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What this seminar will cover 1 Important factors to bear in mind when choosing a bilingual dictionary How to use the dictionary navigation tools to get to the right answer quickly and efficiently Abbreviations and symbols used in the dictionary How the dictionary can help you with: How the dictionary can help you with verbs: Avoiding mistakes Extra features irregular plurals gender idioms word order subjunctive tense, subject and object transitive and intransitive verbs reflexive, impersonal, and phrasal verbs © Oxford University Press 2005
What any good dictionary should offer 2 Range of vocabulary Up-to-date vocabulary Ease of use Clarity of design Clear entry structure Large number of examples Pointers towards the right translation Help with forming sentences in French Sample letters and CVs, verb tables, and other helpful material And – only with the Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary – a free pronunciation CD-ROM that lets you type in any French word, phrase, or sentence and hear it spoken back so you can practise speaking French for presentations or exams © Oxford University Press 2005
What your dictionary can help you with 3 His dad didnt let me phone my friend Sarah. Son père ne ma pas laissé téléphoner à mon amie Sarah. © Oxford University Press 2005 examples showing let + another verb in infinitive? son/sa/ses? register? examples using let in the perfect tense? warning that téléphoner is followed by à in this context? mon/ma/mes? finding let = allow quickly?
Navigating the dictionary 4 French-English section first, then English-French grey-edged section in the middle separates the two sides printed thumb tabs on the outside margin of every page show which letter appears on that page running heads at the top of the page show the first and last words on that page NB: All this applies to the Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary. Other dictionaries may have different conventions. © Oxford University Press 2005
5 The sequence of grammatical categories English – French Noun Adjective Adverb Verb Idioms Phrasal verbs (e.g. pull in, drop off) French – English Either: Adjective Noun Adverb Or: Transitive verb Intransitive verb Reflexive verb Impersonal verb Then: Compounds Idioms © Oxford University Press 2005 Start Programs Microsoft Word Document NB: All this applies to the Oxford- Hachette French Dictionary. Other dictionaries may have different conventions.
Navigating an English-French entry (I) 6 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 noun translations given with gender contextualizations in square brackets headword phrasal verbs at end of entry grammatical categories meaning signposts in parentheses senses within grammatical categories swung dash replaces headword phonetics contextualization after verb = object contextualization before verb = subject register Informal very informal vulgar or taboo
Navigating an English-French entry (II) 7 a kindly face © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition un visage sympathiqueElle a souri avec gentillesse © Oxford University Press 2005 narrow the meaning by using context kindly: adjective or adverb?
Navigating a French-English entry 8 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 nouns are listed with their gender warnings of translation traps links to verb tables at back of dictionary
Common Grammatical Categories 9 adjadjectivedescribes a nounsad, triste advadverbtells you how sth is done comfortably, confortablement artarticle definite article: the indefinite article: a the, le, la, les a, un, une auxauxiliary verbused with main verb to show tense she has arrived elle est arrivée conjconjunctionlinks two phrasesbecause, car nnounthing, person or idealife, vie pppast participleforms perfect tense with aux verb I have eaten jai mangé prepprepositionused with noun to show position near, près de pronpronounstands instead of a nounhe, il pron poss possessive pronoun word used to show who sth belongs tohis, her, son, sa vprreflexive verbverb requiring a reflexive pronoun to trouble oneself, se donner la peine © Oxford University Press 2005
Grammatical Categories Exercise 10 Match these words with the correct part of speech © Oxford University Press 2005 crabe bleuâtre parfaitement remarqué bagages se lever ou sur vpr prep nm pp conj adj adv mpl
Swung Dash (or Tilde) ~ and Hyphen - 11 un mouvement gracieux, une danse gracieuse Subject Field Labels Zool = ZoologicalEquit = Équitation Check the list of subject field labels in the abbreviations list inside the front cover of the dictionary to see whether it covers areas you are interested in © Oxford University Press 2005 The hyphen indicates the feminine ending replaces the masculine one: The swung dash stands for the whole headword so the ending is added: destitute les ~s the destitute, the poor
Regional Usage 12 péj, pej = pejorative informal lit = literalvery informal fig = figurativevulgar or taboo hum = humorous GB = British usageUS = American usage Can = Canadian usageAus = Australian usage Helv = Swiss usageBelg = Belgian usage Ir = Irish usage Scot = Scottish usage Register © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 pejorative = contempt or disapproval figurative = metaphorical
