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Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research Anne-Marie ROMULUS Lycée Pierre de Fermat, Parvis des Jacobins Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université

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Presentation on theme: "Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research Anne-Marie ROMULUS Lycée Pierre de Fermat, Parvis des Jacobins Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research Anne-Marie ROMULUS Lycée Pierre de Fermat, Parvis des Jacobins Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse, France European Curriculum of Methodological Training of Trainers in the Field of Environmental Education, Iasi, Roumania June 8-10, 2007

2 Energy, a need for human beings Transports Transports Residential and services Residential and services Industry and agriculture Industry and agriculture

3 Why interdisciplinarity ? - science « of the planet » : chemistry, physics, geology, climatology… - science « of the living » - technologies - social sciences and economic sciences Increase in the request for energy due to human activities : 65% between 1995 and 2020 ? World consumption of energy : 2000 : 9 Gtep (i.e.13.5 GtC) ; 6 billion inhabitants 2050 : 20 Gtep ? ; 9 billion inhabitants ? economic development of China and India ? Energy Why is it such a major problem ?

4 « Nothing is lost ; nothing is created » (Lavoisier, a French chemist, 18 th century) « Primary energy » « Primary energy » –Fossil energy : coal, oil, gas –Nuclear energy –Renewable energies : hydraulic power, solar energy, wind power, geothermics, tidal power, biomass energy Useful energy : mechanic, electric, thermal, electromagnetic, chemical Useful energy : mechanic, electric, thermal, electromagnetic, chemical Problems Problems –Primary energy transformation into final energy –Transport of energy (two existing energy vectors : heat, electricity another vector tomorrow : hydrogen ? ) another vector tomorrow : hydrogen ? ) –Storage of energy : mechanic (hydroelectric dam), thermal (hot water tank), chemical (accumulator, battery..) –Loss linked to consumption Total output : approximatively 30%

5 World consumption of primary energy (according to IEA, 2000) Fossil energy : 88.8% Fossil energy : 88.8% Nuclear energy : 7.4% Nuclear energy : 7.4% Hydraulic power : 2.5% Hydraulic power : 2.5% Other renewable energies : 0.6% Other renewable energies : 0.6%

6 World production of electricity (according to Bernard Wiesenfeld in « lénergie en 2050, edited by EDP sciences, 2005) Fossil fuels : 64.6% Fossil fuels : 64.6% (coal 38.7% ; oil 7.5 % ; gas 18.3 %) (coal 38.7% ; oil 7.5 % ; gas 18.3 %) Renewable energies : 18.3% Renewable energies : 18.3% (hydroelectric energy : 16.5 %) Nuclear energy : 17.1% Nuclear energy : 17.1% (it reaches 30% in the OECD countries) Goal : to reach 60% produced by nuclear energy and renewable energies in 2060

7 Problems involved in the use of fossil energies Lifespan of layers Lifespan of layers –Coal : 200 years –Oil : 40 years –Gas : 60 years Increase in CO 2 emission in the world : Increase in CO 2 emission in the world : GtC/year (according to Wikipedia 2007) GtC/year (according to Wikipedia 2007) –Human activities (+ 6.3 GtC / year) (combustion of fossil fuels, destruction of the forests) (combustion of fossil fuels, destruction of the forests) – Entry of CO 2 in the biosphere (- 1.3 GtC/year) (photosynthesis) (photosynthesis) –Dissolution of CO 2 in the oceans (- 1.7 GtC/year) (HCO 3 - ; CaCO 3 ) (HCO 3 - ; CaCO 3 ) - Increase in the temperature : from 2 to 6 °C during the 21 st century

8 Awareness and wishes International wish International wish –Protocol of Kyoto, 1997 reduction of gas emission : -8% between 2008 and 2012 ? reduction of gas emission : -8% between 2008 and 2012 ? –World meeting Rio de Janeiro 1992 ; Johannesbourg 2002 ; Rio de Janeiro 1992 ; Johannesbourg 2002 ; Montreal 2005 ; Nairobi 2006 Montreal 2005 ; Nairobi 2006 Example : CO 2 emissions in France Example : CO 2 emissions in France 2000 : 85 MtC 2000 : 85 MtC 2050 : 145 MtC ? (wish : 145/4) 2050 : 145 MtC ? (wish : 145/4) According to « mission interministérielle de leffet de serre », France, Transport (2000 : 28% ; 2050 : 54% ?) - Residential and services (2000 : 42% ; 2050 : 24% ?) - Industry and agriculture (2000 : 30% ; 2050 : 22% ?) Solutions ?: new fuels, capture and storage of CO 2 ?

