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Contribution to the study of grounds of Flemish paintings on canvas from 1600 to 1650 Elisabeth MARTIN and Myriam EVENO Centre de Recherche et de Restauration.

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Presentation on theme: "Contribution to the study of grounds of Flemish paintings on canvas from 1600 to 1650 Elisabeth MARTIN and Myriam EVENO Centre de Recherche et de Restauration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contribution to the study of grounds of Flemish paintings on canvas from 1600 to 1650 Elisabeth MARTIN and Myriam EVENO Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France - PARIS EU-ARTECH Workshop on Seventeenth Century Northern European Paintings Techniques 12th December 2005

2 French-Flemish cultural area : north of the Loire to the Flandres : panel ground with chalk and glue Transition between white and coloured grounds in France for canvas paintings : What about canvas Flemish painting from the first half of the XVII th century ? Introduction Rubens - Descente de croix – Valenciennes Snyders – Nature morte - Amiens

3 Flemish paintings on canvas from French collections –Lille 2004 Exhibition - Rubens (Techne 2005) –deployment of the Louvre collections in 1994 Little publications from this period 34 works executed by 13 painters from Antwerp –Rubens (11 paintings) –Jordaens (9 paintings) –The others painters (one or two paintings ) Snyders, Van Dyck, Seghers, de Crayer… Technical –Cross-sections have been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDS –Medium of some samples have been analyzed by IRTF and GC-MS

4 RUBENS Pierre-Paul ( ) : La Descente de Croix – Lille – for the church of convent des Capucins St François recevant lEnfant Jésus des mains de la Vierge – Lille for the church of convent des Capucins Saint François en extase – (atelier) – Lille : La Descente de croix – Valenciennes – for the church St Géry Ladoration des bergers – Cathédrale de Soissons St Dominique et St François d'Assise préservant le monde de la colère du du Christ - Lyon- for St-Paul-des-Domicains from Antwerp : Ladoration des Mages – Paris – Louvre – : for Palais du Luxembourg - Paris Marie de Médicis en Bellone – Paris – Louvre La Reine senfuit du château de Blois – Paris – Louvre 1615 ? –Ixion roi des Lapithes, trompé par Junon – Paris – Louvre ? Thomyris, reine des scythes – Paris – Louvre

5 RUBENS Lower layer - white yellowish Chalk –La Descente de Croix – Lille Medium : oil –St François en extase –Ladoration des Bergers –La Reine senfuit de Blois –Ladoration des Mages –Marie de Médicis en Bellone Chalk with very little white lead –St François recevant lEnfant Jésus des mains de la Vierge –St Dominique et St François d'Assise BSE image

6 Calcium carbonate, white lead, and differents pigments « pincelier » –Ixion roi des Lapithes, trompé par Junon Pierre Le Brun 1636 : Recueil des essais des merveilles de la peinture Chalk, a small amount of white lead, earth pigment and charcoal black –Descente de croix – Valenciennes RUBENS Lower layer slightly coloured

7 White lead, a small amount of calcium carbonate and charcoal black –Descente de croix – Valenciennes RUBENS Upper layer - grey White lead, calcium carbonate, lamp black –Marie de Médicis en Bellone – White lead, calcium carbonate, charcoal black –Thomyris, reine des scythes…

8 RUBENS St François recevant lEnfant Jésus des mains de la Vierge – Lille - (enlargement by Rubens) –chalk with a small amount of lead –white lead with little calcium carbonate –Under drawing XRay radiograph

9 Jacob JORDAENS – ( ) about 1620 –Saint Thomas et deux apôtres – Lille –Saint Jean lEvangéliste et deux apôtres - Lille 1640 For his residence –Les signes du zodiaque – les poissons – Paris– Palais du Sénat –Les signes du zodiaque – la balance – Paris– Palais du Sénat about 1650 –Le repos de Diane – Paris– Louvre –Ladoration des bergers – Paris– Louvre –Larrestation du Christ - Valenciennes Attributed to Jordaens : –Connais-toi toi-même - La jeunesse entre le vice et la vertu – Saint-Brieuc 1653 –Le jugement dernier – Paris– Louvre

