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1WORLD LANGUAGES EXPERIENCE Southern California HEINLE Cengage Learning Making Form-Meaning Connections in Foreign Language Classrooms: Structured Input as Grammar InstructionFriday, April 1, 2011Prof.Wynne WongThe Ohio State UniversityFormIt is not uncommon for people to associate grammar learning with paradigm memorization and mechanical drilling. Many of us probably learned this way ourselves at one time or another.Grammar instruction has come a long way.Over the years, research in SLA has given us a lot of insight into how people acquire a new language and this research in turn has guided the profession in articulating new approaches and techniques to enhance L2 instruction.Meaning
2Aller – to goJe vaisTu vasIl/Elle/On vaNous allonsVous allezIls/Elles vont
12Excuse me teacher!Can we learn the word for restaurant? It’s a little boring to always go to the residence hall.
13WORLD LANGUAGES EXPERIENCE Southern California HEINLE Cengage Learning Making Form-Meaning Connections in Foreign Language Classrooms: Structured Input as Grammar InstructionFriday, April 1, 2011Prof.Wynne WongThe Ohio State UniversityFormIt is not uncommon for people to associate grammar learning with paradigm memorization and mechanical drilling. Many of us probably learned this way ourselves at one time or another.Grammar instruction has come a long way.Over the years, research in SLA has given us a lot of insight into how people acquire a new language and this research in turn has guided the profession in articulating new approaches and techniques to enhance L2 instruction.Meaning
14Two essential ingredients of successful second language acquisition: INPUTInteraction1. Input2. Opportunities to engage in interaction
16What is input?Anything in the target language that communicates some kind of message.In the context of language acquisition, input refers to …..By “communicative intent,” we mean that there is a message to be communicated so that the receiver of that message has a reason for attending to it.
17Input in an L2 Learning Context “Please open your books to pg.8”“Please get into groups of three”AdsRadioNewspapers/magazinesTVFilms/VideosL2 learners in a foreign-language learning context also get input. When learners hear “Please open your books to page 78” or “Please get into groups of three” in the target language, they are receiving input. Other sources of input may come from watching TV, listening to the radio, reading the newspaper, or looking at advertisements in the L2.What is common to all these examples is that the language they hear or read contains a message that has to be comprehended. Input, then, is necessarily meaning-bearing for it communicates some kind of message.When a learner hears “paper or plastic,” someone is communicating a message. When a learner sees a sign that reads, “Bathroom out of order,” a message is also communicated. The learner’s job is to receive and understand these messages.
18“The concept of input is perhaps the single most important concept of second language acquisition. It is trivial to point out that no individual can learn a second language without input of some sort” (Gass, 1997, p. 1).INPUTWithout input, successful language acquisition cannot happen. All scholars in SLA are in agreement that input is fundamental to language acquisition. Here is what one scholar has to say:There are no cases of successful learners who have not been exposed to lots of input. Learners who have mastered their L2 usually read a lot in the L2, listen to music and watch TV, have friends who speak the L2, etc.
19Why is input so crucial?Input provides the linguistic data that a developing linguistic system needs in order to start the process of language acquisition.Input provides the linguistic data that a developing linguistic system needs in order for acquisition to be possible.When learners receive input, they are feeding their developing linguistic system the data it needs to start the process of acquisition.
21or fuel for a plane. Without gas or fuel, these machines cannot run or fuel for a plane. Without gas or fuel, these machines cannot run. Without input, there can be no successful language acquisition.OK. So we now know what input is. We know that input is necessary and that it is the “stuff” that starts the process of language acquisition.
22All SLA researchers agree… Acquisition begins with input!Input is as important to acquisition as food is to the human body!INPUTRemember that acquisition begins with input. Input is as important to acquisition as food is to the human body.Acquisition cannot happen without it!
23Unfortunately, not all the input that learners are exposed to is usable for acquisition.
24How does input become usable for acquisition? By making form-meaning connections from input as learners attempt to comprehend messages (VanPatten, 1996, 2003)What happens when learners are exposed to input? How do learners get linguistic data to their developing systems from input?Let’s examine what this statement means.
