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Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research

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Presentation on theme: "Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy : interdisciplinarity and links with research
Anne-Marie ROMULUS Lycée Pierre de Fermat, Parvis des Jacobins Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse, France European Curriculum of Methodological Training of Trainers in the Field of Environmental Education, Iasi, Roumania June 8-10, 2007

2 Energy, a need for human beings
Transports Residential and services Industry and agriculture

3 Energy Why interdisciplinarity ? - science « of the planet » : chemistry, physics, geology, climatology… - science « of the living » - technologies - social sciences and economic sciences Why is it such a major problem ? Increase in the request for energy due to human activities : 65% between 1995 and 2020 ? World consumption of energy : 2000 : 9 Gtep (i.e.13.5 GtC) ; 6 billion inhabitants 2050 : 20 Gtep ? ; 9 billion inhabitants ? economic development of China and India ?

4 « Nothing is lost ; nothing is created » (Lavoisier, a French chemist, 18th century)
« Primary energy » Fossil energy : coal, oil, gas Nuclear energy Renewable energies : hydraulic power, solar energy, wind power, geothermics, tidal power, biomass energy Useful energy : mechanic, electric, thermal, electromagnetic, chemical Problems Primary energy transformation into final energy Transport of energy (two existing energy vectors : heat, electricity another vector tomorrow : hydrogen ? ) Storage of energy : mechanic (hydroelectric dam), thermal (hot water tank), chemical (accumulator, battery..) Loss linked to consumption Total output : approximatively 30%

5 World consumption of primary energy (according to IEA, 2000)
Fossil energy : 88.8% Nuclear energy : 7.4% Hydraulic power : 2.5% Other renewable energies : 0.6%

6 World production of electricity (according to Bernard Wiesenfeld in « l’énergie en 2050, edited by EDP sciences, 2005) Fossil fuels : 64.6% (coal 38.7% ; oil 7.5 % ; gas 18.3 %) Renewable energies : 18.3% (hydroelectric energy : 16.5 %) Nuclear energy : 17.1% (it reaches 30% in the OECD countries) Goal : to reach 60% produced by nuclear energy and renewable energies in 2060

7 Problems involved in the use of fossil energies
Lifespan of layers Coal : 200 years Oil : 40 years Gas : 60 years Increase in CO2 emission in the world : + 3.3 GtC/year (according to Wikipedia 2007) Human activities (+ 6.3 GtC / year) (combustion of fossil fuels, destruction of the forests) Entry of CO2 in the biosphere (- 1.3 GtC/year) (photosynthesis) Dissolution of CO2 in the oceans (- 1.7 GtC/year) (HCO3- ; CaCO3) - Increase in the temperature : from 2 to 6 °C during the 21st century

8 Awareness and wishes International wish
Protocol of Kyoto, 1997 reduction of gas emission : -8% between 2008 and 2012 ? World meeting Rio de Janeiro 1992 ; Johannesbourg 2002 ; Montreal 2005 ; Nairobi 2006 Example : CO2 emissions in France 2000 : 85 MtC 2050 : 145 MtC ? (wish : 145/4) According to « mission interministérielle de l’effet de serre », France, 2004 Transport (2000 : 28% ; 2050 : 54% ?) Residential and services (2000 : 42% ; 2050 : 24% ?) Industry and agriculture (2000 : 30% ; 2050 : 22% ?) Solutions ?: new fuels, capture and storage of CO2 ?

9 Various axes of classical scientific developments at various levels of teaching
Electric power directly produced from chemical energy far more efficient than from thermal energy Transformations of the main forms of energy

10 Links between school and research or industry in a course
Necessity to train future engineers, researchers, technicians Necessity to train the future citizens of the planet Local context Contacts school - research or industry laboratories Passing work carried out in research to teaching staff Participation of a researcher invited in a course External context

11 Example 1 : chemical energy  electric power Principle of the fuel cell Hydrogen, energy vector for tomorrow ? 1839, Sir William Grove (a British chemist), inventor of the first electrochemical cell with hydrogen fuel Anodic exchange : H2  2H+ + 2 e- Cathodic exchange : 2H+ + 1/2 O2 + 2e-  H2O Chemical conversion : H2 + 1/2 O2  H2O Electrolyte : solid polymer which exchanges H+ Current density : A/cm2 Potential difference : 0.6 V Output : 50% (loss with thermal energy) Favour : non CO2 emission Drawbacks : producing H2 , storage of H2 The Yeager 3 phases Model Of Nafion Clusters

