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Wheat Breeding in North western Ethiopia

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1 Wheat Breeding in North western Ethiopia
“Wheat Science to text books” workshop CIMMYT, Texcoco, Mexico December 5-11, 2010 Bahir Dar University:

2 A. Wheat in Ethiopia (2009) Cereals are 1st in area and volume of production Area: 80.3% ~ 9.23 million hectares

3 A. Wheat in Ethiopia (cont’d)
Total area of production, yield ha-1 and total grain yield of the major cereal crops in Ethiopia (2009) Crop Area (‘ ha) % Yield (Q ha-1) Total yield (‘ Q) Tef 2.58 (1st) 22.5 12.28 31.79 (2nd) Maize 1.77 (2nd) 15.4 21.99 (1st) 38.97 (1st) Wheat 1.68 (3rd) 14.64 18.27 (3rd) 30.76 (3rd) Sorghum 1.62 14.07 18.36 (2nd) 29.71 Barley 1.13 15.5 17.5

4 Tef (Eragrostis tef)

5 Agroclimate of Wheat Production in Ethiopia


Many technical and socio-economic constraints Problems depend on agro-ecology, demands of the wheat producers and consumers A) Unavailability of improved cultivars for different agro-ecologies B) Slow extension of available improved cultivars Ineffectiveness of formal and informal seed sector/sources

C) Disease pressure Head scab Septoria Yellow rust stem rust

9 Approximate areas affected by stripe rust , 2010

D) Quality E) High input prices (major concern of wheat growers) F) water-logging (~12 million ha) G) Characterization and grouping of L and G for maximum exploitation of the wheat environments Yield gap (5-6 tons)

11 Approaches of breeding:
Conventional and participatory (Molecular ??) Multi-location variety trials : Many agro-ecological zones ( eg. 10 representing testing sites in NWE) Plus more than 20 on-farm sites (FREGs) for participatory VT and agronomic trials

12 Variety testing (on-farm)
20 varieties 1st year Pre-verification 3-5 vars 2ndyear Verification for release 3 cultivars 3rd year Seed prodn 1-3 vars 4th year Participatory variety selections –PVS (Farmers, extension agents and other research disciplines) FREGs

13 Criteria established by FREGs evaluation of bread wheat genotypes in two zones:
South Gonder (LOC 1) West Gojam (LOC2) Criterion Score Disease resistance 14 12 Frost tolerance 13 Injera quality 11 Flour yield (“Bereket”) Market demand 10 Maturity (earliness) Yield 8 Lodging resistance 9 Bread quality Tillering ability 7 Seed color 5 Spike size 6 Seedling vigor 4 Seed size 2 Plant height 1 3

14 On-farm durum and bread wheat
G x N x L Quality trial On-farm durum and bread wheat

15 Bread and durum wheat crosses using elite parents (exotic and local)
Crossing Bread and durum wheat crosses using elite parents (exotic and local) AC Morse; Navigator; SST825;Kariega; Cracker Filial pop. Spreader rows

16 Quality testing NIR (protein, starch, ash) Alveograph Glutomatic
Milling lab

17 SEED PRODUCTION Small-scale seed production in FREGs
> 20 FREGs (of farmers) for PVS and participatory seed multiplication (FREGs as technology generation and dissemination points)

18 Improved varieties DZ 2023 (Megenagna) HAR 2562 (Densa) DZ 2178
ET12D4/HAR604(1) (TAY) DZ 2178 (Mosobo)

19 PVS and seed production (2009/10) at Farmers cooperatives
PVS-Onfarm with MSc students

20 PVS-Onfarm with MSc students

21 Local Seed Business Wheat basic seed production

22 Wheat and maize seed production-Farmers field

23 B. Wheat in the courses “Principles of crop production”
Pre-requisites courses (Plant anatomy and morphology and plant physiology) Preliminaries (Food production/population growth, climate change, Ethiopian agriculture) and wheat contribution Production factors Environmental (temperature, light, water, humidity, wind, soil …) Agronomic elements Crop protection –weeds, diseases, insects, vertebrate pests, etc

24 B. Wheat in the courses (cont’d)
2. “Cereals and Pulses Production” Pre-requisites (Principles of crop production) Wheat described separately as major cereal crop among other cereals and pulses Wheat: origin, history and economic importance, classification and botany, nutritive value, crop management, major constraints of production Wheat yield and yield components Current wheat production status and recent varieties under production (list and description of released varieties provided) CIMMYT contribution (Maize and wheat)

25 B. Wheat in the courses (cont’d)
3. Wheat in other courses Major Courses; Principles of Genetics Plant Breeding Plant Physiology Agricultural Entomology Plant Pathology Weeds and Weed Management 4. Practical Attachment ????

26 Wheat- MSc thesis studies
Variability (morphological, yield, quality) studies NUE (N rates) GxE Interaction PVS Bahir Dar U

27 Thank you !!

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