10 Connais-toi toi-même - La jeunesse entre le vice et la vertu – Saint-Brieuc Larrestation du Christ - Valenciennes Jordaens

11 Upper layer : grey white lead and charcoal black except for the last painting : –Larrestation du Christ –Le jugement dernier Lower layer - white-yellowish chalk –Saint Thomas et deux apôtres –Saint Jean et deux apôtres –Le repos de Diane –Ladoration des bergers – Le jugement dernier

12 Jordaens Lower layer - slightly coloured chalk, little white lead, and different pigments « pincelier » –Les signes du zodiaque – les poissons –Les signes du zodiaque – la balance –Larrestation du Christ – Lower layer - grey White lead, some earth pigments, charcoal black –Connais-toi toi-même - La jeunesse entre le vice et la vertu – Attr. to Joardens

13 The others painters Upper layer : grey white lead, and charcoal black and sometimes calcium carbonate Lower layer : white-yellowish - chalk –Pieter Brueghel II (Attri. à)( ) Adoration des Mages - Salins –Joos de Momper ( ) Paysage montagneux avec un pont et quatre cavaliers – Paris- Louvre –Anton Van Dyck ( ) Saint Sébastien secouru par les anges – (early work) – Paris- Louvre –Theodoor Van Thulden ( ) Le Christ ressuscité apparaissant à la Vierge Louvre - Jesuit church in Bruges. About 1660

14 Lower layer : white-yellowish- chalk and little white lead –Gasper de Crayer ( ) Le martyre de Sainte Catherine – Grenoble Lower layer : slightly coloured- chalk and some grain of minium –Gasper de Crayer Le Christ en croix entre Sainte Madeleine et Saint François – Paris - Louvre Medium : oil

15 Lower layer : slightly coloured Chalk with a little earth pigment –Hendrik de Clerck ( ) Diane découvrant la grossesse de Callisto -Louvre Chalk with different pigments pincelier –Jan Fyt ( ) Gibier et corbeille de raisin observés par un chat - Louvre Chalk with charcoal black – Anonymous (sometimes Philippe de Champaignes early work) Portrait from François van der Buch -Cambrai Chalk with little earth pigment and little white lead –Gerard Seghers ( ) St François d'Assise réconforté par les anges après sa stigmatisation – ( ) Louvre –Paris Medium : oil

16 coloured grounds Paul de Vos ( ) Lentrée des animaux dans larche de Noé – Paris - Louvre –First layer yellow-orange : chalk, ochre Frans Snyders ( ) : –Nature morte - Amiens –Trois chiens dans un garde-manger – Louvre – red - orange : chalk and ochre Medium : oil

17 Anton Van Dyck ( ) Le Christ en croix - Lille, about 1628 For the convent des Récollets coloured grounds Red lower layer : chalk, little white lead, red ochre –Medium : oil

18 conclusion White grounds persisted for a long time - –Van Thulden 1660, Jordaens 1653, –Saint Dominique et Saint François (Rubens) enlargement : 1670 –Chalk with oil (with protein ?, Conversion de Saint Bavon IRPA 1999), sometimes with white lead, –Chalk with different pigments ; « pincelier » Coloured grounds –Rubens (Italy ) La Transfiguration - Nancy - for Mantoue England (1629) Peace and War (NGTB 1999) –Frans Snyders, Paul De Vos –Anton Van Dyck Le Christ en croix, about 1628 red ground – French influence ? (Le Golgotha, about 1630, Church of Malines, chalk ground IRPA )

19 Turquet de Mayerne manuscript from Pictoria sculptoria et quae subalternarum artium spectantia Colored grounds –English brown red, yellow ochre, bolus, umber, charcoal black –white lead with English brown red, yellow ochre, bolus, umber, charcoal black Why arent white chalk grounds mentioned ? –Manuscript written at Charles I court : English techniques ? –Manuscript does not refer to canvas purchased with grounds already applied ? (Van Hout, Leiden, 1998)

20 Remerciements : –GC-MS : Juliette Langlois and Martine Regert –IRTF : Anne-Solenn Le Hô –MEB-EDS : Eric Laval

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