Presentation on theme: "The NanoBAK technology"— Presentation transcript:
1The NanoBAK technology Prof. Klaus Lösche, ttz BILB/EIBTProject 1st year meeting12th April – Holstebro/Denmark
2Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphereThe NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processesConclusions– Low energy and Premium quality
3Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphereThe NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processesConclusions– Low energy and Premium quality
4Introduction High energy demand Fuente: Chen. C.S., Lebensm.-Wiss.U. Technol., 18, , 1985
5IntroductionCurrent trends in bakery – fermentation control and frozen productsThe ripening control:retarded dough, interrupted dough, frozen dough.Bake-off processes:par-baked and fully baked frozen products, pre-fermented dough, fully fermented and frozen dough, etc.Cooling after baking:For packaging, for slicing, for post processing.
6Introduction Climatic chambers Slow fermentation Delayed fermentation Interrupted fermentationDeep-freezingControl of the fermentation through less amount of yeast. It takes place at room temperature. Craft bakeries.The fermentation speed is delayed through a quick decrease of the dough temperature.T range: +5°C to -6°C .Interruption of the fermentation through a quick decrease of the dough temperature.T range: -7° to -18°C.Long storage at lower temperatures than-18°C.Maximum storage time: 8h.Storage up to 72 h at aprox. 0°C,80-85% RH.Storage up to 72 h (90h) at aprox. -10°C,Storage for several monthsLower than -25°C, 75% RHThe fermentation process takes place during storage.Final fermentation in a climatic chamber with optimal conditions depending on product.Final fermentation in a climatic chamber: gradual change of temperature (1-2h, 3-10°C) followed by fermentation in optimal conditions depending on product characteristics.Variations:DoughPar baked productsBaked products
7IntroductionCooling and freezing are high energy demanding processes and critical stages for the product qualityConventional processing Rel. Ambience H.= ~ %Low cooling and freezing velocityLow conductivityaW = 0,80-0,96(depending of it is dough or bread)DesorptionDough: Bread:Drying surfaces Freeze bruningIrregular products Weight losesWeight loses Undiserable colourUndesirable product Crust splittingSkin formingHeterogeneous distribution of temperatureHumidity and temperature gradientsLow qualityHeterogeneous final products
8Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK Technology The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphereThe NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processesConclusions– Low energy and Premium quality
92. The NanoBAK technology Ultrasound based humidification system which generates a cold fog (mist) with water drops of around 1 micronCooling and freezing with assisted humidityFor assuring:High relative humidity in the chamberBetter humidity distribution (without sedimentation, without condensation)Better conductivitySaving yeast- and enzyme- activities in the surfaceLess turbulencesEnergy saving
10Mollier h,x-Diagram 2. The NanoBAK technology With a relative humidity of 70 % with +30°C 1kg air contains approx. 19g waterWith a relative humidity of 75 % at +5°C , 1kg air contains approx. 5g water (retarder)Calienta la cámara de nuevoMollier h,x-Diagram
11Piezokeramic transducer (Transducer, Schwinger) 2. The NanoBAK technologyMechanical oscillations of the water surface that liberate the aerosol dropletsSize of the water droplets depending upon the ultrasonic frequency (minimum 1MHZ), being down to 1 micron and generating a cold fogMass-output, energetically efficientEl areosol generado es liberado en la cámara a través del flujo de aire en el humificador y se distribuye rápidamente en el aire del ambiente.Piezokeramic transducer (Transducer, Schwinger)The aerosol (~ ,005mm) is delivered by the air flow in the chamber and is distributed very fast and homogenously within the ambient air.
