2 Review Time: Management of Learning Talkie Time: Research worth Sharing
3 Lesson 3, Objectives : The learner 1. differentiates the general classifications of research based on purpose2. describes characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of qualitative research3. illustrates the importance of qualitative research across fields
4 ACCORDING TO OBJECTIVES: 1. PURE VS. APPLIED RESEARCH TYPES OF RESEARCHESACCORDING TO OBJECTIVES:1. PURE VS. APPLIED RESEARCH2. EXPLORATORY VS. EXPLANATORY3. QUANTITATIVE VS. QUALITATIVE
5 QUIZ: Identify the types of research as to PURPOSE (pure or applied, quantitative or qualitative, exploratory or explanatory) Effectiveness of Weight Loss Program among Obese School Heads 2. Applicability of the federal Form of Government in the Philippines 3. Multimedia utilization in teaching Science 4. I.Q in relation to National Achievement Test Result 5. Women's’ Aggression Behind bars 6. Manobo’s cultural practices in child rearing 7. Factors affecting Drop out rates 8. Inhibitory effects of bamboo roots to species of dysenteric bacilli 9. Confluence of Rizal’s work to Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables 10. Remedial Class Program among Slow learners.
6 Qualitative research... Commonly called “interpretive research” …its methods rely heavily on “thick” verbal descriptions of a particular context being studied
7 Generally speaking, qualitative researchers…. …spend a great deal of time in the settings being studied (fieldwork)…rely on themselves as the main instrument of data collection (subjectivity; intersubjectivity)…analyze data using interpretative lenses
8 The general characteristics of qualitative research... Data sources are real-world situations Data are descriptive Emphasizes a holistic approach (processes and outcomes) Data analysis is inductive Describes the meaning(s) of research finding(s) from the perspective of the research participants
9 Uses inductive reasoning… …involves developing generalizations from a limited number of specific observations or experiences…highly dependent on the number and representativeness of the specific observations used to make the generalization
10 What are the Strengths/ advantages of qualitative? One advantage of qualitative methods in exploratory research is that use of open-ended questions and probing gives participants the opportunity to respond in their own words, rather than forcing them to choose from fixed responses, as quantitative methods do. Open-ended questions have the ability to evoke responses that are:• meaningful and culturally salient to the participant• unanticipated by the researcher• rich and explanatory in nature
11 2. Another strength/ advantage of qualitative methods is that they allow the researcher the flexibility to probe initial participant responses – that is, to ask why or how.
12 3. Exploratory Advantage 3. Exploratory Advantage. The researcher can get an in-depth responses to make the study substantial
13 Weakness/Issues in qualitative research... a. gaining entryb. contacting potential research participantsc. selecting participantsd. enhancing validity and reducing biase. leaving the field
14 a. gaining entry... access is very much dependent upon the researcher’s personal characteristics and how others perceive the researcher may require considerable negotiation and compromise with a gatekeeper trust is earned, not given
15 b. contacting participants... gaining access dealing with gatekeeper(s) issues of building trust and ensuring confidentiality and anonymity
16 c. selecting participants... is fraught with difficulties in identifying and selecting an appropriate number of participants who can provide useful information about the particular topic and setting being studied
17 d. The threats to validity in qualitative studies... observer bias……invalid information resulting from the perspective the researcher brings to the study and imposes upon it
18 e. leaving the field… The question is when and how to exit…the bonds formed with study participants complicate leaving the setting…time constraints…when the amount of accessible data is sufficient
19 Types of Qualitative Researches: Qualitative Traditions of Inquiry 1. Biography--Life history, oralhistory2. Phenomenology--The lived experience3. Grounded theory4. Ethnography5. Case StudySpring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
20 1. Biographical StudyThe study of an individual and her or his experiences as told to the researcher or found in documents and archival material.Life history--The study of an individual’s life and how it reflects cultural themes of the society.Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
21 Biographical Study cont. Oral history--The researcher gathers personal recollections of events, their causes, and their effects from and individual or several individuals.The researcher needs to collect extensive information about the subject of the biographySpring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
22 Titles 1. Student Life of Jose Rizal: A Documentary 2 Titles 1. Student Life of Jose Rizal: A Documentary 2. The comparative analysis of 19th Century scientists: Common and Contrast 3. Who is Lapu-Lapu?: A closer look to a brave hero
23 2. PhenomenologyDescribes the meaning of the lived experience about a concept or a phenomenon for several individuals.It has roots in the philosophical perspectives of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, etc.--Max Van Manen, Munhall (Nursing)Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
24 PhenomenologyMoustakas, 1994, p. 13: “to determine what an experience means for the persons who have had the experience and are able to provide a comprehensive description of it. From the individual descriptions, general or universal meanings are derived, in other words, the essences of structures of the experience.”Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
25 Sample titles:Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications2. AN INDEPTH EXPLORATION INTO THE SEXUAL EXPERIENCES OF PEOPLE WITH A MILD OR MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILTY.3. NEAR DEATH EXPERIENCES AMONG CRTITICAL PATIENTS : A PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS4.