25Form-Meaning Connection A form-meaning connection is the relationship between referential meaning and the way it is encoded linguistically.FormMeaningA form-meaning connection is the relationship between referential meaning and the way it is encoded linguistically. Meaning may be encoded linguistically via lexical items (words), syntax (sentence structure), morphology (inflections on words), and consonant length, among others. Figure 1.3 illustrates examples of some possible form-meaning connections:
26HOW MEANING IS ENCODED LINGUISTICALLY As shown in Figure 1.3, the concept of a four-legged feline that chases mice is encoded linguistically by the word (or form) gato in Spanish. The concept of pastness may be encoded linguistically via morphology in English by adding –ed to the end of regular verbs.In French, future tense may be encoded linguistically by adding specific morphological endings to the infinitive forms of verbs. When learners make the connection that gato is the linguistic code for “small four-legged feline”, they have made a form-meaning connection and intake is created. When learners hear “I talked to my professor” and understand that talked means that the action is in the past, or if they hear “Sylvie regardera un film” and understand that regardera refers to the future, another form-meaning connection is made.Thus, when a learner pays attention to a linguistic form and understands the meaning that the form encodes, a form meaning connection is made.When there are no form-meaning connections, there is no acquisition.
31Model of Second Language Acquisition Acquisition is dependent on input not output.Richer form-meaning connections = better output!DEV.LING.SYSTEMOUTPUTINTAKEFORM-MEANINGCONNECTIONSINPUT(VanPatten, 1996, 2003)
32How can we help our students make effective form-meaning connections?
33Structured Input Activities One way…Structured Input Activities
35What are Structured Input (SI) activities? SI activities are based on information about how learners tend to make form-meaning connections on their own (which may be ineffective).Based on this information, activities are designed to push learners away from incorrect or non-optimal processing strategies towards more optimal ones.
36(2) what strategies direct how they make form-meaning connections and VanPatten’s Model of Input Processing provides a set of principles to explain:(1) what learners attend to in the input and why(2) what strategies direct how they make form-meaning connections and(3) why they make some form-meaning connections before others
37Principle 1 (P1). The Primacy of Meaning Principle Principle 1 (P1). The Primacy of Meaning Principle. Learners process input for meaning before they process it for formPrinciple 2 (P2). The First Noun Principle. Learners tend to process the first noun or pronoun they encounter in a sentence as the subject or agent.
38Let’s focus on P1 Consider the following sentence: Last night Ann watched TV.Temporal reference is encoded in two ways…“last night”The morphological form –edAccording to P1, if learners wanted to determine the temporal reference of this sentence, which element in that sentence would they pay attention to first?Answer: “last night”
39An important construct for understanding P1 is the idea of communicative value CV refers to the meaning that a form contributes to overall meaning in a piece of input.Forms that are redundant (i.e., information carried in the form is also expressed elsewhere in the utterance) tend to have a lower CV.Forms that are not redundant tend to have a higher CV.
40Is the –ed in the sentence redundant? Last night Ann watched TVYes. The ed encodes the meaning of pastness and the idea of pastness is already expressed by the content words “last night”.
41What just happened? Anne watched TV. We just made the communicative value of ed higher because learners can no longer rely on “last night” to get the temporal reference of this sentence.They have to rely on ed for this information.We just structured the input so that the ed is no longer redundant and takes on a higher communicative value.
42Identifying Processing Problems ActivityIdentifying Processing ProblemsVP’s model of input processing describes what learners do when they attempt to process input. The model describes what they tend to do when left to their own devices. And as we can see, the strategies that they use are not the best or most efficient. They tend to miss certain grammatical information. Sometimes they make wrong form-meaning connections.The question that researchers in the area of input processing have asked is the following:Can we teach learners to process input better?
43Activity: Identifying Processing Problems I watched television for three hours yesterday.[Learners do not notice the ed on the verb “watch”]I purchased several magazines while I was abroad.[Learners miss the s on the end of “magazines”]Professor Lee wants us to turn in our homework before the end of class.[Learners do not notice the s on the end of the verb “wants”]John was kissed by Mary in front of the gas station.[Learners think John was the one who kissed Mary]Je doute que Pierre soit intellient. (I doubt that Pierre is intelligent)[Learners do not notice the subjunctive verb form “soit”]Antonella abita in una casa bianca. (Antonella lives in a white house)[Learners do not notice the –a on the end of the adjective “bianca”]
44Target form: simple past tense in English The problem:P1. Learners will pay more attention to the content words to get temporal reference and consequently, may miss the past tense form, -ed.The activities:We need to structure the input so that learners must pay attention to the form instead of the temporal adverbs to get the meaning of pastness.