9 Various axes of classical scientific developments at various levels of teaching Transformations of the main forms of energy Electric power directly produced from chemical energy far more efficient than from thermal energy

10 Links between school and research or industry in a course Necessity to train future engineers, researchers, technicians Necessity to train future engineers, researchers, technicians Necessity to train the future citizens of the planet Necessity to train the future citizens of the planet Local context Local context –Contacts school - research or industry laboratories –Passing work carried out in research to teaching staff –Participation of a researcher invited in a course External context External context

11 Example 1 : chemical energy electric power Principle of the fuel cell Hydrogen, energy vector for tomorrow ? 1839, Sir William Grove (a British chemist), 1839, Sir William Grove (a British chemist), inventor of the first electrochemical cell inventor of the first electrochemical cell with hydrogen fuel with hydrogen fuel Anodic exchange : H 2 2H e - Anodic exchange : H 2 2H e - Cathodic exchange : 2H + + 1/2 O 2 + 2e - H 2 O Cathodic exchange : 2H + + 1/2 O 2 + 2e - H 2 O Chemical conversion : H 2 + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Chemical conversion : H 2 + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Electrolyte : solid polymer which exchanges H + Electrolyte : solid polymer which exchanges H + Current density : A/cm 2 Current density : A/cm 2 Potential difference : 0.6 V Potential difference : 0.6 V Output : 50% (loss with thermal energy) Output : 50% (loss with thermal energy) Favour : non CO 2 emission Favour : non CO 2 emission Drawbacks : producing H 2, storage of H 2 Drawbacks : producing H 2, storage of H 2 The Yeager 3 phases Model Of Nafion Clusters

12 Fuel cells Presented by André Savall, Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Presented by André Savall, Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France PC25 Fuel Cell Power Plant Installation at Data Center in First National Bank of Omaha,Omaha, Nebraska UTC Fuel Cells was one of the first companies to incorporate fuel cells into buses Space Shuttle Lift Off-UTC Fuel Cells 12kW power plants provide electric power and drinking water for all space shuttle flights Installation of Five PC25 Fuel Cell Power Plants at Regional USPS Mail Sorting Center in Anchorage, Alaska

13 Microorganisms in a fuel cell « Price of the innovation », Midi-Pyrénées, France Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France Microorganisms on the electrods Microorganisms on the electrods Replacement of hydrogen by milk or marine sediments Replacement of hydrogen by milk or marine sediments First prototype, patent 2002, CNRS-CEA (Research Director : Alain Bergel ) First prototype, patent 2002, CNRS-CEA (Research Director : Alain Bergel ) Future : microbial cell ? Future : microbial cell ? Use of household waste for the power supply in the house ? Use of household waste for the power supply in the house ?

14 Example 2 : electric power chemical energy Example 2 : electric power chemical energy Electrolysis in nuclear industry Elements in waste fuel : actinides (U, Th), minor actinides (Am, Cm), lanthanides (Nd, Sm, Gd), other fission products (Cs, Sr…) Elements in waste fuel : actinides (U, Th), minor actinides (Am, Cm), lanthanides (Nd, Sm, Gd), other fission products (Cs, Sr…) Problems : small proportion of fuel used, great proportion of waste, only one recycling in fuel MOX, radioactivity of waste (great activity of minor actinides, the longest lifespan), thermogenic effects Problems : small proportion of fuel used, great proportion of waste, only one recycling in fuel MOX, radioactivity of waste (great activity of minor actinides, the longest lifespan), thermogenic effects Two ways of dealing with nuclear waste currently : reversible geological storage, transmutation to decrease the radioactivity of ultimate waste Two ways of dealing with nuclear waste currently : reversible geological storage, transmutation to decrease the radioactivity of ultimate waste Development of separation processes by ECA : DIAMEX, SANEX Development of separation processes by ECA : DIAMEX, SANEX Research Research –Recycling of fuel –Management of radioactive waste –Nuclear reactors of generation IV Example MSR (Molten Salt Reactor System) Example MSR (Molten Salt Reactor System) light consumption of natural deposits : U, Th light consumption of natural deposits : U, Th recycling on line of fuel reprocessing plant of waste and reactor on the same site Law of program relating to the sustainable management of matters and radioactive waste, French Parliament, June 2006 Objectives in nuclear industry : security, energy competitiveness, resistence to proliferation, sustainable development

