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Kapitel 4 Netzzugang W. Schulte1. Kapitel 4: Lernziele Students will be able to: Explain how physical layer protocols and services support communications.

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Presentation on theme: "Kapitel 4 Netzzugang W. Schulte1. Kapitel 4: Lernziele Students will be able to: Explain how physical layer protocols and services support communications."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kapitel 4 Netzzugang W. Schulte1

2 Kapitel 4: Lernziele Students will be able to: Explain how physical layer protocols and services support communications across data networks. Build a simple network using the appropriate cable. Explain the role of the data link layer in supporting communications across data networks. Compare media access control techniques and logical topologies used in networks. W. Schulte2

3 Kapitel 4 –4.1 Physical Layer Protocols –4.2 Network Media –4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols –4.4 Media Access Control –4.5 Summary W. Schulte3

4 4.1 Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network W. Schulte4

5 Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network W. Schulte5

6 Getting it Connected Network Interface Cards Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender W. Schulte6

7 Purpose of the Physical Layer The Physical Layer W. Schulte7

8 Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Media W. Schulte8

9 Line Codes W. Schulte9 Binary (NRZ) Manchester - Logische Eins durch Transition von der unteren zur oberen Amplitude. Die Null wird invertiert. Polaritäts- orientiert. Eine oder zwei Transition pro Bitzeit - Benutzung bei CSMA/CD Differential Manchester - Polaritätsunabhängig - Keine Transition wenn Eins folgt, Transition bei Null - Benutzung bei Tokenzugriffsmethode Return to Zero Takt

10 Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Standards Standard organization Networking Standards ISO ISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45) ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568. EIA/TIA TIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all voice, video and data networks. TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces TIA-598-C: Fiber optic color coding TIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers ANSI 568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIA ITU-T G.992: ADSL IEEE 802.3: Ethernet : Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) : Bluetooth W. Schulte10

11 Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Physical Layer Fundamental Principles Media Physical Components Frame Encoding TechniqueSignalling Method Copper cable UTP Coaxial Connectors NICs Ports Interfaces Manchester Encoding Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) techniques 4B/5B codes are used with Multi- Level Transition Level 3 (MLT-3) signaling 8B/10B PAM5 Changes in the electromagnetic field Intensity of the electromagnetic field Phase of the electromagnetic wave Fiber Optic cable Single-mode Fiber Multimode Fiber Connectors NICs Interfaces Lasers and LEDs Photoreceptors Pulses of light Wavelength multiplexing using different colors A pulse equals 1. No pulse is 0. Wireless media Access Points NICs Radio Antennae DSSS (direct-sequence spread- spectrum) OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) Radio waves W. Schulte11

12 Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Bandwidth W. Schulte12 Bandbreite UKW-RundfunksignalUKW-Rundfunksignal inkl. Zusatzdienste, in Bandpasslage 300 kHz analoges AM-Fernsehsignalanaloges AM-Fernsehsignal oder digitales DVB-TDVB-T 7 MHz WLANWLAN nach IEEE a/b, Bandpasslage 22 MHz

13 Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Throughput W. Schulte13

14 Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Types of Physical Media W. Schulte14

15 4.2 Network Media Copper Cabling W. Schulte15

16 Copper Cabling Characteristics of Copper Media W. Schulte16

17 Copper Cabling Copper Media Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cableUnshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable Coaxial cable W. Schulte17

18 Copper Cabling Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable W. Schulte18

19 Copper Cabling Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable Foil Shields Braided or Foil Shield W. Schulte19

20 Copper Cabling Coaxial Cable W. Schulte20

21 Copper Cabling Cooper Media Safety W. Schulte21

22 UTP Cabling Properties of UTP Cabling W. Schulte22

23 UTP Cabling UTP Cabling Standards W. Schulte23

24 UTP Cabling UTP Connectors W. Schulte24

25 UTP Cabling Types of UTP Cable W. Schulte25

26 UTP Cabling Testing UTP Cables W. Schulte26

27 Fiber Optic Cabling Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling W. Schulte27

28 Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber Media Cable Design W. Schulte28

29 Fiber Optic Cabling Types of Fiber Media W. Schulte29

30 Fiber Optic Cabling Network Fiber Connectors W. Schulte30

31 Fiber Optic Cabling Testing Fiber Cables W. Schulte31

32 Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber versus Copper Implementation issuesCopper mediaFibre-optic Bandwidth supported 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps10 Mbps – 100 Gbps Distance Relatively short (1 – 100 meters) Relatively High (1 – 100,000 meters) Immunity to EMI and RFI Low High (Completely immune) Immunity to electrical hazards Low High (Completely immune) Media and connector costs LowestHighest Installation skills required LowestHighest Safety precautions LowestHighest W. Schulte32

