Presentation on theme: "Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research"— Presentation transcript:
1Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research Anne-Marie ROMULUSLycée Pierre de Fermat, Parvis des JacobinsLaboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université Paul SabatierToulouse, FranceEuropean Curriculum of Methodological Training of Trainers in the Field of Environmental Education, Iasi, RoumaniaJune 8-10, 2007
2Energy, a need for human beings TransportsResidential and servicesIndustry and agriculture
3EnergyWhy interdisciplinarity ? - science « of the planet » : chemistry, physics, geology, climatology… - science « of the living » - technologies - social sciences and economic sciencesWhy is it such a major problem ?Increase in the request for energy due to human activities :65% between 1995 and 2020 ?World consumption of energy :2000 : 9 Gtep (i.e.13.5 GtC) ; 6 billion inhabitants2050 : 20 Gtep ? ; 9 billion inhabitants ?economic development of China and India ?
4« Nothing is lost ; nothing is created » (Lavoisier, a French chemist, 18th century) « Primary energy »Fossil energy : coal, oil, gasNuclear energyRenewable energies : hydraulic power, solar energy, wind power, geothermics, tidal power, biomass energyUseful energy : mechanic, electric, thermal, electromagnetic, chemicalProblemsPrimary energy transformation into final energyTransport of energy (two existing energy vectors : heat, electricityanother vector tomorrow : hydrogen ? )Storage of energy : mechanic (hydroelectric dam), thermal (hot water tank), chemical (accumulator, battery..)Loss linked to consumptionTotal output : approximatively 30%
5World consumption of primary energy (according to IEA, 2000) Fossil energy : 88.8%Nuclear energy : 7.4%Hydraulic power : 2.5%Other renewable energies : 0.6%
6World production of electricity (according to Bernard Wiesenfeld in « l’énergie en 2050, edited by EDP sciences, 2005)Fossil fuels : 64.6%(coal 38.7% ; oil 7.5 % ; gas 18.3 %)Renewable energies : 18.3%(hydroelectric energy : 16.5 %)Nuclear energy : 17.1%(it reaches 30% in the OECD countries)Goal : to reach 60% produced by nuclear energyand renewable energies in 2060
7Problems involved in the use of fossil energies Lifespan of layersCoal : 200 yearsOil : 40 yearsGas : 60 yearsIncrease in CO2 emission in the world :+ 3.3 GtC/year (according to Wikipedia 2007)Human activities (+ 6.3 GtC / year)(combustion of fossil fuels, destruction of the forests)Entry of CO2 in the biosphere (- 1.3 GtC/year)(photosynthesis)Dissolution of CO2 in the oceans (- 1.7 GtC/year)(HCO3- ; CaCO3)- Increase in the temperature : from 2 to 6 °C during the 21st century
8Awareness and wishes International wish Protocol of Kyoto, 1997reduction of gas emission : -8% between 2008 and 2012 ?World meetingRio de Janeiro 1992 ; Johannesbourg 2002 ;Montreal 2005 ; Nairobi 2006Example : CO2 emissions in France2000 : 85 MtC2050 : 145 MtC ? (wish : 145/4)According to « mission interministérielle de l’effet de serre », France, 2004Transport (2000 : 28% ; 2050 : 54% ?)Residential and services (2000 : 42% ; 2050 : 24% ?)Industry and agriculture (2000 : 30% ; 2050 : 22% ?)Solutions ?: new fuels, capture and storage of CO2 ?
9Various axes of classical scientific developments at various levels of teaching Electric power directly producedfrom chemical energy far more efficientthan from thermal energyTransformations of the main forms of energy
10Links between school and research or industry in a course Necessity to train future engineers, researchers, techniciansNecessity to train the future citizens of the planetLocal contextContacts school - research or industry laboratoriesPassing work carried out in research to teaching staffParticipation of a researcher invited in a courseExternal context
11Example 1 : chemical energy electric power Principle of the fuel cell Hydrogen, energy vector for tomorrow ?1839, Sir William Grove (a British chemist),inventor of the first electrochemical cellwith hydrogen fuelAnodic exchange : H2 2H+ + 2 e-Cathodic exchange : 2H+ + 1/2 O2 + 2e- H2OChemical conversion : H2 + 1/2 O2 H2OElectrolyte : solid polymer which exchanges H+Current density : A/cm2Potential difference : 0.6 VOutput : 50% (loss with thermal energy)Favour : non CO2 emissionDrawbacks : producing H2 , storage of H2The Yeager 3 phases Model Of Nafion Clusters
12Fuel cellsPresented by André Savall, Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, ToulouseLaboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, FrancePC25 Fuel Cell Power Plant Installationat Data Center in First National Bank of Omaha,Omaha, NebraskaInstallation of Five PC25 Fuel Cell Power Plants at Regional USPS Mail Sorting Center in Anchorage, AlaskaUTC Fuel Cells was oneof the first companies to incorporatefuel cells into busesSpace Shuttle Lift Off-UTC Fuel Cells 12kW power plants provide electric power and drinking water for all space shuttle flights
13Microorganisms in a fuel cell « Price of the innovation », Midi-Pyrénées, France Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, FranceMicroorganisms on the electrodsReplacement of hydrogen by milk or marine sedimentsFirst prototype, patent 2002, CNRS-CEA (Research Director : Alain Bergel)Future : microbial cell ?Use of household waste for the power supply in the house ?