15 Presented by Pierre Chamelot, Research Assistant Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France Actinide separation : an electrochemical way Presented by Pierre Chamelot, Research Assistant Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France European program PYROREP European program PYROREP Project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by Separation and Transmutation), Project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by Separation and Transmutation), Advantage of the electrochemical way compared to the hydrometallurgic way : dissolution of fuel in molten salts, safer method Advantage of the electrochemical way compared to the hydrometallurgic way : dissolution of fuel in molten salts, safer method Expectations : recycling actinides in solution in molten salts after electroextraction of lanthanides directly starting from fuel in reactor Expectations : recycling actinides in solution in molten salts after electroextraction of lanthanides directly starting from fuel in reactor Molten salts : LiF, CaF 2 Molten salts : LiF, CaF 2 Reactive cathode : Al, Ni, Cu Reactive cathode : Al, Ni, Cu Reduction : NdF e - Nd + 3 F - Anode C, electrolyte LiCl in LiF-CaF 2 Anode C, electrolyte LiCl in LiF-CaF 2 Oxydation : 2 Cl - 2 Cl 2 + 2e -

16 thermochemical transformation (pyrolyse and gazeification)) forcethermic energy electricityé new fuels hydrogen biodiesel bioethanol Example 3 : biomass and chemical energy Presented by Maurice Comtat, Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France

17 Hydrogen a chemical product and an energy vector Production by reformage of fossil fuels (natural gas 48%) and by electrolysis of water or of living matters Production by reformage of fossil fuels (natural gas 48%) and by electrolysis of water or of living matters Advantages : large abundance, strong massic energy 120 MJ kg -1 (gas : 2.2 MJ kg -1 ), Advantages : large abundance, strong massic energy 120 MJ kg -1 (gas : 2.2 MJ kg -1 ), non polluting, non toxic, non polluting, non toxic, combustion without CO 2, easily transportable, low weight Problems : more highly inflammable and detonating than natural gas, no visible flame, availability, solid storage, compression, liquefaction Problems : more highly inflammable and detonating than natural gas, no visible flame, availability, solid storage, compression, liquefaction Hydrogen consumption (million tonne / year) Hydrogen consumption (million tonne / year) Europa : 6.3 Europa : 6.3 World : 50 World : 50 Hydrogen prize (E/tep in 2005) : Hydrogen prize (E/tep in 2005) : Fuel : Fuel : Natural gas : 132 Natural gas : 132 Hydrogen gas (wholesale) : 290 Hydrogen gas (wholesale) : 290 Hydrogen gas (retail) : 1320 Hydrogen gas (retail) : 1320 Reformage CH 4 + H 2 O CO +3 H 2 CO + H 2 O CO 2 +H 2 C n H m + 1/2 O 2 n CO + 1/2m H 2 Water electrolysis 1) Basic electrolyte Anodic exchange 2 OH - H 2 O + 2 e - + 1/2 O 2 Cathodic exchange 2 H 2 O + 2 e - 2 OH- + H 2 2) Cationic membrane Anodic exchange H 2 O 2H + + 2e - + 1/2 O 2 Cathodic exchange 2H + + 2e - H 2

18 The house tomorrow ?

19 References IEA, International Energy Agency IEA, International Energy Agency OCDE, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OCDE, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development NEA, Nuclear Energy Agency NEA, Nuclear Energy Agency « Lénergie nucléaire du futur : quelles recherches pour quels objectifs ? », CEA Saclay, edited by Le Moniteur, 2005 « Lénergie nucléaire du futur : quelles recherches pour quels objectifs ? », CEA Saclay, edited by Le Moniteur, 2005 Bernard Wiesenfeld in « lénergie en 2050, edited by EDP sciences, 2005 Bernard Wiesenfeld in « lénergie en 2050, edited by EDP sciences, 2005 Scientific Journal of University Paul Sabatier, 2007, Toulouse, France Scientific Journal of University Paul Sabatier, 2007, Toulouse, France Mission interministérielle de leffet de serre, France, 2004 Mission interministérielle de leffet de serre, France, 2004 Wikipedia, 2007 Wikipedia, 2007 The Palace of Culture of Iasi


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