Sentence patterns 13 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition sb (somebody)qn (quelquun) sth (something)qch (quelque chose) verb + à + person + de + verb + thing Ils permettent à leurs enfants daller en ville. They allow their children to go into town. à qn shows you must use à with the person verb + thing + à + person I showed Pete my new phone. Jai montré mon nouveau portable à Pete. qch à qn shows: The thing must come before the person in French You must use à with the person © Oxford University Press 2005 shows pattern: permettre à qn de faire qch = to allow sb to do sth montrer qch à qn = to show sth to sb
Phonetics 14 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition des hôtels des haricots © Oxford University Press 2005
Irregular Plurals 15 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition lice lice = poux Cross-checking is particularly useful for adjectives ending in –al: plural is géniaux plural is bancals And for hyphenated words: plural is bandes-annonces plural is bandes-son © Oxford University Press 2005
Gender 16 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press
Idioms 17 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition Idiom = a saying whose meaning has evolved so that it is now different from the original literal meaning of the key words within it. It was a difficult decision for Carol, and it was a long time before she could bring herself to grasp the nettle. Louis peut sortir sil veut; moi, jai dautres chats à fouetter. © Oxford University Press 2005
Word Order 18 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 shows constructio n where word order changes:
Expressions requiring the subjunctive 19 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 warning note: shows when subjunctive is required: note use of subjunctive:
Verb Basics 20 © Oxford University Press 2005 Types of verbs: Transitive and Intransitive Reflexive Impersonal English phrasal verbs Verb tables Verb complementation Other help with verbs:
Quick refresher on grammatical verb terms (I) 21 Tense = present, future, past, conditional, imperfect etc. Subject = the noun or pronoun that causes the action of the verb –Gertrude loves Eric = Gertrude aime Eric –The dog ate the meat = Le chien a mangé la viande Object = the word or group of words which is affected by the action indicated by the verb –Gertrude loves Eric = Gertrude aime Eric –The dog ate the meat = Le chien a mangé la viande © Oxford University Press 2005
Quick refresher on grammatical verb terms (II) 22 Objects can be further divided into direct and indirect objects: Direct object = the noun or pronoun directly affected by the verb - Gertrude aime Eric = Gertrude loves Eric - Gertrude laime = Gertrude loves him - Le chien a mangé la viande = The dog ate the meat - Le chien la mangée = The dog ate it Indirect object = the noun or pronoun indirectly affected by the verb. In English, indirect objects are usually preceded by a preposition (from, to, at, etc.) - Gertrude parle à Eric = Gertrude speaks to Eric - Gertrude lui parle = Gertrude speaks to him (or to her) - Eric sourit à Gertrude = Eric smiles at Gertrude - Eric lui sourit = Eric smiles at her © Oxford University Press 2005
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (I) 23 Transitive verbs = vtr ( verbe transitif ) = verbs used with direct object I wrote the letter = Jai écrit la lettre Gertrude loves Eric and Wilhelmina = Gertrude aime Eric et Wilhelmina She loves them = Elle les aime Intransitive verbs = vi ( verbe intransitif ) = verbs that do not have an object He died yesterday = Il est mort hier She ran very fast = Elle a couru très vite Eric and Wilhelmina left yesterday = Eric et Wilhelmina sont partis hier Transitive verbs do something to the object that follows them. Intransitive verbs stand on their own without an object following them. © Oxford University Press 2005
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (II) 24 The same verb can be used both transitively and intransitively: sortir - Elle a sorti son deuxième album = She brought out her second album = transitive use (son deuxième album = direct object) - Elle est sortie = She went out = intransitive use (no object) rentrer - Il a rentré la voiture = He brought the car in = transitive use (la voiture = direct object) - Il est rentré = He came back = intransitive use (no object) scatter - He scattered his papers = transitive use (his papers = direct object) - The birds scattered = intransitive use (no object) © Oxford University Press 2005
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Exercise 25 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition © Oxford University Press 2005 transitive ( vtr ) and intransitive ( vi ) se disperser: les oiseaux se sont dispersés éparpiller: Il a éparpillé ses vêtements dispersés takes an extra -e
Reflexive Verbs (I) 26 English-French: v refl = reflexive verb French-English: vpr = verbe pronominal Reflexive verbs are verbs whose subject is the same as their object. They describe what you do to yourself. They are conjugated with être. Reflexive verbs are used with an extra pronoun, called a reflexive pronoun: myself, yourself, yourselves, themselves, etc / me, te, se etc - Je me lève = I get up - Puis je me lave et je me brosse les dents = I wash myself and brush my teeth (literally = brush to myself the teeth) The same verb can be used reflexively and not reflexively: - Elle a ouvert la porte = She opened the door - La porte sest ouverte = The door opened © Oxford University Press 2005
