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10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 10.2-1 Uses of the infinitive The basic form of any verb.

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Presentation on theme: "10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc. 10.2-1 Uses of the infinitive The basic form of any verb."— Presentation transcript:

1 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive The basic form of any verb is the infinitive. In German, the infinitive ends in –en or in –n. führen to lead wählen to choose verschwinden to disappear wandern to hike

2 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive In the future tense and with modals, the helping verb werden and the modal verbs are conjugated, but the main verb stays in the infinitive. Er will den Frieden feiern. He wants to celebrate peace. Sie wird den Skandal bedauern. She will regret the scandal.

3 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive In certain situations, the verb is used in the infinitive with zu. Depending on the German phrase used, the English translation may also use an infinitive with to, but not always. Commas between the main clause and the infinitive clause are used to help clarify the meaning of the sentence. Die Bevölkerung ist bereit, einen neuen Präsidenten zu wählen. The people are prepared to elect a new president. Die Armee hat vor, das Land zu erobern. The army is planning to conquer the land.

4 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive ACHTUNG! Though in English one says to want to, in German, wollen and mögen, like all the modals, are never used with zu. Peter will nicht ins Kino gehen. Er möchte früh ins Bett gehen. Peter doesnt want to go to the movie theater. He wants to go to bed early.

5 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive The initial phrase es ist [+ adjective] can be combined with zu [+ infinitive] to create new sentences. This initial phrase with sein is followed by a clause with zu [+ infinitive]. Es ist schwer zu kapitulieren. It is difficult to surrender. Es ist wichtig, gegen Rassismus zu kämpfen. Its important to fight against racism.

6 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive The infinitive with zu follows certain other phrases in German as well. These phrases may be followed by a comma. However, according to the latest spelling reform, the comma is optional. The second part of the sentence is the infinitive clause that ends with the preposition zu [+ infinitive]. Infinitive clauses never have a nominative subject. Ich habe die Absicht,... I intend to... Ich freue mich,... I am looking forward to... Es macht mir Spaß,... Its fun for me to... Ich habe (keine) Lust,... I have (no) desire to... Ich habe (keine) Zeit,... I have (no) time to... Es dauert lange,... It takes a long time to...

7 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive Der König hat nicht die Absicht, ein neues Schloss zu bauen. The king does not intend to build a new castle. Sie freute sich, endlich die Staatsangehörigkeit zu haben. She was happy to finally have citizenship.

8 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive The infinitive with zu is also used as a dependent infinitive: the sentence begins with a phrase and is followed by zu [+ infinitive], to complete the meaning of the sentence. In such a construction, there is no comma between the initial phrase and the dependent infinitive. Er versucht zu arbeiten. Hes trying to work. Es fängt an zu regnen. Its beginning to rain.

9 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive If the infinitive clause has a separable prefix verb, zu goes between the prefix and the infinitive. Der Präsident hatte vor, die Sklaverei abzuschaffen. The president intended to abolish slavery. Die Liberalen bitten uns, eine Stimme für sie abzugeben. The liberals are asking us to cast a vote for them.

10 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive The infinitive with um... zu is used to express the English phrase in order to. Sie kolonisierten ein Land, um mehr Macht zu haben. They colonized a country in order to have more power. Sie wählten eine neue Regierung, um einen höheren Lebensstandard zu haben. They elected a new government in order to have a higher standard of living.

11 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive ACHTUNG! If you can say in order to in English, then the German must use the phrase um... zu, not just zu alone. Um die Stelle zu bekommen, hat er schwer gearbeitet. He worked hard (in order) to get the position.

12 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive Some constructions with zu in German are rendered in English using the gerund. ohne... zu without Kann ein Land erobert werden, ohne das Volk zu unterdrücken? Can a country be conquered without oppressing its people? (an)statt... zu instead of Anstatt die Leute im Ghetto zu befreien, kämpften sie weiter mit den Soldaten. Instead of liberating the people in the ghetto, they continued to fight with the soldiers.

13 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive Prepositional phrases with zu can begin a sentence or be the second part of the sentence. If they start the sentence, then the conjugated verb is the first element in the second, main clause. Ein Land zu regieren ist nicht immer leicht. It is not always easy to rule a country. Anstatt die Stadt siegreich zu betreten, kamen sie ruhig und gelassen an. Instead of entering the city victoriously, they arrived calmly and quietly.

14 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive In German, like in English, there are two similar phrases: um... zu (in order to) and damit (so that). Generally, if both parts of the sentence refer to the same subject, um... zu is used. If the subject of the first part of the sentence and that of the second are different, the conjunction damit is used. Die Partei kämpfte, um zu überleben. The party fought in order to survive. Die Gewaltherrschaft wurde überwunden, damit die Leute in Frieden leben konnten. The dictatorship was overthrown so that people could live in peace.

15 10.2 Lektion 10 Geschichte und Gesellschaft STRUKTUREN © and ® 2012 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Uses of the infinitive An infinitive phrase with zu is sometimes used to give further explanation about something stated in the introductory phrase. Der Bundeskanzler beginnt, das Land zu regieren. The chancellor starts to rule the country. Die Königin hilft, die neuen Einwohner anzusiedeln. The queen helps to settle the new citizens.


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