45You will hear sentences that describe activities that Claude did yesterday or activities that he will do tomorrow. Listen carefully to the verbs in order to determine whether the action happened yesterday or will happen tomorrow.Claude....1. a. yesterday b. tomorrow2. a. yesterday b. tomorrow3. a. yesterday b. tomorrow4. a. yesterday b. tomorrow5. a. yesterday b. tomorrow6. a. yesterday b. tomorrowTeacher’s Script:Claude......talked to his mother....walked his dog in the park....will call his aunt Freida....fixed himself a sandwich for dinner....will cook a nice meal for his friends....will repair the dishwasher.
462 Types of SI Activities(1) Referential: Require learners to pay attention to form in order to get meaning (have right or wrong answers)(2) Affective: Do not have right or wrong answers. They require learners to express an opinion, belief or some other affective response as they are engaged in processing info about the real world.
47Affective ActivityRead the following activities and check off the ones that you did last night.Last night I ......watched TV....fixed myself a cocktail....cleaned up my room....invited friends over for dinner....played tennis....worked out at the gym....washed my hair....stayed up late.…shopped at Bloomingdale’s.…dressed up my dog.Now share your responses with a classmate. Did you do the same things last night?
48Target Structure: passato prossimo (simple past tense) in Italian Referential Activity A. Hieri o oggi? You will hear sentences describing some things that Pietro did yesterday and some things that he is doing today. Listen carefully to the sentences and identify whether the sentence you hear is referring to something Pietro did yesterday (ieri) or is doing today (oggi). Circle the correct response.Teacher’s Script: Read the sentences once. Ask for an answer after each sentence. After reading all the sentences, ask the students if Pietro was a good boy yesterday or not.1) Ieri Oggi2) Ieri Oggi3) Ieri Oggi4) Ieri Oggi5) Ieri OggiIeri Oggi1. Pulisce la casa (cleans house).2. Ha data un cioccolatino al cane (gave chocolate to the dog).3. Ha copiato il compito di matematica (copied the math homework)4. Lavora per cinque ore (works for five hours).5. Compra una pizza per i suoi amici (buys a pizza for his friends).6. Ha ditto una bugia (told a lie).7. Legge un libro (reads a book).8. Ha dipino il gatto (painted the cat).
49Affective Activity:Activity B. Instant Messenger. You are on Instant Messenger with your mother and she asks you the usual questions to find out what you did yesterday. Below is a list of her customary questions. Simply write her an IM back for each question responding by yes (sì) or no based on what you actually did yesterday.la vostro madre: Hai fatto colazione (Did you have breakfast)?voi: __________la vostro madre: Hai bevuto un cappuccino (Did you drink a capuccino)?voi: _____________la vostro madre: Hai letto il giornale (Did you read the paper)?la vostro madre: Hai mangiato da McDonald’s (Did you eat at McD’s)?la vostro madre: Hai guardato la TV (Did you watch TV)?voi: ____________Compare your answers with a classmate. Whose mother would be prouder?
50Referential Activity – French Bill Clinton: Before and After A recent French newspaper article discussed Bill Clinton’s presidency and his retirement from the White House. Decide whether each excerpt taken from the article refers to Bill Clinton’s life during or after his presidency.Pendant sa Aujourd’hui,présidenceBill Clinton…_______ ______ 1. a assisté aux réunions importantes. (attended important meetings)_______ ______ 2. rencontre des gens importants. (meets important people)_______ ______ 3. parle avec conviction. (speaks with conviction)_______ ______ 4. a voyagé en Europe. (traveled in Europe)_______ ______ 5. a passé ses vacances avec sa famille. (spent vacation with his family)_______ ______ 6. joue du saxophone pour sa famille.(plays the sax for his family)______ ______ 7. a mangé beaucoup de Big Macs. * (ate a lot of Big Macs)* Bad item – why?XXXXXXX
51Target Structure: Adjective Agreement in French/Italian The processing problem is low communicative value. Adjectives in French/Italian must agree in number and gender to the noun they modify (une femme intelligente). The agreement, however, does not contribute any meaning.The following activities were created to force learners to rely on the adjective agreement to establish whether the sentence is referring to a man or a woman.
