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Ouagadougou Triennale 2012 13/02/2012 T HE MAJOR CHALLENGE OF THE T RIENNALE : TO IDENTIFY WHICH CRITICAL SKILLS CAN BRING ABOUT ACCELERATED AND SUSTAINABLE.

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Presentation on theme: "Ouagadougou Triennale 2012 13/02/2012 T HE MAJOR CHALLENGE OF THE T RIENNALE : TO IDENTIFY WHICH CRITICAL SKILLS CAN BRING ABOUT ACCELERATED AND SUSTAINABLE."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012 T HE MAJOR CHALLENGE OF THE T RIENNALE : TO IDENTIFY WHICH CRITICAL SKILLS CAN BRING ABOUT ACCELERATED AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN A FRICA Mamadou Ndoye Richard Walther General Coordinators

3 T HE MAJOR CHALLENGE OF THE T RIENNALE : TO IDENTIFY WHICH CRITICAL SKILLS CAN BRING ABOUT ACCELERATED AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN A FRICA Contents Africa is stalling From Maputo to Ouagadougou The main themes of the Triennale The path towards sustainable development Recasting education and training systems The way forward for the future

4 Africa is currently stalling: The last in line in human development HDI Africa East Asia and Pacific South Asia Latin America & Caribbean OECD Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

5 The main reasons why Africa has been left behind: The stock and quality of skills make the difference 48% of all out-of-school children worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa, 47 million children are illiterate, and 10 million drop out of school 66% of all youths remain outside of any sort of formal learning path after the primary education cycle. The gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education is 6% in sub-Saharan Africa whereas it is 70% in North American and Western Europe. Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

6 The main reasons why Africa has been left behind: Extremely weak research In 2006, Africa had only 35 research centers while there were 861 in North America, 1576 in Europe and 655 in Asia. Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

7 The main reasons Africa has been left behind: Extremely weak research DISTRIBUTION OF RESEARCHERS 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UNESCO Science Report 2010 Triennale de Ouagadougou /02/2012

8 Will the gap narrow or widen in the future? Optimistic scenarios… Remarkable economic growth rate and school enrolment ratio along with huge natural and demographic assets Africas GDP will increase from 1700 billion dollars in 2010 to billion dollars in 2060 The per capita GDP will increase from 1600 dollars to more than 5600 dollars between 2010 and 2060 In 2060, most African countries will be average-income countries and extreme poverty will be abolished (AfDB, 2011) Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

9 Will the gap narrow or widen in the future? Pessimistic scenarios Threshold effects and greater scientific and technological gaps that confine Africa to exporting raw materials (90% of its exports) which are on a downward trend The gap and impoverishment will worsen, in 2025, the continent will still have a per capita income below a quarter of the world average(Attali, 2006) Resources or constraints: no grounds to be fatalistic Demographic growth and a young population: asset or hindrance? Huge amounts of natural resources: sources of trafficking and conflicts or prosperity?

10 From Maputo to Ouagadougou The future is built in peoples minds… Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

11 From Maputo to Ouagadougou: From stock to efficiency of transferable skills for effecting major changes in direction and steps forward Real progress but also persistent challenges: Greater access, equity, duration, opportunities Fighting the marginalization of women, rural populations, etc. Promoting globalization, diversification, integration, flexibility in systems… A promising outlook but also new challenges Guaranteeing adaptation, efficiency, relevance, usefulness and use of learning Strengthening the capacity to innovate and introduce change in contexts that raise complex issues Promote the emergence of a class of innovators and creators Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

12 Main themes of the Triennale: Concept and challenges of sustainable development (S.D.) The challenges presented by global warming Preservation of biodiversity and the environment The challenges presented by the subsistance economy Driving accelerated and sustainable growth Increasing inequalities and poverty Building inclusive societies Conflict and civil wars Promoting intercultural understanding and the values of solidarity, peace and democracy S.D. a capacity to survive and improve living standards in the face of rapid change

