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22 Sept, 2012 Culture, Creativity and Innovation: A Critical Research Panorama Xavier Castañer Assistant Professor of Strategy, UNIL Co-director of the.

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Presentation on theme: "22 Sept, 2012 Culture, Creativity and Innovation: A Critical Research Panorama Xavier Castañer Assistant Professor of Strategy, UNIL Co-director of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, Creativity and Innovation: A Critical Research Panorama Xavier Castañer Assistant Professor of Strategy, UNIL Co-director of the Diploma on Cultural Management, UNIGE-UNIL

2 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 2 Definitions of culture, creativity and innovation Links Can we manage them in organizations? Influencing individuals within organizations Can we encourage them through policies? (in orgs, cities, regions, countries…) Questions

3 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 3 Broad definition: Set of taken-for-granted –Assumptions/beliefs: existence after life, free will/capable of choosing… –Values: property, democracy,… –Norms: etiquette-politeness, … –Rituals: family ceremonies, sport manifestations, elections,… –Artifacts: exchange/payment means (coins, bills, credit cards,…), entertainment tools (instruments, books, TV, smart phones), transportation means (chariot, boat, car, plane,…) Narrow definition: Performing arts, heritage, cultural industries (audiovisual/recording/video games, publishing), creative industries –Linked to the identity of a community, tradition/s, emotion –Aesthetic experience (beauty) –Shared with other sectors: design - textile/clothing, furniture, architecture, jewelry -, perfumes,… (Castañer, 2012) – centrality of R&D + identity/emotion/aesthetics like vehicles (vs pharma) Definition of (Community/National) Culture

4 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 4 Amabile (1988): novel and useful ideas –Novelty: new… relative to? (Castañer & Campos, 2002) Own past: individual, group, organizational,… Others today – where? –Inside: peers, subordinates, superiors –Outside: « customers », other incumbents, experts, media,… Others past: discovery vs rediscovery (ancient music) –Usefulness: solves a problem For whom? « in the eye of the beholder » When? In the past, now, in the future? (O fortuna, velut luna, statu variabilis) –Is it a good idea to combine both? No, selecting on the DV From an evolutionary perspective (Campbell, 1959; Castañer & Cavotta, 2012) we need the separate study of idea –generation, imagination, « innovation » (ideation): source of variation (Burgelman, 1991) –communication/lobbying (e.g. De Clercq et al, 2011) –selection & retention & abandonment (Burgelman, 1994) Definition of Creativity

5 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 5 Invention vs innovation –Invention: new idea, theory, principle, method, tool (scientific – patentable) « beyond the state of the art » –Innovation: Application of the invention to the development of a new commercializable good Incremental vs radical –Recombination of existing elements (Schumpeter, 1942) Referent Definition of Innovation

6 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 6 New goods: New products or services –New food product (soda), drug, car, plane –New services: telecom, online banking/trading, fastfood,… New methods and organizations –Of developing products: biotech, nanotech,… –Of managing people: 360 degrees HR evaluation, relational marketing, TQM/reengineering –Of structuring: the matrix organization Types of Innovation (Schumpeter, 1942)

7 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 7 Content = repertoire –Invention – new genre (idea): dodecaphonism, experimentalism, random serialism, … –Innovation: a work which initiates a new genre World creation, contemporary work: innovative? Form of –Interpretation (AM) –Transcription/adapt (BR)Transcription/adapt –Interdisciplinarity (CS) Examples of artistic innovations

8 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 8 Innovation vs imitation: –Exact replica vs taking inspiration of similar elements –Beyoncé (2005-2011): « her song Countdown bears a striking resemblance to the work of the Belgian choreographer Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker… Ms. De Keersmaeker said the pop diva had borrowed liberally from two of her pieces, Achterland from 1990 and Rosas danst Rosas from 1983. The dancers in Beyoncés video not only share some dance moves with the Rosas danst Rosas piece, but also the costumes, the set and even some specific shots resemble a film of the dance made by Thierry De Mey, she said… The co-director of the video, Adria Petty, told MTV news recently she had showed Beyoncé footage of contemporary dance in Europe to generate ideas… She added that borrowed choreography seemed robbed of its original power in the context of a pop music video. In the 1980s, this was seen as a statement of girl power, based on assuming a feminine stance on sexual expression, she wrote. I was often asked then if it was feminist. Now that I see Beyoncé dancing it, I find it pleasant but I dont see any edge to it. Its seductive in an entertaining consumerist way.» New York Times, Oct 10, 2011,Countdownborrowed liberally from two of her piecesMTV news –Self-plagiarism (e.g. Bach, Händel) –Citing others only « partly » (Mozart « citing » Martin i Soler in Don Giovanni) Innovation vs Imitation

9 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 9 Links Cultures values: innovation/experimentation/search/exploration/risk –Very much in Western culture: GMO, human genoma/cloning, nuclear energy, digitalization, space exploration,… Knowledge advancement, profit pursuit,… –East/Asia?, Middle-East? –Cultural hybridization thru migration and IT? Creativity –Motivation: self-realization/self-esteem, self-expression, political stance, intellectual property rights/money, reputation/recognition,… Innovation –Commercial application –Social entrepreneurship

10 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 10 Still a modernist value? –Need/urge for newness/novelty – we get bored (human attention) … but what about tradition? –Means for stratification/distinction/differentiation which gives status/reconnaissance of the innovator (the romance of geniouses) –Progress: « improvement » over the past? Innovation

