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Twenty years on: Reassessing language documentation and revitalization Institutionalizing endangered languages : From language documentation & archiving.

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Presentation on theme: "Twenty years on: Reassessing language documentation and revitalization Institutionalizing endangered languages : From language documentation & archiving."— Presentation transcript:

1 Twenty years on: Reassessing language documentation and revitalization Institutionalizing endangered languages : From language documentation & archiving to revitalization Colette Grinevald (ex Craig) LED-TDR DDL

2 outline 1.Why 20 years? 1992-2012 2.The institutionalization of EL in the linguistic profession 3.Re-casting the story in LED TDR discourse 4.Todays programme 3L Summer School2

3 1. Why « 20 years » ? 1992-2012 Admitedly an academic, linguistic, American perspective! Two events Linguistic Society of America (LSA) panel of 1991, published as: Hale, K., M. Krauss, L. Watahomigie, A. Yamamoto, C. Craig, J. LaVerne & N. England. 1992. Endangered Languages. Language 68(1), 1-42. International Congress of Linguists (ICL) Quebec, 1992. Crochetière, A. et al (eds), 1993. Les langues menacées Vol. I, II. Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Linguists, Presses de luniversité Laval. 3L Summer School3

4 The 1991 LSA panel : engaged academic linguists A United States perspective (Hale, Krauss, Yamamoto, Watahomigie, LaVerne) mobilization in reaction to the «English only» movement «Native Language Act» of 1990 (signed by Bush): "the status of the cultures and languages of Native Americans is unique and the United States has the responsibility to act together with Native Americans to ensure the survival of these unique cultures and languages" A Latin American perspective: 1492- 1992 (Hale, Craig, England) mobilization in support of the Indigenous movement of protest against the official 500th anniversary celebrations of the «discovery» of Latin America 3L Summer School4

5 An orchestrated three-voice discourse (1992) (1)Mike Krauss (Alaska): - sounding the alarm, the «catastrophy» of language endangerment - 50% to 90% of languages endangered; degrees of endangerment Obviously we must do some serious rethinking of our priorities, lest linguistics go down in history as the only science that presided obliviously over the disappearance of 90% of the very field to which it is dedicated (2)Ken Hale (MIT) : - what do we lose when we lose a language - the auxiliary language Damin of Lardil (North Queensland, Australia) The loss of local languages, and of the cultural systems that they express, has meant irretrievable loss of diverse and interesting intellectual wealth, the priceless products of human mental industry. 3L Summer School5

6 (3) Colette Craig (Oregon) : […] so, if you are convinced of the urgency, and plan on working on an EL, then, what about speakers and communities and what about fieldwork methods and ethics? Grinevald, C., 2007. "Encounters at the brink: linguistic fieldwork among speakers of endangered languages", in The Vanishing Languages of the Pacific Rim, Miyaoka, O., Sakiyama, O. & Krauss, M. (eds), Oxford, Oxford University Press Grinevald, C., 2007. "A view from the field: An Amerindian view, worrying about ethics and wondering about informed consent ", in Lesser Known Languages in South Asia: Status and policies, Case Studies and Applications of Information Technology, Saxena, A. & Borin, L. (eds), Lund, Mouton de Gruyter TiLSM 175 Grinevald, C & M. Bert 2010 (eds). Linguistique de terrain sur langues en danger, locuteurs et linguistes, Faits de Langues 35/36. Ophrys. Grinevald, C. & Bert 2011. Speakers and community. In Austin Peter K. & Julia Sallabank (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages, Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics, 45-65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3L Summer School

7 « The Dartmouth Conference» 1995 Krauss - Hale – Craig « the three stooges » 3L Summer School7 Grenoble & Whaley (Eds). 1998. Endangered languages – Current issues and future prospects. CUP …. Brenzinger, England, Hinton….

8 Krauss – Hale – Craig: each his/her theme Krauss, M. 1992. The world's languages in crisis. Language 68(1),1-42. Krauss, M. 1993. The Language Extinction Catastrophe Just Ahead: Should Linguists Care? Actes du XVe Congrès International des Linguistes, pp. 43-46, Québec. Hale, K. 1992. Language endangerment and the human value of linguistic diversity. Language 68 (1). Hale, K. 1998. On endangered languages and the importance of linguistic diversity. In Lenore A Grenoble and J Whaley Lindsey, eds Endangered languages. 192-216. Cambridge: CUP. Craig, C. 1992. A constitutional response to language endangerment: the case of Nicaragua. Language 68(1), 11-16. Craig, C. 1993. Linguistic fieldwork on endangered languages: issues of methodology and ethics, in A. Crochetière et al, Les langues menacées Vol. I, Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Linguists, Presses de l' Université Laval, pp. 33-42. 3L Summer School8

