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The NanoBAK technology

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Presentation on theme: "The NanoBAK technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 The NanoBAK technology
Prof. Klaus Lösche, ttz BILB/EIBT Project 1st year meeting 12th April – Holstebro/Denmark

2 Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System
The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphere The NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processes Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality

3 Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System
The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphere The NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processes Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality

4 Introduction High energy demand
Fuente: Chen. C.S., Lebensm.-Wiss.U. Technol., 18, , 1985

5 Introduction Current trends in bakery – fermentation control and frozen products The ripening control: retarded dough, interrupted dough, frozen dough. Bake-off processes: par-baked and fully baked frozen products, pre-fermented dough, fully fermented and frozen dough, etc. Cooling after baking: For packaging, for slicing, for post processing.

6 Introduction Climatic chambers Slow fermentation Delayed fermentation
Interrupted fermentation Deep-freezing Control of the fermentation through less amount of yeast. It takes place at room temperature. Craft bakeries. The fermentation speed is delayed through a quick decrease of the dough temperature. T range: +5°C to -6°C . Interruption of the fermentation through a quick decrease of the dough temperature. T range: -7° to -18°C. Long storage at lower temperatures than -18°C. Maximum storage time: 8h. Storage up to 72 h at aprox. 0°C, 80-85% RH. Storage up to 72 h (90h) at aprox. -10°C, Storage for several months Lower than -25°C, 75% RH The fermentation process takes place during storage. Final fermentation in a climatic chamber with optimal conditions depending on product. Final fermentation in a climatic chamber: gradual change of temperature (1-2h, 3-10°C) followed by fermentation in optimal conditions depending on product characteristics. Variations: Dough Par baked products Baked products

7 Introduction Cooling and freezing are high energy demanding processes and critical stages for the product quality Conventional processing Rel. Ambience H.= ~ % Low cooling and freezing velocity Low conductivity aW = 0,80-0,96 (depending of it is dough or bread) Desorption Dough: Bread: Drying surfaces Freeze bruning Irregular products Weight loses Weight loses Undiserable colour Undesirable product Crust splitting Skin forming Heterogeneous distribution of temperature Humidity and temperature gradients Low quality Heterogeneous final products

8 Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK Technology
The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphere The NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processes Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality

9 2. The NanoBAK technology
Ultrasound based humidification system which generates a cold fog (mist) with water drops of around 1 micron Cooling and freezing with assisted humidity For assuring: High relative humidity in the chamber Better humidity distribution (without sedimentation, without condensation) Better conductivity Saving yeast- and enzyme- activities in the surface Less turbulences Energy saving

10 Mollier h,x-Diagram 2. The NanoBAK technology
With a relative humidity of 70 % with +30°C 1kg air contains approx. 19g water With a relative humidity of 75 % at +5°C , 1kg air contains approx. 5g water (retarder) Calienta la cámara de nuevo Mollier h,x-Diagram

11 Piezokeramic transducer (Transducer, Schwinger)
2. The NanoBAK technology Mechanical oscillations of the water surface that liberate the aerosol droplets Size of the water droplets depending upon the ultrasonic frequency (minimum 1MHZ), being down to 1 micron and generating a cold fog Mass-output, energetically efficient El areosol generado es liberado en la cámara a través del flujo de aire en el humificador y se distribuye rápidamente en el aire del ambiente. Piezokeramic transducer (Transducer, Schwinger) The aerosol (~ ,005mm) is delivered by the air flow in the chamber and is distributed very fast and homogenously within the ambient air.