13 Main themes of the Triennale: Concept and implications of critical skills (C.S.) Make use of and integrate knowledge of theory, procedure and the environment when confronting a problematic context Promote qualifications for sectors and occupations that are strategic to development today and tomorrow Learn to innovate to solve unprecedented problems and develop transformation Promote an overall and open lifelong learning C.S.: fundamental capacity to meet challenges and optimize comparative advantages in a particular context so as to ensure that a society remains strong and competitive

14 Methodology How should critical skills for the accelerated and sustainable development of Africa be promoted? The combination of two approaches to identify, analyze and learn from policies and experiences that offer solutions – Action-research of a strategic type – Consultations with various stakeholders Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

15 On the path towards sustainable development: Adopt a strategic approach Step 1: revisit the past to build up pride and confidence in Africa so as to have greater mastery of the avenues to the future: we need to know where we come from to know where we are going Step 2: devise, together with all the players involved, a consistent, long-term vision of Africas future Step 3: make education and training central to current and future policies and strategies as drivers of sustainable development Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

16 The path towards sustainable development: Identify and promote critical skills for the accelerated and sustainable development of Africa A set of common core skills for a new, aware, responsible and active African citizenship in respect of all facets of sustainable development Technical and vocational skills to raise productivity of labor and the added value of the economy, and accelerate growth Technological and scientific skills to build up knowledge- and innovation-based economies and play an active role in the dynamics of globalization Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

17 Recasting the education and training systems: Basic guidelines 1.Tailor education and training to economic and social demand Training must take on board the issues pertaining to local and national development 2.Adjusting curricula consequently Not simply gaining mastery of knowledge but more importantly knowing how to use it to solve problems in ones environment or to develop skills 3. Refocus teaching approaches Shift from teacher-led processes to learning-based ones Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

18 Recasting the education and training systems: Cultural change and undermining practices on the ground 4. Learn to learn, from oneself and from others 5. Go beyond the walls of the institution and establish skills while confronted with the immediate environment 6. Re-train teachers/trainers and all the players involved from the critical standpoint of promoting new cultures and practices centerd on the new paradigms and approaches Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

19 Recasting the education and training systems: Three decisive changes in direction, a basic change 1.Incorporate the linguistic, cultural and historical heritage of African societies, including traditional knowledge and practices into education and training 2.Broadly disseminate a scientific culture in society by outreach and by including it in all forms of education from an early age The interaction between these two dimensions offers the potential for open, dynamic African cultures, the internalization of the sciences by African societies and the indigenous production of relevant scientific and technological inventions. 3. Include ICTs to amplify capacity and the impact of the implied changes Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

20 Recasting the education and training systems: Meeting the challenges of its implementation 1.Build up and maintain as broad as possible a consensus about the planned reforms 2.Promote an environment of material and community well- being conducive to relevant, quality learning 3.Plan and raise significant resources for the implementation of the required changes 4.Develop capacities for research and supporting measures for the reforms (performance indicators for managing, monitoring and assessing change) 5. Guarantee the long-term continuity of reforms Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

21 Recasting the education and training systems: Inter-African and international cooperation 1.Strengthen the dynamic of learning from others, pooling resources, cooperation and integration on the sub-regional and regional levels to: Build up and pool capacities, policies and reform tools Promote centers of excellency at all levels of skills development, in particular in the strategic sectors and occupations To provide for advanced and highly specialized areas 2. Re-position North-South and South-South cooperation so that African expertise itself builds up its skills in action 3. Involve national and international businesses in the processes of identifying and providing training for critical skills Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

22 Areas to explore to open up new horizons How can education and training be placed at the heart of the strategies and policies for sustainable development? How can a strategic framework for the development of skills be devised and implemented at the national, sub-regional and continental levels? How can a partnership-based, participative Governance Charter be promoted? How can the other conditions and decisive factors in accelerated and sustainable development in Africa be fostered, since while necessary, education and training are not enough? Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012

23 Thank you Ouagadougou Triennale /02/2012


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