9 Tension in the linguistic world: The reaction of linguists to the LSA panel and 1992 Language publication: Ladefoged, W. 1992. Another view of endangered languages, Language 68-4 p809-811 And the reply : Dorian, N. 1992 Response to Ladefogeds other view of endangered languages. Language 69-3, p575-579 Dorian: a pionneer EL linguist! Dorian, N. 1977. The Problem of the Semi-Speaker in Language Death. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 12, 23-32. Dorian, N. 1981. Language Death: The Life Cycle of a Scottish Gaelic Dialect. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 3L Summer School9

10 2. The institutionalization of EL in the linguistic profession The (inside story of) EL foundations: VolkswagenStiftung (Germany): VW-DOBES1998 HRELDP (Great Britain): ELDP, ELAP, ELAR2001 DEL (USA): NSF, NEH, Smithsonian2005 3L Summer School10

11 The UNESCO Robins, R. & Uhlenbeck ( eds.). 1991. Endangered languages, OUP Presented at ICL Quebec, 1992 UNESCO. 2003. Language Vitality and Endangerment. Report of the International Expert Meeting on the UNESCO Programme Safeguarding of Endangered Languages, Paris / Fontenay Experts: M. Brenzinger, A. M. Dwyer, Tjeerd de Graaf, C Grinevald, M. Krauss, O. Miyaoka, N. Ostler, O. Sakiyama, M. Villalón, A. Yamamoto & O. Zepeda 9 X Criteria for vitality 5 X Degrees of vitality (Krauss ) The UNESCO Atlas of the Worlds languages in danger (2009) 3L Summer School11

12 3. Recasting the story in LED TDR parlance* …in terms of ideologies, tensions, evolutions and synergies: mapping out spheres of ideologies exploring the academic sphere (the ivory tower) With its tensions: individual reactions to 1992 coming-out and its evolution : the development of the sub-disciplines of « documentary linguistics » in the context of synergies at the international level 3L Summer School12

13 Spheres of EL ideologies a. Academia Field linguist d. International - Worldwide b. Local Endangered Language c. Regional c. National

14 The Academic sphere Foundations for EL DEL 2006 HRELP 2002 VW 1998 + FEL and ELF Linguists organizations Germany –GBS 1997 USA - LSA 1992 Australia - ALS 1984 Individual field linguists Desk / field ; theory / description Fieldwork frameworks: ON / FOR / WITH …/BY Description Documentation Archiving + Revitalization Academia Field linguist

15 The evolution of documentary linguistics Description… > Documentation-Archiving… >Revitalization D Description 70ies vs theory in Chomskyan era More and more by linguists, not anthropologists D Documentation: 90ies a new sub-discipline of EL VW DOBES Standards A Archiving: new technologies R Revitalization… revalorization, consolidation, support… 3L Summer School 15 D D A + R

16 3L Summer School16

17 Synergies at the international – worldwide level FOUNDATIONS for EL NGO – Media Biodiversity WWF – World Wildlife Foundation Climate IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Indigenous rights Survival International United Nations Indigenous rights UNESCO 2003 Intangible Heritage 2008 International Year of Languages 2009 New edition of the Atlas of EL & World Report on cultural diversity UNICEF Local educational programs International - Worldwide

18 The information contained in this talk can be found in : Grinevald, C & J. Costa, 2010, Langues en danger: le phénomène et la réponse des linguistes, in Grinevald, C. & M. Bert eds Linguistique de terrain sur langues en danger: Locuteurs et linguistes, Faits de Langues 35- 36, Paris, Ophrys, pp. 23-37. Grinevald, C & Bert, M. 2009. Whose ideology, where and when ? Rama (Nicaragua) and Francoprovençal (France) experiences. ELAP Workshop: Beliefs and Ideology (to appear in Austin & Sallabank, OUP) 3L Summer School18

19 4. Todays programme Field Linguists, Consortium 3L, EL Foundations, UNESCO: VW DOBESDocumentation pilot project, Argentina (Vidal, Golluscio) Training for documentation (Ameka) HRELP ELAP (J. Sallabank) ELAR (D. Nathan) HRELDP PostDoc Brazil (J. Meyer, Galucio) NSF/DEL IN-field/COlang (C. Genetti) CTLDC Consortium on training for Language Documentation and Conservation UNESCO Atlas of Endangered Languages (A. Minasyan) 3L Summer School19

20 The 1992 LSA Language debate Ken Hale, Michael Krauss, Lucille J. Watahomigie, Akira Y. Yamamoto, Colette Craig, LaVerne Masayesva Jeanne, Nora C. England. Endangered Languages, Language, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1-42 Or Ladefogeds response Dorians response to Ladefoged 3L Summer School20

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