constable Terrace – Key Points Four Storey Student Residence Divided into houses of 10 units each with en-suite facilities Common Room/ Kitchen for each house Each house has a mechanical heat recovering Air Handling Unit which recovers much of the heat from cooking, appliance use, body heat etc. Fresh Air is fed via the AHUs for heating, and additional heat is provided electrically Individual rooms are provided with small 250W panel supplementary heaters

14 Constable Terrace – Key Points Constructed in 1992/1993 100mm insulation on floor – U value 0.18 W m -2 K [ Standard U – Value at time 0.45 W m -2 K (0.25 W m -2 K in 2002)] Walls: 2 leaves of lightweight concrete blocks with 100 mineral fibre cavity insulation – U value (0.22 W m -2 K ) [ Standard U – Value at time 0.45 W m -2 K (0.35 W m -2 K in 2002)] Roof: 200 mm insulation – U value (0.15 W m-2 K) [ Standard U – Value at time 0.25 W m-2 K (0.16 W m-2 K in 2002)] Specified pressure test at 50 Pa – 1 ach ~ 0.05 ach @ normal pressure [ actual performance – 2 ach – but much better than conventional buildings]

15 Constable Terrace Comparison of Constable Terrace with DOE standards

16 The Elizabeth Fry Building

17 Termodeck Construction Air is circulated through whole fabric of building Heated using a normal domestic heating boiler (24 kW) No heat supply needed at temperatures as cool as 9 o C Triple glazing with Low Emissivity Glass ~ quadruple glazing 180 mm insulated cavity 300 mm roof insulation 100 mm floor insulation Air – Pressure Test at 50 Pa – not to exceed 1.0 ach Actual performance 0.97 ach Has deteriorated slightly since 1996 Uses regenerative Heat Exchangers 85% with heat recovery


19 Fresh Air Stale Air Fresh Air Operation of Regenerative Heat Exchangers

20 Winter heating Experience shows that slab pre-heating is usually unnecessary – when used – often results in excess heat expelled later in day by AHUs Summer Cooling Slab temperature > 2 o C above ambient Cool air at night is circulated around slab to cool building No air-conditioning required In early years performance was not optimised In later years energy efficiency has improve even though air-tightness has deteriorated

21 The performance of the building has improved with time Energy Consumption in Elizabeth Fry Heating provided by domestic sized boilers. Energy requirement 20% of good practice for Academic Buildings.

22 44 96 ECON 19 Good Practice Type 3 Office Elizabeth Fry 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 kg/m 2 /annum gas electricity carbon dioxide emissions thermal comfort +28% air quality +36% lighting +25% noise +26% Elizabeth Fry User Satisfaction An energy efficient building reduces carbon dioxide AND is a better building to work in. Elizabeth Fry: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and User Satisfaction

23 The ZICER Building Follows the tradition of the Elizabeth Fry Building Uses Termodeck construction Draws heat from University Heating Main Has a 34 kW array of Photo Voltaic cells on top floor and roof Zuckerman Institute for Connective Environmental Research

24 ZICER Construction


26 Ducts in floor slab

27 Installation of Solar Panels

28 Elizabeth Fry performance has improved over years. ZICER will be better and less than 70% of emissions of mid 90s best practice building Photovoltaic cells will generate ~ 30 kW and save 20 tonnes CO 2 per annum. Projected Performance of ZICER

29 Performance of Elizabeth Fry and ZICER

30 UEA Combined Heat and Power Scheme

31 UEA CHP Scheme Until 1999 most heat for space heating was supplied by large boilers Primary main temperature ~ 110 – 120 o C All electricity imported Energy bill was in excess of £1 million per year Three 1 MWe generators are now installed Provide the majority of the electricity for the campus Export electricity at periods of low demand Waste heat is used a primary heat source Supplemented by existing boilers CHP has reduced that figure by £400 000 per year

32 Actual Financial Performance

33 CHP Review Installation of CHP units reduced carbon dioxide emissions by around 8000 tonnes or 35%. Reduced primary heating main temperature > lower distribution losses Extends the life of the boiler house plant, In summer Heat Dump fans must be used to remove excess heat The heat demand in summer dictates how much electricity can be generated In summer Increased demand for cooling of scientific equipment Plans are currently under way to install a 1MW absorption chiller

34 CHP Review electricitygasoil total balloons 1997/98kWh198953283514815833150 kg/kWh0.430.1860.277 tonnes8555.06537.69.215101.78390 electricityexportimport Gener- ationboilersCHPoiltotal balloons 1999/00kWh204365319770005783100156304311451007828263077922563 kg/ kWh -0.430.43 0.186 0.277 tonnes -420.12486.70.02698.95256.9255.510278.05710 Saving in CO 2 emissions as a result of CHP - 4824 tonnes CO 2 or 31.9% Equivalent to 2680 hot air balloons. [Note: UEA expanded during time and consumption increased so CO 2 savings are really higher than this].

35 Condenser Evaporator Throttle Valve Heat rejected Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger Heat from external source W ~ 0 Absorption Heat Pump

36 UEA has been leading the way with energy conservation. Technically Constable Terrace Elizabeth Fry ZICER CHP Absorption Chilling CRed is pioneering was in which to reduced carbon dioxide emissions Building partnerships Education Working in an integrated way Concluding Remarks

37 WEBSITE This Presentation may be viewed on the WEB at

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