12 2. The NanoBAK technology
0,1 1,0 10,0 100,0 1000,0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Droplet size [µm] Falling speed [cm/s] 10 30 60 100 250 500 750 1500 0,303 2,68 10,2 27 94 210 313 545 sedimentation rate [cm/s] Small drops have nearly no falling, float, can drift Ultrasonic equipment: < 1,0µm electro-humidifier: > 50 – 150 µm electro-humidifier ultrasonic technology

13 Optimal humidity distribution
2. The NanoBAK technology Optimal humidity distribution Simulation of the humidity distribution in a climatic chamber with the MICROTEC system An optimized humidity distribution in the chamber is achieved through the cold fog

14 2. The NanoBAK technology
Without condentation problems

15 The improvement 2. The NanoBAK technology
Conventional processing Rel. Ambience H.= ~ % NanoBAK technology Rel. Ambience H.= ~ 99 % aW = 0,89-0,96 aW = 0,89-0,96 Dried surface Water loses and mass transfers (crust splitting) Condensation on the surface Sticky dough Quality loses No drying effects, no condensation problems homogenous Temperature and Humidity distribution Water loses and mass transfer are minimized, so that the crust stress and consequently splitting is avoided High quality products and low energy demand

16 Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System
The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphere The NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processes Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality

17 retarded fermentation
3. Case study: retarded fermentation Bloqueo 4 horas Remark: the temperatures depend on the chamber capacity and the size of the product, as well as on the design and production criteria.

18 retarded fermentation
3. Case study: retarded fermentation expansion expansion Conventional chamber Humidity assisted chamber Retarded fermentation, T =+3°C, 16 hours

19 retarded fermentation
3. Case study: retarded fermentation Por supuesto, el proceso ha sido el mismo para los dos productos, a idénticas condiciones Irregularidades debido a la fermentación diferente en unas zonas que en otras. El producto se expansiona irregularmente El producto se expansiona regularmente obteniéndose una forma homogenea Conventional chamber Humidity assisted chamber Retarded fermentation, T =+3°C, 16 hours

20 + Crispiness + 3. Case study: retarded fermentation Humidity assisted
Hours Conventional process Uno es gomoso, el otro crujiente Crispiness retention + Color Retarded fermentation: T = +3°C, 16 hours Conventional chamber Humidity assisted chamber

21 interrupted fermentation
3. Case study: interrupted fermentation Remark: the temperatures depend on the chamber capacity and the size of the product, as well as on the design and production criteria.

22 interrupted fermentation
3. Case study: interrupted fermentation Conventional chamber dough properties: sticky, wet and rough surface. Humidity assisted chamber properties: easily handling dough, humid inside but dry and smooth surface. expansion Superficie seca durante el congelado, cuando se descongela Humedo, y mojado expansion Interrupted fermentation, T = -10°C, 20 hours

23 Humidity assisted chamber
3. Case study: interrupted fermentation Ich kann nicht sagen auch 20 std, dann in vergleich von die vorherige Bild, wo das Volum gleich bleibt was? Humidity assisted chamber Conventional chamber Interrupted fermentation, T =-10°C, 20 hours

24 interrupted fermentation
3. Case study: interrupted fermentation Conventional chamber with an electric humidifier (only able to work until +5°C) Energy consumption of the interrupted process, 20 hours = 44,40 KWh Chamber with the humidity assisted system though cold fog (during the whole process) Energy consumption of the interrupted process, 20 hours = 27,80 KWh

25 interrupted fermentation
3. Case study: interrupted fermentation Humidity assisted High conductivity, better mass and heat transfer, faster browning: Energy saving Conventional process Haben wir anderen Bilder davon? Am ende sieht so aus, dass mit Feuchte die Temperaturegradient ist noch höcher!! Low conductivity, limited mass and heat transfer Interrupted fermentation, T -10°C, 20 hours

26 interrupted fermentation
3. Case study: interrupted fermentation Decrease of the baking time Mejor transferencia de temperatura/ conductividad porque mejor humedad y por eso se peude reducir el teimpo de horneado Conventional chamber Humidity assisted chamber Influence of the additional humidity on the enzymatic activity and/or the browning reaction (same baking conditions) Interrupted fermentation, T =-10°C, 20 hours

27 Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System
The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphere The NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processes Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality

28 Conventional process: shock freezer
4. Case study fully baked frozen bread Conventional process: shock freezer The freshly baked bread (previously cooled down) is frozen in a chamber at – 40°C (until -7°C on the core) and afterwards stored at -18 °C (or even -25°C) Advantages: - Fast freezing Disadvantages: High energy consumption Water loses up to 4% Quality loses due to crust splitting Freezer burn

29 fully baked frozen bread
4. Case study fully baked frozen bread Crust splitting The crust splitting is evidenced after the freezing stage Part of the product surface is broken The storage of the product worst the problematic Neuen Bilder??