14Example 2 : electric power chemical energy Electrolysis in nuclear industry Elements in waste fuel : actinides (U, Th), minor actinides (Am, Cm), lanthanides (Nd, Sm, Gd), other fission products (Cs, Sr…)Problems : small proportion of fuel used, great proportion of waste, only one recycling in fuel MOX, radioactivity of waste (great activity of minor actinides, the longest lifespan), thermogenic effectsTwo ways of dealing with nuclear waste currently : reversible geological storage, transmutation to decrease the radioactivity of ultimate wasteDevelopment of separation processes by ECA : DIAMEX, SANEXResearchRecycling of fuelManagement of radioactive wasteNuclear reactors of generation IVExample MSR (Molten Salt Reactor System)light consumption of natural deposits : U, Threcycling on line of fuelreprocessing plant of waste and reactor on the same siteLaw of program relating to the sustainable management of matters and radioactive waste, French Parliament, June 2006Objectives in nuclear industry : security, energy competitiveness, resistence to proliferation, sustainable development
15Actinide separation : an electrochemical way Presented by Pierre Chamelot, Research Assistant Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, FranceEuropean program PYROREPProject ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by Separation and Transmutation),Advantage of the electrochemical way compared to the hydrometallurgic way : dissolution of fuel in molten salts, safer methodExpectations : recycling actinides in solution in molten salts after electroextraction of lanthanides directly starting from fuel in reactorMolten salts : LiF, CaF2Reactive cathode : Al, Ni, CuReduction : NdF3 + 3 e- Nd + 3 F-Anode C, electrolyte LiCl in LiF-CaF2Oxydation : 2 Cl- 2 Cl2 + 2e-
16Example 3 : biomass and chemical energy Presented by Maurice Comtat, Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, ToulouseLaboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, Franceforce thermic energy electricityéthermochemical transformation(pyrolyse and gazeification))new fuels hydrogenbiodiesel bioethanol
17Hydrogen a chemical product and an energy vector Production by reformage of fossil fuels (natural gas 48%) and by electrolysis of water or of living mattersAdvantages : large abundance, strong massic energy 120 MJ kg-1 (gas : 2.2 MJ kg-1),non polluting, non toxic,combustion without CO2,easily transportable, low weightProblems : more highly inflammable and detonating than natural gas, no visible flame, availability, solid storage, compression, liquefactionHydrogen consumption (million tonne / year)Europa : 6.3World : 50Hydrogen prize (E/tep in 2005) :Fuel : 187.5Natural gas : 132Hydrogen gas (wholesale) : 290Hydrogen gas (retail) : 1320ReformageCH4 + H2O CO +3 H2CO + H2O CO2 +H2CnHm + 1/2 O2 n CO + 1/2m H2Water electrolysis1) Basic electrolyteAnodic exchange 2 OH- H2O + 2 e- + 1/2 O2Cathodic exchange 2 H2O + 2 e- 2 OH- + H22) Cationic membraneAnodic exchange H2O 2H+ + 2e- + 1/2 O2Cathodic exchange 2H+ + 2e- H2
19References IEA, International Energy Agency OCDE, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentNEA, Nuclear Energy Agency« L’énergie nucléaire du futur : quelles recherches pour quels objectifs ? », CEA Saclay, edited by Le Moniteur, 2005Bernard Wiesenfeld in « l’énergie en 2050, edited by EDP sciences, 2005Scientific Journal of University Paul Sabatier, 2007, Toulouse, FranceMission interministérielle de l’effet de serre, France, 2004Wikipedia, 2007The Palaceof Cultureof Iasi