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Industrial Ecology Favrat December 2006 1 Integrated energy systems: a key to sustainability Prof Daniel Favrat LENI-ISE-EPFL.

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Ecology Favrat December 2006 1 Integrated energy systems: a key to sustainability Prof Daniel Favrat LENI-ISE-EPFL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Integrated energy systems: a key to sustainability Prof Daniel Favrat LENI-ISE-EPFL

2 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Energy integration as a key word Integration of technologies and/or energy services offers a large potential: –Combined cycle (Brayton-Rankine) or hybrid FC-GT plants –Integrated solar combined cycle systems (ISCCS) –Hybrid vehicles, –Energy networks with tri-generation… Strong need for improved indicators (exergy efficiency) Need for better information structuring tools (pinch technology, environomic multi-objective optimisation, improved LCA,…

3 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Evolution of Worldwide key parameters year energie [Gtep] x x x x x x x yearly primary energy consumption Energy [Millions] population CO 2 [ppm] mean CO 2 concentration in atmosphere

4 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Energy Trends Significant projected increase of energy use (mainly in dev. countries, electricity and transport) Part of thermal conversion processes > 90% (>80% of non renewable), and major source of pollutants and inefficiencies Developing countries OECD Eastern Block world Coal 0.26 Oil 0.32 Gas 0.19 Nuclear 0.05 Hydro 0.06 Non Com. 0.1 Renew Efficiency Costs Emissions Disponibility

5 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Society and sustainability Difficulty to define sustainability and to have a holistic view –complex systems with many factors but major ones are: Environment (local and global) Resource conservation or even better, closed loop (including recycling, renewable resources, etc) Economics (in line with available capital) Social (the most difficult!! - not dealt with in this talk) How to: –match top-down with bottom up frameworks and have cross-domain coherence –account for the dynamics of technological and economical evolution

6 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Reactions to complexity Over simplification Focalisation on isolated criteria, one at a time (example: CO 2 ) –Partial view, potentially negative action (ex: taking out car catalysts would reduce CO 2 ) Environmental policies mainly based on fixing of regulatory limits without economical benefits for better technologies or combinations of technologies

7 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Major Methodologies for Design Structure independant (pinch technology, etc.) Structure based (environomic optimization, etc.): Starts from a superstructure of all feasible components and heavy use of operations research tools Easier extension to LCA and other factors (pollution, reliability-availability, time dependant investments, etc.)

8 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Energy systems and Environomics Background: –Energy systems increasingly consist of integrated technologies –Technologies are not fixed but, like living bodies, adapt to their environment (based mainly on economic factors and regulatory issues) –Assessments should be made in a coherent framework allowing all technologies to freely compete (particularly when a major departure from the present day economic environment is anticipated)

9 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Thermoeconomic & environomic min. C useful energy = f(C fuel + C inves + C emissions - B products ) External costs emissions C emissions min. C useful energy = f(C fuel + C invest - B products ) Thermoeconomic Design Environomic Design min. C énergie. = f(C fuel + C capital ) min. Specific pollution or Multi-objective

10 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Pelster (98) Combined cycle superstructure

11 Industrial Ecology Favrat December MW: Exergetic efficiency, emissions, costs versus CO2 unit cost Pelster (98)

12 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Collaboration within AGS with MIT and University of TokyoCollaboration within AGS with MIT and University of Tokyo Development of QMOO (multiobjectif, multimodal, evolutionary optimisation algorithm)Development of QMOO (multiobjectif, multimodal, evolutionary optimisation algorithm) « Environomic » optimisation of integrated energy systems« Environomic » optimisation of integrated energy systems Two objective optimisation of trigeneration in part of a large city Feasible Domain Pareto Frontier Cost CO 2 emissions Burer M, Favrat D., Tanaka K., Yamada K, Multicriteria optimisation of a district heating cogeneration plant integrating a Solid Oxyde Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine combined cycle, heat pumps and chillers, Energy. The International Journal, 28/6 pp 497 – 518, 2003

13 Part of Tokyo: Results with different Pareto Curves [tonCO2/year] [million US$/year] 50 Annual Cost [m$/year] CO2 Emissions [Tons/year] anodecathodeelectrolyte air -50%

