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Wheat Breeding in North western Ethiopia Wheat Science to text books workshop CIMMYT, Texcoco, Mexico December 5-11, 2010 Bahir Dar University:

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Presentation on theme: "Wheat Breeding in North western Ethiopia Wheat Science to text books workshop CIMMYT, Texcoco, Mexico December 5-11, 2010 Bahir Dar University:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Wheat Breeding in North western Ethiopia Wheat Science to text books workshop CIMMYT, Texcoco, Mexico December 5-11, 2010 Bahir Dar University:

2 A. Wheat in Ethiopia (2009) Cereals are 1 st in area and volume of production Area: 80.3% ~ 9.23 million hectares

3 A. Wheat in Ethiopia (contd) Total area of production, yield ha -1 and total grain yield of the major cereal crops in Ethiopia (2009) CropArea ( ha) % Area Yield (Q ha -1 ) Total yield ( Q) Tef2.58 (1 st ) (2 nd ) Maize1.77 (2 nd ) (1 st )38.97 (1 st ) Wheat1.68 (3 rd ) (3 rd )30.76 (3 rd ) Sorghum (2 nd )29.71 Barley

4 Tef (Eragrostis tef)

5 Agroclimate of Wheat Production in Ethiopia

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7 IMPORTANT CONSTRAINTS OF WHEAT PRODUCTION Many technical and socio-economic constraints Problems depend on agro-ecology, demands of the wheat producers and consumers A) Unavailability of improved cultivars for different agro-ecologies B) Slow extension of available improved cultivars Ineffectiveness of formal and informal seed sector/sources

8 IMPORTANT CONSTRAINTS OF WHEAT PRODUCTION (contd) C) Disease pressure Head scab stem rust Septori a Yellow rust

9 Approximate areas affected by stripe rust, 2010

10 IMPORTANT CONSTRAINTS OF WHEAT PRODUCTION (contd) D) Quality E) High input prices (major concern of wheat growers) F) water-logging (~12 million ha) G) Characterization and grouping of L and G for maximum exploitation of the wheat environments Yield gap (5-6 tons)

11 Approaches of breeding: Conventional and participatory (Molecular ??) Multi-location variety trials : Many agro-ecological zones ( eg. 10 representing testing sites in NWE) Plus more than 20 on-farm sites (FREGs) for participatory VT and agronomic trials

12 Participatory variety selections –PVS (Farmers, extension agents and other research disciplines) V ariety testing ( on- farm) 20 varieties 1 st year Pre-verification 3-5 vars 2 nd year Verification for release 3 cultivars 3 rd year Seed prod n 1-3 vars 4 th year FREGs

13 Criteria established by FREGs evaluation of bread wheat genotypes in two zones: South Gonder (LOC 1)West Gojam (LOC2) CriterionScoreCriterionScore Disease resistance14Disease resistance12 Frost tolerance13Injera quality11 Flour yield (Bereket)12Market demand10 Maturity (earliness)11Yield8 10Flour yield (Bereket)8 Lodging resistance9Bread quality8 Tillering ability7Seed color5 Spike size6Maturity (earliness)5 Seedling vigor5Tillering ability4 Injera quality5Seed size4 Market demand5Spike size2 Bread quality4Plant height1 Seed size3Seedling vigor0 Plant height1

14 On-farm durum and bread wheat On-farm G x N x L Quality trial

15 Crossing Bread and durum wheat crosses using elite parents (exotic and local) AC Morse; Navigator; SST825;Kariega; Cracker Spreade r rows Filial pop.

16 Quality testing NIR (protein, starch, ash) Alveograph Glutomatic Milling lab

17 Small-scale seed production in FREGs > 20 FREGs (of farmers) for PVS and participatory seed multiplication (FREGs as technology generation and dissemination points) SEED PRODUCTION

18 Improved varieties DZ 2023 (Megenagna) DZ 2178 (Mosobo ) HAR 2562 (Densa) ET12D4/HAR604(1 ) (TAY)

19 PVS and seed production (2009/10) at Farmers cooperatives PVS-Onfarm with MSc students

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21 Wheat basic seed production Local Seed Business

22 Wheat and maize seed production- Farmers field

23 B. Wheat in the courses 1. Principles of crop production Pre-requisites courses (Plant anatomy and morphology and plant physiology) Preliminaries (Food production/population growth, climate change, Ethiopian agriculture) and wheat contribution Production factors Environmental (temperature, light, water, humidity, wind, soil …) Agronomic elements Crop protection –weeds, diseases, insects, vertebrate pests, etc

24 B. Wheat in the courses (contd) 2. Cereals and Pulses Production Pre-requisites (Principles of crop production) Wheat described separately as major cereal crop among other cereals and pulses Wheat: origin, history and economic importance, classification and botany, nutritive value, crop management, major constraints of production Wheat yield and yield components Current wheat production status and recent varieties under production (list and description of released varieties provided) CIMMYT contribution (Maize and wheat)

25 B. Wheat in the courses (contd) 3. Wheat in other courses Major Courses; Principles of Genetics Plant Breeding Plant Physiology Agricultural Entomology Plant Pathology Weeds and Weed Management 4. Practical Attachment ????

26 Wheat- MSc thesis studies Variability (morphological, yield, quality) studies NUE (N rates) GxE Interaction PVS Bahir Dar U

27 Thank you !!


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