33 Wireless Media Properties of Wireless Media W. Schulte33

34 W. Schulte34 Wireless Media Properties of Wireless Media

35 IEEE standards Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi. Uses CSMA/CA Variations include: a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz IEEE standard Supports speeds up to 3 Mbps Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to 100 meters. IEEE standard Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access. Wireless Media Types of Wireless Media W. Schulte35

36 Wireless Media Wireless LAN Cisco Linksys EA ac wireless router W. Schulte36

37 Wireless Media Wi-Fi Standards StandardMaximum SpeedFrequency Backwards compatible a 54 Mbps5 GHzNo b 11 Mbps2.4 GHzNo g 54 Mbps2.4 GHz802.11b n 600 Mbps2.4 GHz or 5 GHz802.11b/g ac 1.3 Gbps (1300 Mbps) 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz802.11b/g/n ad 7 Gbps (7000 Mbps) 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz b/g/n/ac W. Schulte37 Packet Tracer

38 Anschlüsse W. Schulte38

39 W. Schulte39 Standard: V.35 Stecker: 34 Pin Geschwindigkeit: 2 MBit/s Standard: EIA/TIA 449 (RS 449) Stecker: 37-Pin D-Sub Geschwindigkeit: 2 MBit/s Standard: EIA/TIA 232 (RS 232) Stecker: 25-Pin Geschwindigkeit: 64 kBit/s WAN Schnittstellen-Standards

40 W. Schulte40 WAN Schnittstellen-Standards Standard:X.21 Stecker:DB 15 ISO 4903 Geschwindigkeit:64 kBit/s Standard: EIA 530 oder RS 422/423 Ersatz für EIA 449 Stecker:D 25 (male only) Geschwindigkeit:2 MBit/s

41 4.3 Purpose of the Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer W. Schulte41

42 Purpose of the Data Link Layer Data Link Sublayers Network Data Link LLC Sublayer MAC Sublayer Physical Ethernet Ethernet Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Bluetooth Bluetooth W. Schulte42

43 Purpose of the Data Link Layer Media Access Control W. Schulte43

44 Purpose of the Data Link Layer Providing Access to Media W. Schulte44

45 Data Link Layer Layer 2 Frame Structure W. Schulte45

46 Layer 2 Frame Structure Creating a Frame W. Schulte46

47 Data Link Layer Layer 2 Standards W. Schulte47

48 Layer 2 Standards Data Link Layer Standards Standard organization Networking Standards IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC) 802.3: Ethernet 802.4: Token bus 802.5: Token passing : Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) : Bluetooth : WiMax ITU-T G.992: ADSL G G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspects Q.921: ISDN Q.922: Frame Relay ISO HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC) ANSI X3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) W. Schulte48

49 4.4 Topologies Controlling Access to the Media W. Schulte49

50 Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies W. Schulte50

51 WAN Topologies Common Physical WAN Topologies W. Schulte51

52 WAN Topologies Physical Point-to-Point Topology W. Schulte52

53 WAN Topologies Logical Point-to-Point Topology W. Schulte53

54 WAN Topologies Half and Full Duplex W. Schulte54

55 LAN Topologies Physical LAN Topologies W. Schulte55

56 LAN Topologies Logical Topology for Shared Media W. Schulte56

57 LAN Topologies Contention-Based Access CharacteristicsContention-Based Technologies Stations can transmit at any time Collision exist There are mechanisms to resolve contention for the media CSMA/CD for Ethernet networks CSMA/CA for wireless networks W. Schulte57

58 LAN Topologies Multi-Access Topology W. Schulte58

59 LAN Topologies Controlled Access CharacteristicsControlled Access Technologies Only one station can transmit at a time Devices wishing to transmit must wait their turn No collisions May use a token passing method Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) W. Schulte59

60 LAN Topologies Ring Topology W. Schulte60

61 Data Link Frame The Frame W. Schulte61

62 Data Link Frame The Header W. Schulte62

63 Data Link Frame Layer 2 Address W. Schulte63

64 Data Link Frame The Trailer W. Schulte64

65 Data Link Frame LAN and WAN Frames W. Schulte65

66 Data Link Frame Ethernet Frame W. Schulte66

67 Data Link Frame Point-to-Point Protocol Frame W. Schulte67

68 Data Link Frame Wireless Frame W. Schulte68

69 4.5 Network Access Summary Physical Layer Protocols Network Media Data Link Layer Protocols Media Access Control W. Schulte69

70 W. Schulte70 Noch Fragen? 70 W. Schulte


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