122. The NanoBAK technology 0,11,010,0100,01000,02004006008001000120014001600Droplet size [µm]Falling speed [cm/s]10306010025050075015000,3032,6810,22794210313545sedimentation rate [cm/s]Small drops have nearly no falling, float, can driftUltrasonic equipment: < 1,0µm electro-humidifier: > 50 – 150 µmelectro-humidifierultrasonic technology
13Optimal humidity distribution 2. The NanoBAK technologyOptimal humidity distributionSimulation of the humidity distribution in a climatic chamber with the MICROTEC systemAn optimized humidity distribution in the chamber is achieved through the cold fog
142. The NanoBAK technology Without condentation problems
15The improvement 2. The NanoBAK technology Conventional processing Rel. Ambience H.= ~ %NanoBAK technology Rel. Ambience H.= ~ 99 %aW = 0,89-0,96aW = 0,89-0,96Dried surfaceWater loses and mass transfers (crust splitting)Condensation on the surfaceSticky doughQuality losesNo drying effects, no condensation problemshomogenous Temperature and Humidity distributionWater loses and mass transfer are minimized, so that the crust stress and consequently splitting is avoidedHigh quality products and low energy demand
16Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphereThe NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processesConclusions– Low energy and Premium quality
17retarded fermentation 3. Case study:retarded fermentationBloqueo 4 horasRemark: the temperatures depend on the chamber capacity and the size of the product, as well as on the design and production criteria.
18retarded fermentation 3. Case study:retarded fermentationexpansionexpansionConventional chamberHumidity assisted chamberRetarded fermentation, T =+3°C, 16 hours
19retarded fermentation 3. Case study:retarded fermentationPor supuesto, el proceso ha sido el mismo para los dos productos, a idénticas condicionesIrregularidades debido a la fermentación diferente en unas zonas que en otras. El producto se expansiona irregularmenteEl producto se expansiona regularmente obteniéndose una forma homogeneaConventional chamberHumidity assisted chamberRetarded fermentation, T =+3°C, 16 hours
20+ Crispiness + 3. Case study: retarded fermentation Humidity assisted HoursConventional processUno es gomoso, el otro crujienteCrispiness retention+ColorRetarded fermentation: T = +3°C, 16 hoursConventional chamberHumidity assisted chamber
21interrupted fermentation 3. Case study:interrupted fermentationRemark: the temperatures depend on the chamber capacity and the size of the product, as well as on the design and production criteria.
22interrupted fermentation 3. Case study:interrupted fermentationConventional chamber dough properties: sticky, wet and rough surface.Humidity assisted chamberproperties: easily handling dough, humid inside but dry and smooth surface.expansionSuperficie seca durante el congelado, cuando se descongela Humedo, y mojadoexpansionInterrupted fermentation, T = -10°C, 20 hours
23Humidity assisted chamber 3. Case study:interrupted fermentationIch kann nicht sagen auch 20 std, dann in vergleich von die vorherige Bild, wo das Volum gleich bleibt was?Humidity assisted chamberConventional chamberInterrupted fermentation, T =-10°C, 20 hours
24interrupted fermentation 3. Case study:interrupted fermentationConventional chamber with an electric humidifier (only able to work until +5°C)Energy consumption of the interrupted process, 20 hours = 44,40 KWhChamber with the humidity assisted system though cold fog (during the whole process)Energy consumption of the interrupted process, 20 hours = 27,80 KWh
25interrupted fermentation 3. Case study:interrupted fermentationHumidity assistedHigh conductivity, better mass and heat transfer, faster browning:Energy savingConventional processHaben wir anderen Bilder davon? Am ende sieht so aus, dass mit Feuchte die Temperaturegradient ist noch höcher!!Low conductivity, limited mass and heat transferInterrupted fermentation, T -10°C, 20 hours
26interrupted fermentation 3. Case study:interrupted fermentationDecrease of the baking timeMejor transferencia de temperatura/ conductividad porque mejor humedad y por eso se peude reducir el teimpo de horneadoConventional chamberHumidity assisted chamberInfluence of the additional humidity on the enzymatic activity and/or the browning reaction (same baking conditions)Interrupted fermentation, T =-10°C, 20 hours
27Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphereThe NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processesConclusions– Low energy and Premium quality
28Conventional process: shock freezer 4. Case studyfully baked frozen breadConventional process: shock freezerThe freshly baked bread (previously cooled down) is frozen in a chamber at – 40°C (until -7°C on the core) and afterwards stored at -18 °C (or even -25°C)Advantages:- Fast freezingDisadvantages:High energy consumptionWater loses up to 4%Quality loses due to crust splittingFreezer burn
29fully baked frozen bread 4. Case studyfully baked frozen breadCrust splittingThe crust splitting is evidenced after the freezing stagePart of the product surface is brokenThe storage of the product worst the problematicNeuen Bilder??