14 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Power generation technology typification Thesis Li 2006

15 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Overall Technology Assessment (China) 1MW 10MW 100MW 1000MW Possible Baseline Assumption For Power Generation: The conventional 600MW coal plant is taken as the reference plant. For Cogeneration: Heating Gas boiler for heating, power need by pump is imported from the electricity grid Electricity National average CO2 emission rate from power generation

16 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Relative Consumption of technology combinations for heating PAC Q Q Q Q Tch=65°C Tch=35°C hydro PAC= pompe à chaleur Q = cogénération pile à combustible turbine à gaz Moteur thermique Electricité nucléaire Flamme (chaudière) Résistance électrique

17 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Two examples for a more rational use of fuel or Nat Gas for heating Fossil or biofuel resources Environnement 1.43 Twice as much heat Electricity 0.44 Heat Cogeneration with Fuel cells or engines Electricity Combined cycle power plant (ou 1.1)

18 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Illustration of heating and cogeneration services in the exergy bowl Source (partielle): Borel L, Favrat D Thermodynamique et énergétique. PPUR 2005

19 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Source: NET Ltd (2003) Solar electricity cost Photovoltaic cost (2000): $/kWp

20 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Previous solar power plant work at EPFL: thermo- economic optimisation of an ISCCS plant for Tunisia (120 MWe)

21 Industrial Ecology Favrat December ISCCS Tunisia Cost analysis Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC) with a real discount rate of 4% Solar collector cost of about $US 245/m2 including HTF system 1 To calculate the IRR a constant real power price of 5.7 Usc/kWh has been considered (Electricity Tunisian market

22 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Efficiency of gas engines: state of the art and short term prospects Power [kW] Efficiency Projet Swissmotor (avec Liebherr, Dimag, ETHZ, Ofen, Foga) With Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) (valid for SOFC fuel cells too).

23 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Better indicators: Exergy Introduction of an energy concept including an exergy performance index, in the Law on Energy in Geneva Necessary simplifications (engineers and architects, diverse customers, etc.) Initial focus on large projects with the following main services: –electricity, heating, air conditioning and refrigeration

24 Industrial Ecology Favrat December From local to global Example: Combined cycle power plant without cogeneration (1)+District heating heat pump (2) + DH heat exchanger in the building (3) +convector (4) Building plant 3 fuel Room convector or radiator 4 Power plant 1 Cogeneration District unit with or without heat pump 2 electricity

25 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Examples de technologies Power plant Dist. plant Building plantRoom convectorOverall exergy efficiency [%] Supply/return temperatures 45°/3 5° 65°/5 5° 75°/6 5° 45°/3 5° 65°/5 5° 75°/6 5° 45°/3 5° 65°/5 5° 75°/6 5° Direct electric heating (nuclear power) Direct electric heating (combined cycle cogeneration) Direct electric heating (hydro power) District boiler Building non-condensing boiler Building condensing boiler District heat pump (nuclear power) Domestic heat pump (nuclear power) Domestic cogeneration engine and heat pump District heat pump (combined cycle power) Domestic heat pump (combined cycle power) Domestic heat pump (cogeneration combined cycle power) Cogeneration fuel cell and domestic heat pump District heat pump (hydropower) Domestic heat pump (hydropower)

26 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Transport and car One of the largest inefficiency inherited from the 20th century: Non recovery of the kinetic and potential energy Regulation by throttling of Otto engines

27 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Transport and cars Margins of emissions of CO 2 (g/km) % of cars Introduced on market Hybrid // essence (Toyota Prius, Honda IMA) Infras (Keller) 2006 Hybrid // CNG

28 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Conclusions Rational Use is an essential strategy Structuring knowledge is a key word in design and planning of energy systems Multi-objective optimisation is a major tool Better indicators like the exergy efficiency can help Systems integrating several technologies and/or energy services (cogeneration) represent major opportunities

29 Industrial Ecology Favrat December Stone age did not end because of lack of stones! Lets not wait until the end of oil resources to be more intelligent

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