30 fully baked frozen bread
4. Case study fully baked frozen bread Hypothesis for the crust splitting problematic: a) Thermodynamic problem due to the temperature gradient Dry air - Humidity diffusion to the cold crust - Condensation below the crust Possibility of crystal formation below the crust Expansion of ice will cause crust splitting Woher kommt diese Diagram? Sind unsere? b) Gas pressure drop/ the gas bubbles contract Congel. Source: Prof. Le Bail (ENITIAA, Francia)

31 fully baked frozen bread
4. Case study fully baked frozen bread Freezing process with additional humidity (at controlled intervals) From 95°C until -10°C in the core (-20°C in the chamber), followed by storage at -18°C Advantages: Better quality Avoidance of water loses Minimum crust splitting Better conductivity = energy saving Porque digo lo de los dos pasos si todo lo que tnemos hecho es de un paso!!! Grrrr…

32 fully baked frozen bread
4. Case study fully baked frozen bread Fully baked Baguette Shock freezer immediately after baking (-40°C) until -10°C in the core followed by storage at °C (with packaging) Fully baked Baguette Humidity assisted freezing (-20°C) until -10°C in the core followed by storage at °C (with packaging) Chamber at - 40°C Chamber at - 20°C, less energy consumption!

33 4. Case study: bread cooling Adiabatic cooling
Entalpia de vapororización…..la enetgía que necesita para evaporarse la humedad, la coge del ambiente y por eso lo enfría----efecto de enfriamiento

34 fully baked frozen bread
4. Case study fully baked frozen bread Currently under study! Step 1 Adiabatic cooling with humidity contribution (discountinously) Freshly baked bread, from 95°C to +30 °C (core) (chamber at 20°C) Advantages: - Better final quality No refrigeration system necessary, energy saving Step 2 Humidity asssisted freezing (interval) From 30°C up to -10°C in the core (chamber at -20°C) Better conductivity = energy saving Better quality Avoidance of the weight loses Avoidance of the crust splitting and the freezer burn

35 Cooling process after baking
4. Case study: bread cooling Cooling process after baking 27,3 °C 21,5 °C Dazu auch adiabatische kühlung effekt mit die feuchte Figure 1: bread after 30 minutes in a conventional chamber at +1°C Figure 2: bread after 30 minutes In a humidity assisted chamber at +1°C Case study: 1000g bread. Pictures taken using a thermograph after 30 minutes of cooling in a chamber at +1°C

36 The product water loss during the cooling process can be avoided
4. Case study: bread cooling The product water loss during the cooling process can be avoided Esto es depués del segundo horneado o que??

37 Table of contents Introduction The NanoBAK System
The NanoBAK System - Ripening control with an optimal humidity in the atmosphere The NanoBAK System – Humidity assisted cooling and freezing processes Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality

38 5. Conclusions – Low energy and Premium quality
Refrigeration technologies have enormously contributed to the growth, among others, of the bakery industry (starting by 1980/1985) Refrigeration technologies provide the bakery sector, both craft and industrial bakeries, with a great potential for innovation and development The way to optimal climatic techniques is driven by the final product quality and the energy demand The humidity assistance during the cooling and freezing stages improves enormously the current trendy processes and contributes to the energy reduction Optimal humidity conditions in the chamber and in the dough/bread are achieved Improvement of the bread and baked products quality: premium quality thanks to the humidity in the atmosphere At the same time, a significant energy saving can be achieved leading to an important reduction of costs

39 Thank you for your attention
Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit Thank you for your attention Bäckerei- und Getreidetechnologie Prof. Klaus Lösche ttz BILB/EIBT Am Lunedeich 12 27572 Bremerhaven Tel. : Fax.:


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