52____________est gentille. Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord Barack ou Michelle Obama?A talk show host in France recently made some comments about Barack and Michelle Obama. Pay attention to the forms of the adjectives in order to determine if the comment refers to Monsieur Obama or Madame Obama. Complete each statement with Monsieur (M.) or Madame (Mme) based on the form of the adjectives. Then indicate if you agree or disagree with the statements.____________est gentille Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord2. ____________est courageuse. Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord.3. ____________est intellectuel Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord.4. ____________ est talentueux Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord5. ____________est travailleur Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord6. ____________est fière Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord7. ____________est ambitieuse Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord8. ____________est sérieux Je suis d’accord. / Je ne suis pas d’accord.MadameMadameMonsieurMonsieurMonsieurMadameMadameMonsieur
531. _____ _____ 2. _____ _____ 3. _____ _____ 4. _____ _____ Italian ExampleDoris or Luciano? Listen to each sentence and determine which person is described.Teacher’s Script:1. È bella (is beautiful)2. È brutto (is ugly)3. È antipatico (unpleasant)4. È simpatica (nice)5. È bassa6. È basso (short)7. È grasso (fat)8. È grassa9. È dinamico (dynamic)10. È dinamica (dynamic)Doris Roberts Luciano Pavarotti1. _____ _____2. _____ _____3. _____ _____4. _____ _____5. _____ _____6. _____ _____7. _____ _____8. _____ _____9. _____ _____10. _____ _____XXXXXXXXXX
54Tu as une calculatrice? Do you have a calculator? (From Liaisons, Heinle-Cengage Learning)Target Structure: de/un/une with avoirWhen the verb avoir is used in the negative, the indefinite articles un, une, and des becomes de (d’ before a vowel sound).Tu as une calculatrice? Do you have a calculator?Je n’ai pas de calculatrice I don’t have a calculator.Anne a un ordinateur Anne has a computer.Marc n’a pas d’ordinateur Marc does not have a computer.Claire a des cours le lundi Claire has classes on Mondays.Guy Rachid n’a pas de cours le samedi. Rachid does not have classes on Sat.Tu as une calculatrice? Do you have a calculator?Je n’ai pas une calculatrice I don’t have a calculator.Je n’ai pas de calculatrice I don’t have a calculator.
55Sample Materials for French Target Structure: de/un/une with avoir The following activity was constructed to help learners of French process de with the verb avoir (to have) correctly in order to derive the meaning of negation in the sentences.The processing problem: Learners will skip over the de vs une distinction and will rely instead on the ne...pas to get negation.In the following activity, the learners’ task is to determine whether or not the couple, the LeBlancs, has the household items listed by filling in the blanks with either “Nous avons” (we have) or “Nous n’avons pas” (we do not have).Notice how the activity was structured so that learners had to rely on the de vs une distinction to get meaning.
56Referential Activity Chez les LeBlanc Étape 1: Pierre and Lise LeBlanc are talking about things they have and don’t have in their house. Pay attention to the articles to determine whether they have or do not have the things mentioned. Complete each sentence with either “Nous avons...” (we have) or “Nous n’avons pas....” (we don’t have)______________ une salle de séjour (living room)______________ de télévision (television).______________ de lit (bed).______________ un fauteuil (sofa).______________ une cuisinière (stove).______________ de réfrigérateur (refrigerator)______________ une table (table).______________ une toilette (toilet)______________ une douche (shower).______________ de baignoire (bathtub).______________ de lampes (lamps)______________ de chaises (chairs)______________ des souris (mice).Étape 2: Based on these descriptions, decide with a partner how rich or poor this couple is and explain why.Pierre et Lise sont....très riches/ riches/ assez riches/ assez pauvres/ pauvres/ très pauvres (circle one) parce que....Nous avonsNous n’avons pasNous n’avons pasNous avonsNous avonsNous n’avons pasNous avonsNous avonsNous avonsNous n’avons pasNous n’avons pasNous n’avons pasNous avons(From Liaisons, Heinle-Cengage Learning)
57a n’a pas n’a pas a a a n’a pas n’a pas n’a pas a Roland et Roger Lucile has two possible dates this weekend, Roland and Roger. She will make her decision based on the possessions the two men have. Pay attention to the articles to determine whether or not the men have the following items. Fill in the blanks with either a or n’a pas and then decide who Lucile should go out with.Roland…1. ___________ une bicyclette.2. ___________de moto (motorcycle).3. ___________de petite amie (girlfriend).4. ___________un ordinateur.5. ___________des amis.Roger…6. ___________une moto.7. ___________de camarade de chambre.8. ___________d’amis.9. ___________d’ordinateur.10. __________une petite amie.Conclusion: Lucile va sortir avec ___________an’a pasn’a pasaaan’a pasn’a pasn’a pasa(From Liaisons, Heinle-Cengage Learning)
58Target structure: The French Subjunctive Processing Problem:The form has low CV (P1) and is in a non salient position (P1f).Je doute que Pierre soit un bon étudiant.The subjunctive form soit expresses doubt.What else in the sentence already expresses doubt?doute…Thus, the subjunctive form (soit) is redundant and has a low CV.The subjunctive form is also in medial position, the least salient position.How might we structure the input so that the subjunctive form is no longer redundant, i.e., how might we increase the CV of the subjunctive form so that learners will be forced to process it? How can we put the form in a more salient position?
