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PROJECT ON MS-EXCEL

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HOW TO OPEN MS-EXCEL ? a) START b) PROGRAMS c) MS OFFICE d) MS EXCEL

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MS-EXCEL Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsot for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables and a macro programming language called VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). Default Name of MS- EXCEL Workbook: BOOK1 Extension of MS-EXCEL: .xls It is a table format which uses rows & columns to make any report & table. It is consists of workbook.

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SPREADSHEET DETAILS Worksheet is a grid made up of horizontal row and vertical columns .The Excel 2007 worksheet contains rows and columns . Each intersection of a row and a column forms a cell , in which the user can store data . Name box Formula BAR Active cell ribbon Office button column Letter Row Number sheet tab

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OFFICE BUTTON NEW OPEN CLOSE SAVE SAVE AS PRINT PREPARE EXIT

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**OFFICE BUTTON To create a new file To open a new file**

To close the active file To save the active file To save file in required format. To Print active file To close the EXCEL document.

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CELL REFERENCING Cell and Range References :- A reference identifies a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and tells Microsoft Excel where to looks for the values or data the user wants to use in a formula . The user can also refer to cells on other sheets in the same workbook , and to other workbooks. References to cells in other workbooks are called links . Relative cell References :- This is the most widely used type of cell references in formulas . Relative cell references are basic cell references that adjust and change when copied or when using Autofill. Absolute cell References :- When a formula or function is copied or moved to another location , any cell references in the formula or function get adjusted as well . However there are some situations where a cell reference inside a formula must ALWAYS refer to the same cell.

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IMPORTANT FORMULAS

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**SUM S M Formula:- =sum(value1,value2,………….).**

• It is used to make the sum or additions of the numbers of any two or more cells.

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**COUNT Formula:- =count(value1,value2,…………).**

• It is used to count the cells out of the cells in which a number is written.

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**COUNTA Formula:- =counta(value1,value2,………………).**

• It is used to count the unblanked cells or the cells in which some contents is written out of the selected cells.

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**COUNTBLANK Formula:- =countblank(Range).**

• It is used to count the blank cells out of the selected cells. • If we press only spacebar in any cell, then this cell be counted as unblanked cell.

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**COUNTIF Formula:- =countif(Range,Criteria)**

• it is used to count the number of cells according to a given condition in the selected cells. • For ex- If we give condition that- =countif(A1:A9,”>=10”) Then , it count the cells which have its >=10.

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**SUMIF Formula:- =sumif(Range,Criteria,sum_range)**

• It is used to make the sum of numbers according to the given condition.

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**TODAY Formula:- =today() • It is used to write the current date in**

any cell.

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NOW Formula:- =now(). • it is used to write the date & time in any cell.

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**CONCATENATE Formula:- =concatenate(text1,text2,………..).**

• It is used to join the two words of different cells in one cell.

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**IF Formula:- =if(logical_text,value_if_true,value_if_false).**

• It is used to get a result in a cell according to the given condition.

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**V UP Formula:- =vlookup(lookup_value,table_array,col_ index_num…..).**

• it is used to make a link between two different sheets or two different workbook.

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Paste special Paste the value into the cell in the format and operations you specify. All - Pastes the actual contents into the destination cell Formulas - Pastes only the formula. Values - Pastes only the values. Formats - Pastes only the formats. Comments - Pastes only the comments. Validation - Pastes only the validation. All except borders - Pastes everything except the four borders.

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FILTER It is used to filter the table by which we find about a single person or by a given condition in a large table. The type of filters in this are- Auto filter. Advanced filter.

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PIVOT TABLE A PivotTable report is an interactive way to quickly summarize large amounts of data. Use a PivotTable report to analyze numerical data in depth and to answer unanticipated questions about your data. A PivotTable report is especially designed for: Querying large amounts of data in many user-friendly ways. Subtotaling and aggregating numeric data, summarizing data by categories and subcategories, and creating custom calculations and formulas. Expanding and collapsing levels of data to focus your results, and drilling down to details from the summary data for areas of interest. Moving rows to column or columns to rows (or "pivoting") to see different summaries of the source data. Filtering, sorting, grouping, and conditionally formatting the most useful and interesting subset of data to enable you to focus on the information that you want. Presenting concise, attractive, and annotated online or printed reports.

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VALIDATION It is used to give a condition on any one or more cells & then input a message & if that condition is wrong then make alert by a comment.

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**CHARTS & THEIR ELEMENTS**

Charts are used to display series of numeric data in a graphical format to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationship between different series of data. A chart has many elements. Some of these elements are displayed by default, others can be added as needed. You can change the display of the chart elements by moving them to other locations in the chart, resizing them, or by changing the format. You can also remove chart elements that you do not want to display. The chart area of the chart. The plot area of the chart. The data points of the data series that are plotted in the chart. The horizontal (category) and vertical (value) axis along which the data is plotted in the chart. The legend of the chart. A chart and axis title that you can use in the chart. A data label that you can use to identify the details of a data point in a data series.

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Excel supports numerous types of charts to help you display data in ways that are meaningful to your audience. When you create a chart or change an existing chart, you can choose from a wide range of chart types (such as a column chart or a pie chart) and their subtypes (such as a stacked column chart or a pie in 3-D chart). You can also create a combination chart by using more than one chart type in your chart.

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Column charts Data that is arranged in columns or rows on a worksheet can be plotted in a column chart. Column charts are useful for showing data changes over a period of time or for illustrating comparisons among items. In column charts, categories are typically organized along the horizontal axis and values along the vertical axis. Column charts have the following chart subtypes: Clustered column and clustered column in 3-D Stacked column and stacked column in 3-D 3-D column Cylinder, cone, and pyramid

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Line Charts Data that is arranged in columns or rows on a worksheet can be plotted in a line chart. Line charts can display continuous data over time, set against a common scale, and are therefore ideal for showing trends in data at equal intervals. In a line chart, category data is distributed evenly along the horizontal axis, and all value data is distributed evenly along the vertical axis. Line charts have the following chart subtypes: Line and line with markers Stacked line and stacked line with markers 100% stacked line and 100% stacked line with markers 3-D line

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Pie Charts Data that is arranged in one column or row only on a worksheet can be plotted in a pie chart. Pie charts show the size of items in one data series proportional to the sum of the items. The data points in a pie chart are displayed as a percentage of the whole pie. Consider using a pie chart when: You only have one data series that you want to plot. None of the values that you want to plot are negative. Almost none of the values that you want to plot are zero values. You don't have more than seven categories. The categories represent parts of the whole pie. Pie charts have the following chart subtypes: Pie and pie in 3-D Pie of pie and bar of pie Exploded pie and exploded pie in 3-D

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Bar Charts Data that is arranged in columns or rows on a worksheet can be plotted in a bar chart. Bar charts illustrate comparisons among individual items Consider using a bar chart when: The axis labels are long. The values that are shown are durations. Bar charts have the following chart subtypes: Clustered bar and clustered bar in 3-D Stacked bar and stacked bar in 3-D 100% stacked bar and 100% stacked bar in 3-D Horizontal cylinder, cone, and pyramid

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