30fully baked frozen bread 4. Case studyfully baked frozen breadHypothesis for the crust splitting problematic:a) Thermodynamic problem due to the temperature gradientDry air- Humidity diffusion to the cold crust- Condensation below the crustPossibility of crystal formation below the crustExpansion of ice will cause crust splittingWoher kommt diese Diagram? Sind unsere?b) Gas pressure drop/ the gas bubbles contractCongel.Source: Prof. Le Bail (ENITIAA, Francia)
31fully baked frozen bread 4. Case studyfully baked frozen breadFreezing process with additional humidity (at controlled intervals)From 95°C until -10°C in the core (-20°C in the chamber), followed by storage at -18°CAdvantages:Better qualityAvoidance of water losesMinimum crust splittingBetter conductivity = energy savingPorque digo lo de los dos pasos si todo lo que tnemos hecho es de un paso!!! Grrrr…
32fully baked frozen bread 4. Case studyfully baked frozen breadFully baked BaguetteShock freezer immediately after baking (-40°C) until -10°C in the core followed by storage at °C (with packaging)Fully baked BaguetteHumidity assisted freezing (-20°C) until-10°C in the core followed by storage at °C (with packaging)Chamber at - 40°CChamber at - 20°C, less energy consumption!
334. Case study: bread cooling Adiabatic cooling Entalpia de vapororización…..la enetgía que necesita para evaporarse la humedad, la coge del ambiente y por eso lo enfría----efecto de enfriamiento
34fully baked frozen bread 4. Case studyfully baked frozen breadCurrently under study!Step 1Adiabatic cooling with humidity contribution (discountinously)Freshly baked bread, from 95°C to +30 °C (core) (chamber at 20°C)Advantages:- Better final qualityNo refrigeration system necessary, energy savingStep 2Humidity asssisted freezing (interval)From 30°C up to -10°C in the core (chamber at -20°C)Better conductivity = energy savingBetter qualityAvoidance of the weight losesAvoidance of the crust splitting and the freezer burn
35Cooling process after baking 4. Case study:bread coolingCooling process after baking27,3 °C21,5 °CDazu auch adiabatische kühlung effekt mit die feuchteFigure 1: bread after 30 minutesin a conventional chamber at +1°CFigure 2: bread after 30 minutesIn a humidity assisted chamber at +1°CCase study: 1000g bread. Pictures taken using a thermograph after 30 minutes of cooling in a chamber at +1°C
36The product water loss during the cooling process can be avoided 4. Case study:bread coolingThe product water loss during the cooling process can be avoidedEsto es depués del segundo horneado o que??
37Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphereThe NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processesConclusions– Low energy and Premium quality
385. Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality Refrigeration technologies have enormously contributed to the growth, among others, of the bakery industry (starting by 1980/1985)Refrigeration technologies provide the bakery sector, both craft and industrial bakeries, with a great potential for innovation and developmentThe way to optimal climatic techniques is driven by the final product quality and the energy demandThe humidity assistance during the cooling and freezing stages improves enormously the current trendy processes and contributes to the energy reductionOptimal humidity conditions in the chamber and in the dough/bread are achievedImprovement of the bread and baked products quality: premium quality thanks to the humidity in the atmosphereAt the same time, a significant energy saving can be achieved leading to an important reduction of costs
39Thank you for your attention Vielen Dank für Ihre AufmerksamkeitThank you for your attentionBäckerei- und GetreidetechnologieProf. Klaus Löschettz BILB/EIBTAm Lunedeich 1227572 BremerhavenTel. :Fax.: