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«MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles,

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Presentation on theme: "«MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles,"— Presentation transcript:

1 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 KM-Master Course, 2004 INSEAD CALT – The Centre for Advanced Learning Technologies, Fontainebleau, France Thierry NABETH Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Introduction to the main issues

2 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Many of the approaches proposed in IS (Information Systems) for managing knowledge are centred on the document (knowledge = document) and mainly driven by technology. In the real word, people use a much wider variety of knowledge processes to access and manage knowledge. A very important category of these processes is related to the social interaction. The objective of the course Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents is to investigate how information technologies can be used to support the more people oriented knowledge processes. Objective of the VCIA course

3 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 A very important set of mechanisms used to support the management of the tacit knowledge: Access to knowledge that is not elicitated yet. Access to category of knowledge that is difficult to formalize (know-how) Access to category of knowledge that we are not aware of (do we know what we know?). Access to category of knowledge that is considered as private (and that people do not want to disclose). Access to constantly changing knowledge (rapid obsolescence). Access to meta knowledge (knowledge about knowledge) other categories ??? The importance of the social interaction

4 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Objectives: To present a more social, human and intelligent perspective of the management of knowledge. To investigate how technology can be used to support social and cognitive knowledge management processes. To study how these approaches can be applied for supporting communities in a variety of contexts. Some of the questions to be answered: What are the digital infrastructures able to support the social process? What are the main concepts and issues to consider? How to applied them in different domains. Objectives of the VCIA Course

5 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Some myths to be Challenged This course will challenge a certain number of beliefs

6 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Knowledge is only in the document. The perfect Knowledge Management system is a big database system that will have captured all the knowledge of the organization. The perfect Knowledge management systems are the ones that offer the larger set of functionalities, and the more sophisticated mechanisms. Social interaction spontaneously «emerges» once you have provided the adequate communication infrastructure. People are self motivated and are eager to adopt new processes if this help the organization to become more efficient. Some Myths to be challenged

7 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 A very important amount of Knowledge is not (and never will be) present in documents*. An important role of KM Systems should be to provide mechanisms that support the circulation & exploitation of the tacit knowledge. (the ultimate objective of KM is that K is used, not that it is stored!). * Note: Why tacit knowledge will remain important? Because making the knowledge explicit is an heavy operation (expensive), which can hamper the flexibility of the organization. Because Knowledge can sometime be difficult to formalize and risks exist of overcoming the formalization of important pieces of knowledge. Because people are lazy, and capturing knowledge is often boring. The reality (knowledge = only in the documents?)

8 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 In education: Where did you get knowledge for deciding you to apply to the KM- Master course? (from brochures?) Where do you get knowledge useful for your career orientation? How to you make yourself an opinion of the importance of the field of Knowledge Management? (from magazine?) How do you learn a new language? (at school and in books?) At work: (as an employee or a student) What do you do when you want you solve a new problem? (do you search in books?) when Shopping: Where did you get information related to the best digital camera to buy? (from an advertising?) Please: identify knowledge that is not in documents Examples (knowledge that is not in documents?)

9 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 People are getting overwhelmed by information and process overload ( represents a burden). KM systems should not try to provide to all users every functionality, and to deliver all the knowledge that is potentially useful, but rather to provide the individuals with what they really need. KM systems should develop a very deep understanding of the user (including his cognitive style and his working context) and groups in order to be able to deliver him relevant (according to his profile and context) knowledge and support to his work. The reality (larger number of functionalities?)

10 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Many of the first generation virtual community systems (computer supported knowledge networks in which the tacit knowledge flows) have died due to the belief that the availability of communication tools (bulletin boards, etc.) was a sufficient condition for social interaction. The process of creating, growing & maintaining virtual community systems is complex and involve many human factors. Engineering is not only technical, it is also social Example of the VCAI: Did students spontaneously participated? Lets talk about the reasons! The reality (communication tools social interaction ?)

11 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 KM systems should explicitly address and support the social dynamic aspects (creation, growth & maintenance) : creating a community: Creating the infrastructure, defining the value, establishing the rules and roles growing this community: creating the critical mass, attracting new members, overgrowth (spin-off it), outsourcing it? sustainability of its operations: keeping the people, managing and overcoming crisis (conflict resolution?), reinforcing the rules, measuring the performance, maximizing the value terminate a community. (when value is no longer generated) How does it apply for the design of VC systems?