Reflexive Verbs (II) 27 Remember: just because a verb is reflexive in the source language, it doesnt mean its reflexive in the target language. None of the examples in this table is translated by a reflexive verb in English. A reflexive verb table showing a model verb, sadonner, is on p 1925 at the back of the Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary. 1 st pers singularjemeje ne me rappelle pas les mots/chiffres exacts I don't remember the actual words/figures 2 nd pers singulartutepour qui est-ce que tu te prends? who do you think you are? 3 rd pers singularil/elle/onsel'action se passe à Beyrouth the action takes place in Beirut 1 st pers pluralnous nous nous sommes disputés avec nos professeurs we had a confrontation with our teachers 2 nd pers pluralvous vous vous trompez fort you are sadly mistaken 3 rd pers pluralils/ellesseils ne se sont pas vraiment plaints they didn't actually complain © Oxford University Press 2005
Impersonal Verbs 28 Impersonal verbs = v impers throughout the dictionary Impersonal verbs use the impersonal pronoun it or il: –Il faut que tu sois prêt = You must/It is necessary that you be ready –Il pleut = It is raining Falloir and neiger are the only verbs that only ever take il English Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are at the end of the entry, marked verb + preposition or adverb e.g. run away Other examples: give up, take off, let down There are no phrasal verbs in French © Oxford University Press 2005 Phrasal verbs
Verb Tables 29 Verbs are listed at their infinitive form: we went to Italy look up the infinitive go they bought a DVD look up the infinitive buy elles veulent partir look up the infinitive vouloir jai mis la table look up the infinitive mettre je me suis trompé look up the infinitive trompe r il sagit de ta santé look up the infinitive agir Wellington defeated Napoleon past participle Wellington a vaincu Napoléon © Oxford University Press 2005 check against verb table 57 at the back
Verb Complementation (I) 30 = the range of structures that can be used after any given verb © Oxford University Press 2005 There are many different patterns of verb complementation in French, e.g.: verb + que + indicative (verb form used to express factual statements or questions) Je crois quil fait de son mieux. verb + que + subjunctive (verb form used to express hypothetical statements) Je ne crois pas quil fasse de son mieux. verb + à + faire Il a commencé à pleurer. verb + de + faire Elle a décidé de voyager.
Verb Complementation (II) 31 The dictionary entry gives you information on all these constructions. © Oxford University Press 2005 She allowed Matt to go out permettre à qn de faire qch = to allow sb to do sth Elle a permis à Matt de sortir She wanted him to leave to want sb to do = vouloir que qn fasse Elle voulait quil parte
Adapting examples 32 Nouns: may have irregular plurals may require modifications to determiners or possessive adjectives (e.g. mon ma or mes) feminine nouns may require accompanying adjectives to add -e if you refer back to feminine nouns in a following sentence, the pronoun will be elle/elles or la/les Verbs: need to be in the correct form, unless the sentence uses the infinitive need the appropriate reflexive pronoun, if they are reflexive (e.g. nous nous moquons de lui) need to use the right structures (e.g. permettre à qn de faire qch) © Oxford University Press 2005 Careful! Sometimes you may need to adapt a given translation
Cross-checking 33 Cross-checking on the other side of the dictionary helps when: a French word has several meanings you are unsure which French translation to choose you dont know if the French word you know can be used in a certain context you want to check the plural or feminine form you want to know how to conjugate the verb © Oxford University Press 2005
Information about life and culture Thematic boxes explaining grammatical points and giving extra vocabulary, cross- referenced from the headword Correspondence – letters, CVs, s, and linking vocabulary useful for essays French verb tables What else can a good dictionary offer you? 34 © Oxford University Press 2005 © Oxford Hachette Dictionary 3 rd edition Letter openings The standard opening greeting for personal correspondence is Cher/Chère in other words In other words, we must be wary of hasty judgments. Autant dire quil faut se méfier de jugements hâtifs.
Review (I) 35 Important factors to bear in mind when choosing a bilingual dictionary Navigating through an entry – English-French, then French-English Explaining abbreviations and symbols: How the dictionary can help you with: common grammatical categories swung dash (or tilde) and hyphen subject field labels regional labels register labels sb, sth, qn, and qch phonetics irregular plurals gender idioms word order subjunctive © Oxford University Press 2005
Review (II) 36 How the dictionary can help you with verbs: Avoiding mistakes: Extra features tense, subject, and object direct and indirect objects transitive and intransitive verbs reflexive verbs impersonal verbs phrasal verbs verb tables verb complementation adapting examples cross-checking © Oxford University Press 2005 A chance to discuss any ideas or points raised in the seminar Questions
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