12 Fuel cells Presented by André Savall, Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France PC25 Fuel Cell Power Plant Installation at Data Center in First National Bank of Omaha,Omaha, Nebraska Installation of Five PC25 Fuel Cell Power Plants at Regional USPS Mail Sorting Center in Anchorage, Alaska UTC Fuel Cells was one of the first companies to incorporate fuel cells into buses Space Shuttle Lift Off-UTC Fuel Cells 12kW power plants provide electric power and drinking water for all space shuttle flights

13 Microorganisms in a fuel cell « Price of the innovation », Midi-Pyrénées, France Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France Microorganisms on the electrods Replacement of hydrogen by milk or marine sediments First prototype, patent 2002, CNRS-CEA (Research Director : Alain Bergel) Future : microbial cell ? Use of household waste for the power supply in the house ?

14 Example 2 : electric power  chemical energy Electrolysis in nuclear industry
Elements in waste fuel : actinides (U, Th), minor actinides (Am, Cm), lanthanides (Nd, Sm, Gd), other fission products (Cs, Sr…) Problems : small proportion of fuel used, great proportion of waste, only one recycling in fuel MOX, radioactivity of waste (great activity of minor actinides, the longest lifespan), thermogenic effects Two ways of dealing with nuclear waste currently : reversible geological storage, transmutation to decrease the radioactivity of ultimate waste Development of separation processes by ECA : DIAMEX, SANEX Research Recycling of fuel Management of radioactive waste Nuclear reactors of generation IV Example MSR (Molten Salt Reactor System) light consumption of natural deposits : U, Th recycling on line of fuel reprocessing plant of waste and reactor on the same site Law of program relating to the sustainable management of matters and radioactive waste, French Parliament, June 2006 Objectives in nuclear industry : security, energy competitiveness, resistence to proliferation, sustainable development

15 Actinide separation : an electrochemical way Presented by Pierre Chamelot, Research Assistant Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France European program PYROREP Project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by Separation and Transmutation), Advantage of the electrochemical way compared to the hydrometallurgic way : dissolution of fuel in molten salts, safer method Expectations : recycling actinides in solution in molten salts after electroextraction of lanthanides directly starting from fuel in reactor Molten salts : LiF, CaF2 Reactive cathode : Al, Ni, Cu Reduction : NdF3 + 3 e-  Nd + 3 F- Anode C, electrolyte LiCl in LiF-CaF2 Oxydation : 2 Cl-  2 Cl2 + 2e-

16 Example 3 : biomass and chemical energy
Presented by Maurice Comtat, Professor at the University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS/INP/UPS Toulouse Cedex 9, France force thermic energy electricityé thermochemical transformation (pyrolyse and gazeification)) new fuels hydrogen biodiesel bioethanol

17 Hydrogen a chemical product and an energy vector
Production by reformage of fossil fuels (natural gas 48%) and by electrolysis of water or of living matters Advantages : large abundance, strong massic energy 120 MJ kg-1 (gas : 2.2 MJ kg-1), non polluting, non toxic, combustion without CO2, easily transportable, low weight Problems : more highly inflammable and detonating than natural gas, no visible flame, availability, solid storage, compression, liquefaction Hydrogen consumption (million tonne / year) Europa : 6.3 World : 50 Hydrogen prize (E/tep in 2005) : Fuel : 187.5 Natural gas : 132 Hydrogen gas (wholesale) : 290 Hydrogen gas (retail) : 1320 Reformage CH4 + H2O  CO +3 H2 CO + H2O  CO2 +H2 CnHm + 1/2 O2  n CO + 1/2m H2 Water electrolysis 1) Basic electrolyte Anodic exchange 2 OH-  H2O + 2 e- + 1/2 O2 Cathodic exchange 2 H2O + 2 e-  2 OH- + H2 2) Cationic membrane Anodic exchange H2O  2H+ + 2e- + 1/2 O2 Cathodic exchange 2H+ + 2e-  H2

18 The house tomorrow ?

19 References IEA, International Energy Agency
OCDE, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development NEA, Nuclear Energy Agency « L’énergie nucléaire du futur : quelles recherches pour quels objectifs ? », CEA Saclay, edited by Le Moniteur, 2005 Bernard Wiesenfeld in « l’énergie en 2050, edited by EDP sciences, 2005 Scientific Journal of University Paul Sabatier, 2007, Toulouse, France Mission interministérielle de l’effet de serre, France, 2004 Wikipedia, 2007 The Palace of Culture of Iasi


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