12 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Many People are satisfied by the status-quo. They only change their practices when they have no other choice, or at least after they have well evaluated the risks and have some guaranty that they will received a minimum of support in this transition. KM systems should actively help and stimulate the users in engaging in a continuous knowledge management process and exchange. Also, people are different and are in particular driven by different motives. Systems should take this into account. Note: the limitation of this self motivation is in particular visible in the difficulty of making people to share their knowledge. The reality (people are self motivated?)

13 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Understanding The Key Concepts Social process and Social related concepts

14 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Learning & Virtual organization A paradigm shift. They do not work the same way. Communication Structure of the message (semiotic, semantic), modes of communication, Social Structure Social networks, Social groups, Communities, Social properties Trust, reputation, privacy, transparency Understanding The Key Concepts

15 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Social dynamics Knowledge & ideas diffusion Cultural issues, transformation and change Group belonging, bias, norms & pressure Identity Individual, group, abstract, … People specificity social dimension: roles, team role Belbin, Gladwell individual dimension: Personality, 5 factor model, Motivation (Reiss) Understanding The Key Concepts

16 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Learning organization (paradigm shift) Dematerialization of the economy Systems not controlled, but regulated. (people participate on a voluntary basis. Relationship and power versus hierarchy) Horizontal structure. No top. Concept of knowledge ecology (Davenport) Geographical barriers have disappeared What about the cultural barriers? Belonging is less important than in the past (lifelong working in the same company has disappeared). Give some examples of learning or virtual organizations, and explain why they are different Key Concept:The learning & virtual organizations

17 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Communication is complex (combinatorial diversity) Structure of the message (semiotic, semantic), Transmitting implicit content. Modes of communication: synchronous / asynchronous One 2 one; one 2 many; many 2 one; many 2 many. Meta-communication. It is not only about content it self! (reasoning about the context, trust, etc.) Other? Indicate some digital communication means and their associate mode of communication Key Concepts: Communication

18 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 All the social structures are not the same Social Networks Groups Organizations Community Other? Indicate what differs between these structures Key Concepts: Social Structure

19 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 The properties Reputation & trust Transparency Privacy, anonymity Other? Key Concepts: Social properties

20 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Managing human related social interaction processes Knowledge & ideas diffusion Cultural issues, transformation and change Group belonging, bias, norms & pressure Other? What are the barriers to communication and exchanges? Key Concepts: Social dynamics

21 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 To be discussed privacy Anonymity, pseudonymity Observability Identity crime & thief Etc.? A separate presentation will be done on the subject of Identity. Key Concepts: Identity

22 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 People are different. Implication in an Identity context? social dimension: roles, team role Belbin, Gladwell individual dimension: Personality, 5 factor model Motivation (Reiss). self-efficacy (Banduras). Feeling in control of the situation. Implication on motivation. Andragogy theories (Knowles). Or the important of the experience Other? How do take into account this difference in a virtual community context? Key Concepts: People specificity

23 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Social computing About the mechanisms for supporting the social process

24 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 Communication technologies (a variety of modes). Peer-to-peer, one-to-many, many to many synchronous, asynchronous. Bulletin boards, chats, IM, … Social navigation: exploiting digital social information. Identify people who know. Social translucence: Making the social activity visible (visual tags, social pressure, trust building, motivation, etc). Provide real-time indicators of the social activity (who contributes, who read, what are the knowledge element the most accessed, social network visualization, etc.). Analysing digital trace. Supporting the social dimension in digital environments

25 «MASTER MANAGEMENT ET INGENIERIE ECONOMIQUE» Spécialité: Projet innovation conception, option gestion de la connaissance Module: Communautés virtuelles, Agents intelligents Thierry Nabeth, 2004 The mechanisms used (supporting advanced processes). Advanced social processes: recommender & opinion systems, group formation systems (group buying, consortium formation), collaborative knowledge construction (with wikis), animating a community (blogs), creating a common vocabulary (Ontology) Managing the cultural transformation (i.e. attitude transformation for sharing knowledge), incentives etc. Developing ones identity Web pages, blogs, reputation systems Supporting the social dimension in digital environments


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