59Shaquille O’Neal (Referential) The Miami Heat’s Shaquille O’Neal has won several NBA championship rings. Below are a reporter’s comments about him. For each statement, decide if the reporter believes it or doubts it. Circle the opinion phrase that correctly begins each comment.1. …sea un hombre perezoso (…is a lazy man)a. Creo que (I believe that (he)b. Es dudoso que (It is doubtful that (he))2. …es el major jugador del mundo (…is the best player in the world)a. Esoty seguro (I am sure that (he) )b. Dudo que (I doubt that (he))3. …come en Burger King con frecuencia. (…eats at Burger King frequently)a. Es cierto que (It is certain that (he))b. Es posible que (It is possible that (he))4. …lea muchas novellas en su tiempo libre. (…reads many novels in his free time)a. Todos saben que (Everyone knows that (he))b. Todos dudan que (Everyone doubts that (he))5. …le guste hablar con los reporteros. (…likes to talk to reporters.)b. No es verdad que (It isn’t true that (he)
60Referential Activity – Tony Parker Below are a reporter’s comments about Tony Parker. For each statement, decide if the reporter believes it or doubts it. Circle the opinion phrase that correctly begins each comment.…soit un homme paresseux.Je crois qu’ilJe doute qu’il…est le meilleur jouer au monde.Je suis certain(e) qu’il…prend souvent ses repas chez Burger King.Il est certain qu’ilIl n’est pas vrai qu’il…lit beaucoup de romans pendant le week-end. Ses admirateurs pensent qu’ilSes admirateurs doutent qu’il…fasse bien la cuisine.Il est certain qu’ilIl n’est pas évident qu’il
61Referential Activity Harry Connick Jr The phrases below come from a magazine article about Harry Connick Jr. Indicate whether the author believes each idea or doubts each idea. Place an X under the opinion that fits with each phrase.Je crois qu’il… Je doute qu’il…________ __________ 1. soit un bon acteur.________ __________ 2. sort avec beaucoup de jeunes filles.________ __________ 3. a une belle maison.________ __________ 4. ait une nouvelle petite amie.________ __________ 5. puisse chanter.________ __________ 6. soit content de sa carrière._______ __________ 7. est beau._______ __________ 8. boive beaucoup de vin.Which sentence best describes your opinion of Harry Connick Jr?Je crois que Harry Connick Jr a beaucoup de talent.Je doute que Harry Connick Jr ait beaucoup de talent.XXXXXXXX
62Partitive and indefinite articles in French Roughly equivalent to some or any in English, the partitif is used with mass nouns or things that are normally not counted and that you only take a part of like bread, cake, milk, butter, meat, fish, and sugar.(m. sing.) du Vous prenez du pain? Are you having any/some bread?(f. sing.) de la de la viande? any/some meat?(m. / f. + vowel sound) de l’ de l’eau? any/some water?Tu prends de la crème dans ton café? Do you take (any) cream in your coffee?Nous mangeons du poulet ce soir We are eating (some) chicken tonight.With countable nouns, meaning those that are easily made plural and can be used with numbers (un œuf, trois œufs ), the indefinite article (un, une, des) is used.Je vais préparer une omelette I am going to make an omelet.Je vais acheter des œoeufs I am going to buy some eggs.
63Qu’est-ce que ce touriste prend au petit déjeuner? Utilisez les articles pour déterminer ce que le touriste prend au petit déjeuner.Use the articles to determine what the tourist is having for breakfast.Je prends un… a. pain (bread) b. croissant2. Je prends des… a. saucisses (sausages) b. pain3. Je prends du café avec de la… a. crème b. lait (milk)4. Je prends un… a. biscuit (cookie) b. beurre (butter)5. Je prends une… a. confiture (jam) b. omelette6. Je prends du… a. jus d’orange b. œuf (egg)7. Je prends de l’…’ a. eau (water) b. œuf8. Je prends une… a. crème b. petite baguetteConclusion Pensez-vous que le touriste est en France ou au Québec?