11 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 11 Haskell (1983): the perception of the avant-garde is critical because of the gradual internalisation of an ideology which proposes that the goal of art is to subvert the aesthetic status quo given that artistic value depends on the fact of being ahead of the present taste, which implies that it has to be incomprehensible for the current public (Born, 1995, p.43-44) –Who judges? The own « milieu » (critics, experts,…) – corporatism and the autonomy of the art world « Modernist » Innovation

12 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 12 Creation of a movement thru discourse (« branding ») and sociopolitical / educational action thru the creation of structures and manifestations (festivals, summer schools), proselitism – ex: Impressionnists (White et White, 1965), Minimalists Serialism, IRCAM (Born, 1995) « Authentic » interpretation of ancient music (Christie, Herreweghe, Hogwood, Kuijken, Savall, …): instruments and techniques (ornamentation), summer schools, festivals, artist- imprésarios, new ensembles (La Chapelle Royale, The Academy of Ancient Music, Capella Reial de Catalunya,…) (François, 2006) How Does an Innovation Get Recognized as such and as Legitimate?

13 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 13 Where does it take place? (Castañer & Cavotta, 2010) –Performing arts: outside, adoption/programming, except in dance companies –Cultural industries: outside (publishing), expect in TV/movie companies with internal production capabilities, and video games companies –Heritage: inside, deciding what to present and how from the collection or other museums –Isolated individual by him/herself vs interactive organizational/network/collaborative project, ex: composer- libretist- metteur en scène…) ( Becker, 1982 ) Cultural Innovation or Content Innovation in the Cultural/Artistic Domain

14 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 14 Requires experimentation/search –Solving problems –Pursuing opportunities (entrepreneur) –Btof: Aspiration-gap model (March & Simon, 1958, Bromiley, 1991) –Requires: Individual motivation/traits: entrepreneur, risk-taker,… (employee selection hence…) Organizational culture (values): –Experimentation is good; counter the pressure to conform to routines (March, 1991) –Trying things from other organizations/domains is good – need contacts (weak vs strong ties, network position, Granovetter, 1973; Burt, 1992) –Failed experimentation is not punished (Sitkin, 1992) –Recognition »Economic incentives (Barnard, 1938; Meckling & Jensen, 1976) »Promotion/award –Freedom/autonomy (power to use time) –Financial resources »Amount: slack or lack (Singh, 1986; Bolton, 1993; Nohria & Gulati, 1996) »Funding mix (Heilbrun, 2001; Pierce, 2000; Neligan, 2006; Pompe et al, 2011) Encouraging Creativity/Innovation in Organizations

15 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 15 Subsidies to individuals or organizations –The programming choice has been made/targetting the donors –Constraining? Levels of administration (e.g. Pompe et al, 2011) –Crowding out? –Inertia/complacency Protection of possible future rents – copyrights (Towse, 2002), still a risk Making the territory more attractive –Infrastructure (spaces, transportation,…) –Culture (openness, tolerance, diversity) – BCN Public ownership/funding Encouraging Creativity/Innovation through (Cultural) Policies

16 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 16 Thanks much for your attention and participation

17 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 17 Comment émerge linnovation dans une organisation? Comment la stimuler? –Traits individuels: Personnalité: Motivation intrinsèque (expression) vs besoins économiques vs besoin de reconnaissance (Maslow, 1964) –(In)satisfaction (March et Simon, 1958) –Rébellion contre ordre présent – être périphérique, marginal (Rogers, 1995) –Amateur du risque, entrepreneurial (Birley, 1985) »Perception dun besoin/opportunité (Kirzner, 1923) Réseau social: –Influence/attentes des autres (dedans et dehors, profession-milieu) –Position structurelle (capital social) Innovation – Facteurs Explicatifs

18 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 18 Sélection, formation et promotion: –Personnalités souhaitées –Plusieurs profils (diversité) Possibilité de progrès (hiérarchique et économique) pour différentes carrières Culture homogène vs hétérogène – convergence vs conflit, exploitation vs exploration (March, 1991) Tolérance de lerreur (Sitkin, 1992) Promotion de contacts entre (différentes approches): –Membres –Membres et personnes externes (e.g. Alessi) Reconnaissance –Professionnelle –Economique Culture org/valeurs, exemple du leader/manager Comment stimuler linnovation?

19 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 19 Sélection des propositions: –Exploration autorisée au préalable (contenu ou seulement ressources) –Test Préserver linnovation/linnovateur –Opportunités externes pour linnovateur –Loyauté et implication organisationnelle de linnovateur –Capacité dinfluence de linnovateur (voix, Hirschman, 1970 ) –Internalisation, alliances et avantage (Disney-Pixar) Protéger linnovation et les rentes qui en découlent? –« Innovation ouverte » (Chesbrough et Teece): plus dadeptes? Plus dinnovations? Innovations complémentaires? Modèle économique? Comment gérer linnovation? Défis

20 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 20 Comment émerge linnovation? Comment la stimuler? –Au-delà des traits individuels (voir sélection) –Perception de traits organisationnels: Besoin de différentiation/distinction pour survivre (être perçu/reconnu) Liberté, possibilité dexploration (culture org) Ressources vs manque de ressources? (March et Simon, 1958; Bolton, 1993) Incitations: –Économiques (Ross, 1973; Meckling et Jensen, 1976) –Reconnaissance interne Innovation – Facteurs Explicatifs (I)

21 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 21 Innovation vs Imitation Beyoncé et Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker Mozart et Salieri

22 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 22 Invention vs Innovation: Différents Domaines Sound recorder and phonographe Silicone dhydrogel et lentilles

23 22 Sept, 2012 Culture, creativity and innovation, Prof. X. Castañer 23 Invention vs Innovation: Différents Domaines Cellule photovoltaïque et panels photovoltaïques


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