26 3. Grounded TheoryBased on Symbolic Interactionism which posits that humans act and interact on the basis of symbols, which have meaning and value for the actors.Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
27 Grounded Theory cont.The intent of grounded theory is to generate or discover a theory that relates to a particular situation. If little is known about a topic, grounded theory is especially usefulSpring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
28 Grounded Theory cont.The intent of grounded theory is to generate or discover a theory that relates to a particular situation. If little is known about a topic, grounded theory is especially usefulSpring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
29 Grounded Theory cont.Data analysis generates a visual picture, a narrative statement or a series of hypotheses with a central phenomenon, causal conditions, context and consequences.The researcher needs to set aside theoretical ideas or notions so that analytical or substantive theories can emerge from the data.Systematic approachSpring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
30 SAMPLE TITLES:Using Grounded Theory in Feminist research – A research about women’s exclusion from administration positions in primary educationThe Delivery of Quality Nursing Care: A Grounded Theory Study of the Nurses' PerspectiveGrounded Learning: An Application of Grounded TheoryIn Educational Practice
31 4. EthnographyA description and interpretation of a cultural or social group or system. The researcher examines the group’s observable and learned patterns of behavior, customs, and ways of life.Involves prolonged observation of the group, typically through participant observation.Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
32 Ethnography Field Work Key Informants Thick description Emic (insider group perspective) and Etic (researcher’s interpretation of social life).Context important, need holistic view.Need grounding in anthropology.Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
33 Ethnography cont. Need extensive time to collect data Many ethnographies may be written in a narrative or story telling approach which may be difficult for the audience accustomed to usual social science writing.Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
34 Sample titles1.Goffman in 'the home': exploring the viability of a Goffmanian styleanalysis of the nanny and parent relationship2. Ethnographic analysis on Internet-mediated communication practices in Cambodia3. 'Mothering Through Recruitment: Kinscription ofNonresidential Fathers and Father Figures in Low-Income Families', FamilyRelations4. Child rearing practices of Manobo Tribe: A close encounter
35 5. Case StudyA case study is an exploration of a “bounded system” or a case (or multiple cases) over time through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context.The context of the case involves situating the case within its setting. which may be physical, social, historical and/or economic.Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
36 Case Study cont.Data collection strategies include direct observation, interviews, documents, archival records, participant observation, physical artifacts and audiovisual materials.Analysis of themes, or issues and an interpretation of the case by the researcher.Spring 2006Qualitative Research--Simpson
37 Sample titles:Cultural influences on the social network marketing effectiveness : A case Study in ThailandGender Differences Within Academia : A case study on the probability of promotionCase Study on male prostitution in Cebu City
38 Summarize the Characteristics of the types of Qualitative Research
39 Qualitative Research Designs/Types Case Study: In a case study, a single person, program, event, process, institution, organization, social group or phenomenon is investigated within a specified time frame, using a combination of appropriate data collection devices (Creswell, 1994).2. Ethnography: Rooted in anthropology, ethnography involves the study of an intact group, logically defined, in its natural context for a sustained time interval. The researcher is typically an observer or a participant observer (Creswell, 1994).3. Phenomenology: In essence, this approach investigates an individual’s or group’s perception of reality as he or she constructs it. These realities may be expressed as an event, program, relationship, emotion, etc. Phenomenology is rooted in philosophy.
40 4. Grounded Theory: Grounded theory is a general research methodology used in building naturalistic theory and is rooted in sociology (Strauss and Corbin, 1994).5. Biography: The research relies on records, diaries, oral histories, photographs, and other artifacts to describe, analyze, and explain past events, philosophies, etc.
41 Method Focus Sample Size Data CollectionEthnography Context or culture --Observation & interviewsBiography Documentary 1 to 2Stories from individuals & documents Phenomenological People who have experienced a phenomenon 5 to 25InterviewsGrounded TheoryDevelop a theory from grounded in field data 20 to 60Interviews, then open and axial coding Case StudyOrganization, entity, individual, or eventInterviews, documents, reports, observations
43 Identify as to what type of Qualitative Research are the following: 1 Identify as to what type of Qualitative Research are the following: 1. Battered husbands: a new form of slavery? 2. Perception of buyers on the china made products 3. Through science humans have changed the earth: Better or Worse? 4. Social Media is anti social 5. Social Relativism is the key to understanding cultures 6. Philippine Dictators: A prologue 7. Flight and Fright behavior patterns of Birds 8. Autism spectrum disorder: what makes them unique? 9. Proving multiple intelligences theory on selected STEC students 10. Marital failures for underage couples.
44 Identify as to what type of Qualitative Research are the following: 1 Identify as to what type of Qualitative Research are the following: 1. Mangyan Courtship Dance: A Lost Tradition 2. STEC Students’ Struggles in Senior High School 3. General Luna: A worthy Leader 4. Breast feeding practices in barangay Suba 5. Delivery of Effective Customer Care in malls of Lapu-Lapu City 6. Peer Pressure in School: Make or Break? 7. Multiple Intelligences among kids: An Exploratory case 8. Sibling Rivalry for Maternal and Paternal Attention 9. (Re)structuring the history of Code of Kalantiao 10. Factors of Unemployment in Lapu-Lapu City
45 12. Cancer Patients’ Struggles: Survival for Life Identify as to what type of Qualitative Research are the following: 11. The Poems of Jose Rizal: Structure & Function12. Cancer Patients’ Struggles: Survival for Life13. The Pareto Principle in Business Practice14. Dewey’s Self-Reflective Model15. Child rearing practices of Bajao16. Metacognitive skills of student-achievers17. Satisfaction of teachers in DepEd18. ID, Ego, Superego – Understanding Personality19. The writings of Nick Joaquin20. Offshoot of Mining Industry: Students of Compostela Valley, where are you?
46 Point to Ponder: What is the application of Qualitative Research in Life?