64Robert mange bien? Utilisez les articles pour déterminer si Robert prend ou ne prend pas chaque aliment. Utilisez (a) Il prend ou (b) Il ne prend pas.1. ________________de beurre (butter)2. ________________de crème.3. ________________des pommes (apples)4. ________________de l’eau minérale (mineral water)5. ________________de sucre (sugar)6. ________________du poisson (fish)7. ________________une salade.8. ________________de biscuits.9. ________________des haricots verts (green beans)10. _______________du riz complet (brown rice).11. _______________de bière (beer)12. _______________ de chips.Conclusion Est-ce que Robert mange bien? Pourquoi ou pourquoi pas?Does Robert eat well? Why or why not?Il ne prend pasIl ne prend pasIl prendIl prendIl ne prend pasIl prendIl prendIl ne prend pasIl prendIl prendIl ne prend pasIl ne prend pas(from Wong, Weber-Fève, VanPatten & Ousselin, Liaisons, Heinle-Cengage Learning)
65ACTIVITYIn small groups, create an SI activity for 3rd person singular –s verb forms.Why do nonnative speakers of English sometimes fail to process the –s at the end of 3rd person singular verb forms?Ex. He reads the newspaper everyday.* He read the newspaper everyday.
66Target Structure: 3rd person singular –s verb forms The processing problem with this target structure is low communicative value. Learners of English have a tendency to drop the –s when the verb is in the third person singular form because the –s is redundant. The meaning of third person singular is already expressed by the subject, in many cases, the personal pronouns he, she or it.The following activities were designed so that learners are forced to pay attention to verb forms ( i.e., -s or the absence of –s), in order to get meaning.
67Referential Activity: Political Views. Jason is a college freshman in Dayton, Ohio, USA. In his political science class, Jason expresses views that are typically very different from the views of his classmates. Read the sentences below and indicate with an “X” whether each view expressed belongs to Jason or to Jason’s classmates, and then indicate whether Jason is “more conservative” or “more liberal” than his classmates.Jason… His classmates…___ ___ despises taxes to support the welfare system.___ ___ want to legalize marijuana.___ ___ thinks abortion should be illegal.___ ___ support women’s rights.___ ___ believes that same sex couples should not have children.___ ___ feel that public high schools should provide birth control.___ ___ support same sex marriages.___ ___ feels that women should stay home with their children.Choose One:Jason is more liberal than his classmates. _____Jason is more conservative than his classmates. ______XXXXXXXX
68Affective Activity:The Typical Student. Read the following sentences. Are they true for a typical student at your school?The typical student ...1. gets up at 7:00 a.m.2. skips breakfast.3. makes his bed everyday.4. skips at least one class a week.5. studies in the library, not at home.6. works part time.7. cooks dinner every evening.8. watches TV at night.9. goes to bed after midnight.Your instructor will now read each statement and then ask you to raise your hand if you marked it as true. Someone should keep track of the responses on the board.
69Do SI activities work? Research results are quite robust for the languages investigated. Benati (2001, 2004) [Italian]Benati & Lee (2009) [Italian, ESL]Cadierno (1995) [Spanish]Cheng (1995) [Spanish]Farley (2004) [Spanish]Sanz & Morgan Short (2002) [Spanish]VanPatten & Cadierno (1993) [Spanish]VanPatten and Fernandez (2004) [Spanish]VanPatten & Oikkenon (1996) [Spanish]VanPatten & Wong (2004) [French]Wong (2004b) [French]Wong (2008) [French]and many others
70One final reminder… Structured input is not a method. Structured input is not a method.SI is one input enhancement technique (out of many) to help learners get the input they need so that they can make optimal form-meaning connections in the classroom.FormIt is not uncommon for people to associate grammar learning with paradigm memorization and mechanical drilling. Many of us probably learned this way ourselves at one time or another.Grammar instruction has come a long way.Over the years, research in SLA has given us a lot of insight into how people acquire a new language and this research in turn has guided the profession in articulating new approaches and techniques to enhance L2 instruction.Meaning