Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91."— Presentation transcript:

1 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 Some Issues in the Econometric Approach to Additionality Rahel Falk New Frontiers in Evaluation Plattform fteval conference Vienna, April, 24 th, 2006 K:\FFF_BA\EIOWorkshop_Innsbruck_2005.ppt

2 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 The Econometric Approach to Additionality 1 st step: Decide on type of additionality 2 nd step: Specify how to measure empirically the particular type of additionality 3 rd step: Decide on the unit of observation 4 th step:Decide on the benchmark 5 th step: Run the regression LHS: measure of additionality RHS: public funding + control variables (Depending on the choices of steps 1-4 you might have to clarify issues as regards (i) selectivity of the sample, (ii) endogeneity of the intervention measure and (iii) the direction of cause and effect)

3 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 Some Issues in the Econometric Approach to Additionality 1)Types of Additionality 1.1) Measure what is measurable – or what is important? 1.2) What you measure depends on when you measure 1.3) Endogeneity of funding 2)The unit of observation: micro vs. macro approach 3)Benchmarking 3.1) Comparing the unit of interest to itself 3.2)… to a (matched) control group 4) Data – The key to evaluation 4.1) Access to data 4.2)Preparation of data 4.3)Collection of data

4 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 Measuring issues: what do we measure? Where do we measure? When do we measure?

5 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 1) Types of Additionality: A) Resource-based Concepts Project Additionality new innovation projects are initiated Scale Additionality innovation projects are conducted on a larger scale Input Additionality extent to which firms increase their private spending on R&D

6 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 1) Types of Additionality: B) Result-based Concepts Output Additionality extent to which firms increase their output marketable innovation output (e.g. patents) commercial output Impact Additionality Successfulness defined in broader terms, e.g. enhanced productivity or competitiveness

7 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 1) Types of Additionality: C) Process-based Concepts Behavioural Additionality The change in a companys way of undertaking R&D which can be related to policy action (Buisseret et al., 1995) implicit assumption: behaviour is changed for the better look inside the black box more efficient transformation of innovation inputs into innovation outputs changes should be permanent in character

8 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 C.1) Dimensions of Behavioural Additionality C.1.1Acceleration Additionality: Impact on the timing Public support is speeding up the course of the project Observables: results accessible at earlier date Shorter time to market Earlier starting date Shorter duration of the project More long-term projects

9 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 C.1) Dimensions of Behavioural Additionality C.1.2Scope Additionality: Impact on focus The coverage of an activity is expanded to a wider range of applications or markets Observables: New research areas Higher risk profile New research networks/cooperation partners

10 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 C.1) Dimensions of Behavioural Additionality C.1.3Cognitive Capacity Additionality: Impact on competencies and expertise enhanced absorptive capacity Observables: Establishment of R&D-department Training of employees Skill-structure of the work force New research networks/cooperation partners

11 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 Figure 1:Additionalities in resources, processes and results

12 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 2) Unit of observation: micro vs. macro? Additionality – what difference does it make? In the first place: how much of the funding money is in fact additional? Key Question: focus on the funded firms or include the non-funded ones as well? Pay attention to synergies and replacement effects!

13 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 2) Unit of observation: micro vs. macro? Figure 2: Government financed R&D carried out in Austria; Disbursements in Mio. ; constant 2000 prices

14 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 3) The Benchmark At the heart of …evaluation is a missing variable problem since an individual (a firm) is either in the programme…or not, but not both. If we could observe the outcome variable for those in the programme had they not participated then there would be no evaluation problem… Thus, constructing the counterfactual is the central issue that the evaluation methods …address (Blundell/Costats Dias, 2000)

15 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 3) The Benchmark Longitudinal approach: compare the unit of interest to itself Study to what effect varying doses of public funding over time impact on the additionality measure Problem: the ceteris-paribus-assumption is hard to maintain

16 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 3) The Benchmark Survey approach: compare the unit of interest to itself: actual vs. hypothetical outcomes Study to what effect public funding would supposedly impact on the additionality measure Problems: strategic answers Is firm able to reflect on outcomes in counterfactual situations?

17 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 3) The Benchmark Cross-sectional approach: compare the unit of interest to a control group Simple comparison group analysis Problem: participation in funding schemes is selective 2) Matching analysis Problem: Link between cause and effect is established by construction

18 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 4) The key to evaluation – Data! Request No. 1: free access to data! Remove deliberately imposed barriers to data access Dont rank the confidentiality issue unnecessarily high There are good ways to make the data anonymous (e.g. micro-aggregation)

19 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 4) The key to evaluation – Data! Request No. 2: Transparent preparation of data Documented data in a Clear Meaningful and Consistent way!!!

20 ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91 P.O. BOX 91, A 1103 Vienna – Austria http://www.wifo.ac.at/ Tel. (+43 1) 798 26 01 0 Fax (+43 1) 798 93 86 4) The key to evaluation – Data! Request No. 3: Better collection of data There is no such thing as a free lunch Make the reporting of ex ante and ex post information a mandatory part of the application process


Download ppt "ÖSTERREICHISCHES INSTITUT FÜR WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH WIFOWIFO Wien 3, Arsenal, Objekt 20 A-1103 Wien, Postfach 91."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google